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Comparison of executive dysfunction, proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones between first-episode and multiple-episode bipolar disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 April 2022

Kai-Lin Huang
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Mu-Hong Chen*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Ju-Wei Hsu
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Shih-Jen Tsai
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Ya-Mei Bai*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
*
*Authors for correspondence: Mu-Hong Chen and Ya-Mei Bai, Email: kremer7119@gmail.com, ymbi@mail2000.com.tw
*Authors for correspondence: Mu-Hong Chen and Ya-Mei Bai, Email: kremer7119@gmail.com, ymbi@mail2000.com.tw

Abstract

Background

Evidence has demonstrated associations of bipolar disorder (BD) with cognitive impairment, dysregulated proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones.

Aim

To compare executive dysfunction, proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included young adults aged 18 to 39 years who were diagnosed as having type 1 BD in the first or recurrent episode and a group of age-/sex-matched healthy controls. Data regarding patient characteristics, clinical symptoms, cytokines (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), appetite hormones (leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin), and executive function evaluated using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were collected.

Results

A total of 112 participants (38 patients in the multiple-episode BD group, 31 patients in the first-episode BD group, and 43 in the control group) were included. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients in the multiple-episode BD group performed significantly worse in the WCST (P < .05) and had higher levels of ghrelin (P = .002), and lower levels of CRP (P = .040) than those in the first-episode BD group. Patients with BD had significantly higher TNF-α and ghrelin levels compared with the healthy controls. No significant associations of CRP, TNF-α, and ghrelin levels with executive function were observed.

Conclusions

Profiles in proinflammatory cytokines and appetite hormones as well as executive function significantly differed between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs and controls, which may suggest their potential roles in the clinical stages and pathophysiology of type 1 BD.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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