Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x24gv Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-23T16:06:00.335Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

An Experimental Study on Transforming Montmorillonite to Glauconite: Implications for the Process of Glauconitization

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2024

Xiaoke Zhang
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, 210046, Nanjing, P. R. China
Yuanfeng Cai*
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, 210046, Nanjing, P. R. China
Dongmei Jiang
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 200241, Shanghai, P. R. China
Yang Zhang
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, 210046, Nanjing, P. R. China
Yuguan Pan
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, 210046, Nanjing, P. R. China
Lijuan Bai
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, 210046, Nanjing, P. R. China
*
*E-mail address of corresponding author: caiyf@nju.edu.cn

Abstract

The objective of this study was to explore the geological origin of glauconite, which is believed to precipitate and mature very slowly (~1 Myr) in neritic environments (shallow water, oceanic coastal zones, at water depths of 100–200 m) with very low sedimentation rates. A series of simulation experiments was designed and carried out in sealed tubes placed in an oven and heated to a constant temperature of 50°C (±2°C) for 60 or 150 d. The parent materials used for these experiments were two low-Fe montmorillonites with different crystallinities. The montmorillonites were introduced to solutions with concentrations of 0.02–0.1 mol/L Fe3+ and 0.05–0.2 mol/L K+ with various values of pH and Eh. The products were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The morphological changes from parent material to product were observed under SEM, which revealed the formation of a flaky mineral (e.g. a product formed in the interstitial spaces between montmorillonite crystals). The formation of a flaky mineral indicates that the product is a layer silicate. Qualitative analysis of XRD patterns revealed that the main product phase was a mica group mineral and the d060 value was consistent with the presence of glauconite (0.152 nm) and/or Fe-illite (0.150 nm). A glauconite and Fe-illite mineral assemblage formed in a weakly acidic solution, while Fe-illite, mixed-layer Fe-illite, and montmorillonite formed in neutral and alkaline solutions. Stretching vibrations of Fe(III)Fe(III)OH-AlFe(II)OH and/or MgFe(III)OH were observed in FTIR spectra (3550–3562 cm−1) of the products formed in acidic solutions, which along with the g = 1.978 ESR signal indicated that Fe(III) entered octahedral positions in the tetrahedral/octahedral/tetrahedral layer (TOT) platelets. The AlFe(II)OH-MgFe(III)OH (3550–3562 cm−1) and AlFe(III)OH (870 cm−1) vibrations were only observed in products formed in neutral and alkaline solutions. Analysis of the Mössbauer spectra showed that Fe(III) substituted for Al and Mg in the cis octahedral sites of montmorillonite. The simulation experiments demonstrated that the pH and redox conditions (Eh) of the environment controlled the nature of the product mineral species. Results of the present study revealed that glauconitization and illitization occurred under different conditions, where glauconitization preferentially occurred in an acidic environment and illitization preferentially occurred in a nearly neutral to alkaline environment.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © Clay Minerals Society 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Amorosi, A., 1995 Glaucony and sequence stratigraphy: A conceptual framework of distribution in siliciclastic sequences Journal of Sedimentary Research Section B-Stratigraphy and Global Studies 65 419425.Google Scholar
Amorosi, A., 1997 Detecting compositional, spatial, and temporal attributes of glaucony: A tool for provenance research Sedimentary Geology 109 135153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amorosi, A. Sammartino, I. and Tateo, F., 2007 Evolution patterns of glaucony maturity: A mineralogical and geochemical approach Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 54 13641374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amouric, M. Gianetto, I. and Proust, D., 1988 7, 10 and 14 Å mixed-layer phyllosilicates studied structurally by TEM in pelitic rocks of the Piemontese zone (Venezuela) Bulletin de Mineralogie 111 2937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, S. Bansal, U. Pande, K. and Meena, S.S., 2016 Compositional variability of glauconites within the upper Cretaceous Karaishale formation, Cauvery Basin, India: Implications for evaluation of stratigraphic condensation Sedimentary Geology 331 1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bansal, U. Banerjee, S. Pande, K. Arora, A. and Meena, S.S., 2017 The distinctive compositional evolution of glauconite in the Cretaceous Ukra Hill Member (Kutch basin, India) and its implications Marine and Petroleum Geology 82 97117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baron, F. Petit, S. Pentrák, M. Decarreau, A. and Stucki, J.W., 2017 Revisiting the nontonite Mössbauer spectra American Mineralogist 101 15011515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belenahalli, M.V. and Jayappa, M., 2014 Dissolution of iron in salicylic acid and cation exchange between Fe(II)-salicylate and Na-montmorillonite to form Fe(II)-montmorillonite Applied Clay Science 97–98 7883.Google Scholar
Bentor, Y.K. and Kastner, M., 1965 Notes on mineralogy and origin of glauconite Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 35 155166.Google Scholar
Berra, F. Zanchi, A. Mattei, M. and Nawab, A., 2007 Late Cretaceous transgression on a Cimmerian high (Neka Valley, Eastern Alborz, Iran): A geodynamic event recorded by glauconitic sands Sedimentary Geology 199 189204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Besson, G. and Drits, V.A., 1997a Refined relationships between chemical composition of dioctahedral fine-grained mica minerals and their infrared spectra within the OH stretching region 1. Identification of the OH stretching bands. Clays and Clay Minerals 45 158169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Besson, G. and Drits, V.A., 1997b Refined relationships between chemical composition of dioctahedral fine grained micaceous minerals and their infrared spectra within the OH stretching region 2. The main factors affecting OH vibrations and quantitative analysis. Clays and Clay Minerals 45 170183.Google Scholar
Besson, G. Bookin, A.S. Daynyak, L.G. Rautureau, M. Tsipursky, S.I. Tchoubar, C. and Drits, V.A., 1983 Use of diffraction and Mössbauer methods for the structural and crystallochemical characterization of nontronite Journal of Applied Crystallography 16 374383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bethke, C.M., 2008 Geochemical and Biogeochemical Reaction Modeling Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Boukhalfa, K. Amorosi, A. Soussi, M. and Ismail-Lattrâche, K.B., 2015 Glauconitic-rich strata from Oligo-Miocene shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits of the northern margin of Africa (Tunisia): Geochemical approach for basin analysis Arabian Journal of Geosciences 8 17311742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burst, J.F., 1958 Mineral heterogeneity in glauconite pellets American Mineralogist 43 481497.Google Scholar
Cai, Y.F. Li, X. Hu, X.M. Chen, X.M. and Pan, Y.G., 2009 Paleoclimatic approach to the origin of the coloring of Turonian pelagic limestones from the Vispi quarry section (Cretaceous, central Italy) Cretaceous Research 30 12051216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carriazo, J.G., 2012 Influence of iron removal on the synthesis of pillared clays: A surface study by nitrogen adsorption, XRD and EPR Applied Clay Science 67–68 99105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castner, T. Newell, G.S. Holton, W.C. and Slichter, C.P., 1960 Note on the paramagnetic resonance of iron in glass Journal of Chemical Physics 32 668673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerny, V. Frumarovapetrova, B. Rosa, J. Licholit, I.L. and Frumar, M., 1995 Local symmetry and mutual interaction of Mn2+ ions in glasses Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 193 165169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chafetz, H.S. and Reid, A., 2000 Syndepositional shallowwater precipitation of glauconitic minerals Sedimentary Geology 136 2942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, L.R., 1994 Evolution of authigenic glauconite in early diagenesis Chinese Science Bulletin 39 15501553.Google Scholar
Chen, L.R. and Duan, W.M., 1987 Formation of glauconite as infillings of organism Acta Sedinentologica Sinica 5 171780.Google Scholar
Chen, L.R. and Duan, W.M., 1988 Note on K-Ar isotopic dating of modern glauconite as infilling of organisms Chinese Science Bulletin 33 862865.Google Scholar
Chen, R.J., 1980 Characteristics of glauconites from some regions and their significance in analyzing the facies environments Scientia Geologica Sinica 66 6579.Google Scholar
Chen, S.Z. Low, P.F. and Roth, C.B., 1987 Relation between potassium fixation and the oxidation state of octahedral iron Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 8286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cimbalnikova, A., 1971 Chemical variability and structural heterogeneity of glauconites American Mineralogist 56 13851392.Google Scholar
Dainyak, L.G. Drits, V.A. and Heifits, L.M., 1992 Computer-simulation of cation distribution in dioctahedral 2:1 layer silicates using IR data application to Mössbauer spectroscopy of a glauconite sample Clays and Clay Minerals 40 470479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dainyak, L.G. Zviagina, B.B. Rusakov, V.S. and Drits, V.A., 2006 Interpretation of the nontronite-dehydroxylate Mössbauer spectrum using EFG calculations European Journal of Mineralogy 18 753764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daynyak, L.G. Bookin, A.S. Drits, V.A. and Tsipursky, S.I., 1981 Mössbauer and electron diffraction study of cation distribution in celadonite Acta Crystallography A37suppl. C362.Google Scholar
Daynyak, L.G. and Drits, V.A., 1987 Interpretation of Mössbauer spectra of nontronite, celadonite, and glauconite Clays and Clay Minerals 35 363372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
El Albani, A. Meunier, A. and Fursich, F., 2005 Unusual occurrence of glauconite in a shallow lagoonal environment (lower Cretaceous, northern Aquitaine basin, SW France) Terra Nova 17 537544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, R.J. Rancourt, D.G. and Grodzicki, M., 2005 Hyperfine electric field gradients and local distortion environments of octahedrally coordinated Fe2+ American Mineralogist 90 187198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farmer, V.C. (1974) The Infrared Spectra of Minerals. Mineralogical Society Monograph, Volume 4. (Farmer, V.C., editor). Mineralogical Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 539 pp.Google Scholar
Foster, M.D., 1956 Correlation of dioctahedral potassium micas on the basis of their charge relations U. S. Geological. Survey Bulletin 1036-D 5767.Google Scholar
Fudali, R.F. Dyar, M.D. Griscom, D.L. and Schreiber, H.D., 1987 The oxidation state of iron in tektite glass Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51 27492756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galliher, E.W., 1935 Glauconite genesis Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 46 13511365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garzanti, E., 1991 Non-carbonate intrabasinal grains in arenites: Their recognition, significance, and relationship to eustatic cycles and tectonic setting Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 61 959975.Google Scholar
Giresse, P. and Wiewiora, A., 2001 Stratigraphic condensed deposition and diagenetic evolution of green clay minerals in deep water sediments on the Ivory Coast-Ghana Ridge Marine Geology 179 5170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, L.C. and Whiting, B.M., 2000 Sequence-stratigraphic significance of Miocene to Pliocene glauconite-rich layers, on- and off- shore of the US mid-Atlantic margin Sedimentary Geology 134 129147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henning, J.C.M. and Denboef, J.H., 1976 High-resolution ESR-spectrum of cubic Cr3+ in MgO Physics Letters A 59 241242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hower, J., 1961 Some factors concerning the nature and origin of glauconite American Mineralogist 46 313334.Google Scholar
Huang, X.Z., 1982 Features and sedimentary environment of recent glauconite in China and comparison between recent and fossil glauconites Science in China Series B-Chemistry 26 755773.Google Scholar
Huggett, J.M. and Cuadros, J., 2005 Low-temperature illitization of smectite in the late Eocene and early Oligocene of the Isle of Wight (Hampshire basin), UK American Mineralogist 90 11921202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huggett, J. Adetunji, J. Longstaffe, F. and Wray, D., 2017 Mineralogical and geochemical characterisation of warmwater, shallow-marine glaucony from the tertiary of the London basin Clay Minerals 52 2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huggett, J.M., 2005 Glauconites Pp. 542–548 in: Encyclopedia of Geology (R.C. Selley L.R.M.Cocks and I.Google Scholar
Huggett, J.M. and Cuadros, J., 2010 Glauconite formation in lacustrine/palaeosol sediments, Isle of Wight (Hampshire basin), UK Clay Minerals 45 3549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huggett, J.M. Gale, A.S. and McCarty, D., 2010 Petrology and palaeoenvironmental significance of authigenic ironrich clays, carbonates and apatite in the Claiborne group, middle Eocene, NE Texas Sedimentary Geology 228 119139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiménez-Millán, J. and Castro, J.M., 2008 K-feldspar alteration to gel material and crystallization of glauconitic peloids with berthierine in Cretaceous marine sediments: Sedimentary implications (Prebetic Zone, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) Geological Journal 43 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, J.C. and Webb, J.A., 1999 The genesis of glaucony in the Oligo-Miocene Torquay group, southeastern Australia: Petrographic and geochemical evidence Sedimentary Geology 125 99114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khaled, E.M. and Stucki, J.W., 1991 Iron oxidation-state effects on cation fixation in smectites Soil Science of Society of America Journal 55 550554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitamura, A., 1998 Glaucony and carbonate grains as indicators of the condensed section: Omma formation, Japan Sedimentary Geology 122 151163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuzmann, E. Weiszburg, T.G. Toth, E. and Garg, V.K., 2008 Mössbauer characteristics of glauconitisation Hyperfine Interactions 186 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, X. Cai, Y.F. Hu, X.M. Huang, Z.C. and Wang, J.G., 2012 Mineralogical characteristics and geological significance of Albian (early Cretaceous) glauconite in Zanda, southwestern Tibet, China Clay Minerals 47 4558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, R.C. Wang, S.X. Hsia, Y.F. Duan, W.M. and Chen, L.R., 1986 A Mössbauer investigation of the formation process of glauconite Hyperfine Interactions 29 10851088.Google Scholar
Mei, M.X. Yang, F.J. Gao, J.H. and Meng, Q.F., 2008 Glauconites formed in the high-energy shallow-marine environment of the late Mesoproterozoic: A case study from Tieling formation at Jixian section in Tianjin, north China Earth Science Frontiers 15 146158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meunier, A. and El Albani, A., 2007 The glauconite-Fe-illite- Fe-smectite problem: A critical review Terra Nova 19 95104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, D.M. Reynolds, R.C. JR., 1997.X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay MineralsGoogle Scholar
Odin, G.S. and Fullagar, P.D., 1988 Geological significance of the glaucony facies Developments in Sedimentology 45 295332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odin, G.S. and Matter, A., 1981 De glauconiarum origine Sedimentology 28 611641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odin, G.S. and Morton, A.C., 1988 Authigenic green particles from marine environments Developments in Sedimentology 43 213264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orberger, B. and Pagel, M., 2000 Diagenetic evolution of Cretaceous siltstones from drill core MAR501 (southeastern France) Journal of Geochemical Exploration 69 115118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parry, W.T. and Reeves, C.C., 1966 Lacustrine glauconitic mica from pluvial Lake Mound Lynn and Terry counties, Texas American Mineralogist 51 229235.Google Scholar
Pasquini, C. Lualdi, A. and Vercesi, P.L., 2004 Depositional dynamics of glaucony-rich deposits in the lower cretaceous of the Nice arc, Southeast France Cretaceous Research 25 179189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabii, Z.D. Imene, B.A. Nasr, S. Ashokanand, V. Michael, R. and Ezzeddine, S., 2016 Electrical and dielectric investigation of intercalated polypyrrole montmorillonite nanocomposite prepared by spontaneous polymerization of pyrrole into Fe(III)-montmorillonite Materials Science and Engineering 212 1423.Google Scholar
Rancourt, D.G. Christie, I.A.D. Royer, M. K. odama, H. Robert, J.-L. Lalonde, A.E. and Murad, E., 1994 Determination of accurate [4]Fe3+, [6]Fe3+, and [6]Fe2 + site populations in synthetic annite by Mössbauer spectroscopy American Mineralogist 79 5162.Google Scholar
Rieder, M. Cavazzini, G. D’Yakonov, Y.S. Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A. Gottardi, G. Guggenheim, S. Koval, P.V. Muller, G. Neiva, A.M.R. Radoslovich, E.W. Robert, J.L. Sassi, F.P. Takeda, H. Weiss, Z. and Wones, D.R., 1999 Nomenclature of the micas Mineralogical Magazine 63 267279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rousset, D. Leclerc, S. Clauer, N. Lancelot, J. Cathelineau, M. and Aranyossy, J.F., 2004 Age and origin of Albian glauconites and associated clay minerals inferred from a detailed geochemical analysis Journal of Sedimentary Research 74 631642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, S. Stucki, J.W., Havlin, J.L. and Jacobsen, J., 1994 Effects of iron oxidation state on the fate and behavior of potassium in soils Soil Testing: Prospects for Improving Nutrient Recommendations Madison, Wisconsin, USA Soil Science Society of America 173185.Google Scholar
Siqueira, R.E. Andrade, M.M. Valezi, D.F. Carneiro, C.E.A. Pinese, J.P.P. da Costa, A.C.S. Zaia, D.A.M. Ralisch, R. Pontuschka, W.M. Guedes, C.L.B. and Di Mauro, E., 2011 EPR, FTIR and XRD investigation of soils from Paraná, Brazil Applied Clay Science 53 4247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slonimskaya, M.V. Besson, G. Dainyak, L.G. Tchoubar, C. and Drits, V.A., 1986 Interpretation of the IR-spectra of celadonites and glauconites in the region of OH stretching frequencies Clay Minerals 21 377388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stille, P. and Clauer, N., 1994 The process of glauconitization: Chemical and isotopic evidence Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 117 253262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stucki, J.W., Bergaya, F. and Lagaly, G., 2013 Properties and behavior of iron in clay minerals Handbook of Clay Science 2 Amsterdam Elsevier 559611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takahashi, J.I., 1939 Synopsis of Glauconitization: Part 6. Special Features of Sediments 503512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toloman, D. Giurgiu, L.M. and Ardelean, I., 2009 EPR investigations of calcium phosphate glasses containing manganese ions Physica B-Condensed Matter 404 41984201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsipursky, S. I. and Drits, V. A., 1984 The distribution of octahedral cations in the 2:1 layers of dioctahedral smectites studied by oblique-texture electron diffraction Clay Minerals 19 02 177193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsipursky, S.I. Drits, V.A. and Chekin, S.S., 1978 Study of structural ordering of nontronite by means of oblique electron diffraction, Izv Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol. 10 105113.Google Scholar
Tsipursky, S.I., Drits, V.A., and Plançon, A. (1985) Calculation of the intensities distribution in the oblique texture electron diffraction patterns, Kristallografiya, 30, 3844 (in Russian).Google Scholar
Wen, L. (1989) FTIR Spectra of Minerals (1st Edition). Press of Chongqing University, China.Google Scholar
Wiewiora, A. Giresse, P. Petit, S. and Wilamowski, A., 2001 A deep-water glauconitization process on the Ivory Coast-Ghana marginal ridge (ODP site 959): Determination of Fe3+-rich montmorillonite in green grains Clays and Clay Minerals 49 540558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ying, Y.P. and Zhang, N.X., 1981 The Mössbauer spectra of the glauconites Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 2 15.Google Scholar
Zhang, R.X., 1981 The mineralogical study of glauconites from some regions in China Geologica Sinica 4 376383.Google Scholar
Zhao, Q.J. Peng, H.C. and Zhang, Z.Y., 1992 Distribution properties of glauconites in Chinese shelf sea and their significance Marine Sciences 83 4143.Google Scholar
Zheng, W.C., 1991 Investigation of the stress dependence of the EPR-spectrum for Y3Ga5O12-Cr3+ Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 52 875878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, E.Q., 1982 Glauconite in the surface sediments of south part of Huanghai Journal of Shandong College of Oceanology 12 6167.Google Scholar