Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-wzw2p Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-23T10:48:19.544Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Surface Chemisty, Microstructure, and Rheology of Thixotropic 1-D Sepiolite Gels

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2024

Pengfei Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Mingyong Du
Affiliation:
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Peta Clode
Affiliation:
Centre for Microscopy, Characterization and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Hualong Li
Affiliation:
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Jishan Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Yee-Kwong Leong*
Affiliation:
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
*
*E-mail address of corresponding author: yeekwong.leong@uwa.edu.au

Abstract

The rheological properties of sepiolite gels in relation to solution chemistry, fiber charge, and microstructure are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to bring more clarity to this topic by quantifying the effects of solution pH, ionic strength, and adsorbed tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) additive on rheological properties. The electrical charge on sepiolite fibers was investigated to explain the fiber interaction configuration observed in the microstructure. Fiber interaction forces and dynamics explained the ageing behavior of the gel. Sepiolite gels of only a few percent solids displayed long-time ageing behavior, which was manifested by an increasing yield stress with wait time and continued for weeks. The gel microstructure showed randomly orientated rigid fibers with cross configuration attraction. Each fiber experiences both attractive (van der Waals and heterogeneous charge) and repulsive (electric double layer) forces, and initially a net force. The repulsive force causes these fibers to orientate or move continually to achieve a state of force equilibrium and this process takes a long time. The Leong model describes this ageing behavior. For good fiber separation, high intensity probe sonication of the suspension was required. The yield stress increased with sonication time, solids loading, and temperature. The yield stress was absent at pH > 11 and increased to a maximum value at pH < 8. This maximum was insensitive to pH between 4 to 8, and ionic strength up to 1 M KCl. TSPP reduced this maximum and shifted the zero yield stress region to a lower pH, ~7. The zero yield stress state corresponded to a zeta potential with a minimum magnitude of 30 mV.

Type
Original Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Clay Minerals Society 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alkan, M., Demirbaş, Ö., & Doğan, M. (2005). Electrokinetic properties of sepiolite suspensions in different electrolyte media. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 281, 240248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alvarez, A., Singer, A., & Galan, E. (1984). Sepiolite: properties and uses. Developments in Sedimentology, 34, 253287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, T. F. (1951). Techniques for the preservation of three-dimensional structure in preparing specimens for the electron microscope. Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, 13, 130134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Au, P. I., Du, M. Y., Liu, J. S., Bashirul Haq, M., & Leong, Y. K. (2019). Surface chemistry, rheology and microstructure of as-received SHCa-1 hectorite gels. Clay Minerals, 54, 269275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aznar, A. J., Casal, B., Ruiz-Hitzky, E., Lopez-Arbeloa, I., Lopez-Arbeloa, F., Santaren, J., & Alvarez, A. (1992). Adsorption of methylene blue on sepiolite gels: spectroscopic and rheological studies. Clay Minerals, 27, 101108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergaya, F., & Lagaly, G. (2006). General introduction: clays, clay minerals, and clay science. In Bergaya, F., Theng, B. K. G., & Lagaly, G. (Eds.), Handbook of Clay Science: Developments in Clay Science (Vol. 1, pp. 118). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borgnino, L. (2013). Experimental determination of the colloidal stability of Fe(III)-montmorillonite: effects of organic matter, ionic strength and pH conditions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 423, 178187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bounoua, S., Lemaire, E., Férec, J., Ausias, G., & Kuzhir, P. (2016). Shear-thinning in concentrated rigid fiber suspensions: Aggregation induced by adhesive interactions. Journal of Rheology, 60, 12791300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castro-Smirnov, F. A., Ayache, J., Bertrand, J.-R., Dardillac, E., Le Cam, E., Piétrement, O., Aranda, P., Ruiz-Hitzky, E., & Lopez, B.S. (2017). Cellular uptake pathways of sepiolite nanofibers and DNA transfection improvement. Scientific Reports, 7, 5586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, W. Z., & Leong, Y. K. (2014). Ageing and collapse of bentonite gels—effects of Li, Na, K and Cs ions. Rheologica Acta, 53, 109122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Çιnara, M., Can, M. F., Sabah, E., Karagüzel, C., & Çelik, M. S. (2009). Rheological properties of sepiolite ground in acid and alkaline media. Applied Clay Science, 42, 422426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Kretser, R. G., & Boger, D. V. (2001). A structural model for the time-dependent recovery of mineral dispersions. Rheologica. Acta, 40, 582590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dijkstra, M., Hansen, J. P., & Madden, P. A. (1997). Statistical model for the structure and gelation of smectite clay. Physical Review E, 55, 30443053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Djalili-Moghaddam, M., & Toll, S. (2005). A model for short-range interactions in fiber suspensions. Journal of Non-Newtonian Mechanics, 132, 7383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du, J., Pushkarova, R.A., & Smart, R.S. C. (2009). A cryo-SEM study of aggregate and floc structure changes during clay settling and raking processes. International Journal of Minerals Processing, 93, 6672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du, M., Liu, J., Clode, P. L., & Leong, Y. K. (2018). Surface chemistry, rheology and microstructure of purified natural and synthetic hectorite suspensions. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 20, 1922119233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Du, M., Liu, J., Clode, P. L., & Leong, Y. K. (2019). Microstructure and rheology of bentonite slurries containing multiple-charge phosphate-based additives. Applied Clay Science, 169, 120128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franchini, E., Galy, J., & Gérard, J.-F. (2009). Sepiolite-based epoxy nanocomposites: relation between processing, rheology, and morphology. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 329, 3847.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galan, E. (1996). Properties and applications of palygorskite-sepiolite clays. Clay Minerals, 31, 443453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galan, E., & Carretero, M. I. (1999). A new approach to compositional limits for sepiolite and palygorskite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 47, 399409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guven, N. (1992a). Molecular aspects of aqueous smectite suspensions. In Guven, N. & Pollastro, M. (Eds.), CMS Workshop Lectures, Vol. 4, Clay-water Interface and its Rheological Implications (pp. 180). Boulder, Colorado, USA: The Clay Minerals Society.Google Scholar
Guven, N. (1992b). Rheological aspects of aqueous smectite suspensions. In Guven, N. & Pollastro, M. (Eds.), CMS Workshop Lectures, Vol. 4, Clay-water Interface and its Rheological Implications (pp. 81126). Boulder, Colorado, USA: The Clay Minerals Society.Google Scholar
Israelachvili, J. N. (2011). Intermolecular and Surface Forces. London: Academic press.Google Scholar
Johnson, S. B., Franks, G. V., Scales, P. J., Boger, D. V., & Healy, T. W. (2000). Surface chemistry–rheology relationships in concentrated mineral suspensions. International Journal of Minerals Processing, 58, 267304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joshi, Y. M., Reddy, G. R. K., Kulkarni, A. J., Kumar, N., & Chhabra, R. P. (2008). Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions of laponite: new insights into the ageing phenomena. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 464, 469489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kosmulski, M. (2009). Compilation of PZC and IEP of sparingly soluble metal oxides and hydroxides from literature. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 152, 1425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosmulski, M. (2018). The pH dependent surface charging and points of zero charge. VII. update. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 251, 115138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larson, R. G. (1999). The Structure and Rheology of Complex Fluids. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Leong, Y. K., & Ong, B. C. (2015). Polyelectrolyte-mediated interparticle forces in aqueous suspensions: molecular structure and surface forces relationship. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 101, 4455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leong, Y. K., Scales, P. J., Healy, T. W., Boger, D. V., & Buscall, R. (1993a). Rheological evidence of adsorbate mediated short range steric forces in concentrated dispersions. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transaction, 89, 24732478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leong, Y. K., Katiforis, N., Harding, D. B. O.' C., Healy, T. W., & Boger, D. V. (1993b). Role of rheology in colloidal processing of ZrO2. Journal of Material Processing & Manufacturing Science, 1, 445453.Google Scholar
Leong, Y. K., Scales, P. J., Healy, T. W., & Boger, D. V. (1995). Interparticle forces arising from adsorbed polyelectrolytes in colloidal suspensions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 95, 4352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leong, Y. K., Du, M., Au, P. I., Clode, P. L., & Liu, J. (2018). Microstructure of sodium montmorillonite gels with long aging time scale. Langmuir, 34, 96739682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mizuno, H., Luengo, G. S., & Rutland, M. W. (2010). Interactions between crossed hair fibers at the nanoscale. Langmuir, 26, 1890918915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, H. H. (2000). Traditional and new applications for kaolin, smectite, and palygorskite: A general overview. Applied Clay Science, 17, 207221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neaman, A., & Singer, A. (2000). Rheology of aqueous suspensions of palygorskite. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 427436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nègre, M., Leone, P., Trichet, J., Défarge, C., Boero, V., & Gennari, M. (2004). Characterization of model soil colloids by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Geoderma, 121, 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nguyen, Q. D., & Boger, D. V. (1985). Direct yield stress measurement with the vane method. Journal of Rheology, 29, 335347.Google Scholar
Norrish, K., & Rausell-Colom, J. A. (1962). Effect of freezing on the swelling of clay minerals. Clay Minerals Bulletin, 5, 916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odriozola, G., Romero-Bastida, M., & Guevara-Rodríguez, F.d. J. (2004). Brownian dynamics simulations of Laponite colloid suspensions. Physical Review E, 70, 021405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruiz-Hitzky, E. (2011). Molecular access to intracrystalline tunnels of sepiolite. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 11, 8691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruzicka, B., Zaccarelli, E., Zulian, L., Angelini, R., Sztucki, M., Moussaïd, A., Narayanan, T., & Sciortino, F. (2011). Observation of empty liquids and equilibrium gels in a colloidal clay. Nature Materials, 10, 5660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sabah, E., Mart, U., Çιnar, M., & Çelik, M. S. (2007). Zeta potentials of sepiolite suspensions in concentrated monovalent electrolytes. Separation Science and Technology, 42, 22752288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sehly, K., Chiew, H. L., Li, H., Song, A., Leong, Y. K., & Huang, W. (2015). Stability and ageing behavior and the formulation of potassium-based drilling muds. Applied Clay Science, 104, 309317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shu, R., Sun, W., Liu, X., & Tong, Z. (2015). Temperature dependence of aging kinetics of hectorite clay suspensions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 444, 132140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonton, T. C., Komarneni, S., & Roy, R. (1988). Gelling properties of sepiolite versus montmorillonite. Appied Clay Science, 3, 165176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solomon, M. J., & Boger, D. V. (1998). The rheology of aqueous dispersion of spindle-like colloidal hematite rod. Journal of Rheology, 42, 929949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suman, K., & Joshi, Y. M. (2018). Microstructure and soft glassy dynamics of an aqueous Laponite dispersion. Langmuir, 34, 1307913103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tunc, S., Duman, O., & Cetinkaya, A. (2011). Electrokinetic and rheological properties of sepiolite suspensions in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 377, 123129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolf, B., White, D., Melrose, J. R., & Frith, W. J. (2007). On the behavior of gelled fiber suspensions in steady shear. Rheologica Acta, 46, 531537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoon, J., & El Mohtar, C. (2013). Dynamic rheological properties of sodium pyrophosphate modified bentonite dispersions for liquefaction mitigation. Clays and Clay Minerals, 61, 319327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, J., Yan, Z., Ouyang, J., Yang, H., & Chen, D. (2018). Highly dispersed Sepiolite-based organic modified nanofibers for enhanced adsorption of Congo red. Applied. Clay Science, 157, 7685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar