Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Weathering of the primary rock-forming minerals: processes, products and rates

  • M. J. Wilson (a1)

Abstract

This paper describes the ways in which the major rock-forming primary minerals (olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles, feldspars, micas and chlorites) break down during weathering, the products that develop during this breakdown and the rates at which this breakdown occurs. The perspective chosen to illustrate this vast topic is that of the residual soil weathering profile. Different physical and chemical conditions characterize the various parts of such a profile. Thus, in the slightly weathered rock at the base of the profile, mineral weathering will take place in microfissures and narrow solution channels and the capillary water in such spatially restricted volumes may be expected to be close to equilibrium with the primary mineral. In these circumstances, the weathering product formed may be closely related to the primary mineral both compositionally and structurally. The saprolite higher up in the weathering profile may or may not retain the fabric and structure of the original parent rock, but in either case the close relationship observed between primary mineral and weathering product in the slightly weathered rock may be lost. This part of the profile will usually be affected by freely flowing drainage waters, the composition of which will be far from equilibrium with specific primary minerals. Weathering products which do form are likely to reflect the interaction between bulk water and bulk parent material. In the soil profile, the situation will be further complicated by organic ligands derived from decomposing organic matter or from the direct activities of soil microbes or plant roots. Thus, biological weathering will assume a much greater significance in this part of the profile compared with the mainly inorganic processes dominating in the saprolite and the slightly weathered rock. The general nature of any particular weathering profile will reflect the interactions between climate, topography, parent material, soil biota and time and superimposed upon this complexity, when considering how individual primary minerals break down in detail, will be factors related to the nature of the mineral itself. Particularly important in this respect is the inherent susceptibility of the mineral to weathering, which is related to overall chemical composition and structure, as well as the distribution and density of defects, dislocations and exsolution features, which often control the progress of the weathering reaction.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Weathering of the primary rock-forming minerals: processes, products and rates
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Weathering of the primary rock-forming minerals: processes, products and rates
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Weathering of the primary rock-forming minerals: processes, products and rates
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2004 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Acker, J.B. & Bricker, O.P. (1992) The influence of pH on biotite dissolution and alteration kinetics at low temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 56, 3073–3092.
Adams, W.A. (1976) Experimental evidence on the origin of vermiculite in soils on Lower Palaeozoic sediments. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 40, 793–795.
Adams, W.A & Kassim, J.K. (1983) The origin of vermiculite in soils developed from Lower Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks in Mid-Wales. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47, 316–320.
Ahn, J.H. & PeacorD.R. (1987) Kaolinization of biotite: TEM data and implications for an alteration mechanism. American Mineralogist, 72, 353–356.
Anand, R.R. & Gilkes, R.J. (1984) Weathering of hornblende, plagioclase and chlorite in meta-dolerite, Australia. Geoderma, 34, 261–280.
Anand, R.R., Gilkes, R.J., Armitage, T. & Hillyer, J. (1985) The influence of microenvironment on feldspar weathering in lateritic saprolite. Clays and Clay Minerals. 33, 31–46.
Anbeek, C. (1992) The dependence of dissolution rates on grain size for some fresh and weathered feldspars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 56, 3957–3970.
Anbeek, C. (1993) The effect of natural weathering on dissolution rates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 4963–4975.
Aouidjit, H., Elsass, F., Righi, D. & Robert, M. (1996) Mica weathering in acidic soils by analytical electron microscopy. Clay Minerals, 31, 319–332.
April, R.H., Hluchy, M.M. & Newton, R.M. (1986) The nature of vermiculite in Adirondack soils and till. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34, 549–556.
Aspandiar, M.F & Eggleton, R.A. (2002a) Weathering of chlorite. I. Reactions and products in microsystems controlled by the primary mineral. Clays and Clay Minerals, 50, 685–698.
Aspandiar, M.F. & Eggleton, R.A. (2002b) Weathering of chlorite. II. Reactions and products in microsystems controlled by the solution avenues. Clays and Clay Minerals, 50, 699–709.
Awad, A., Koster van Groos, A.F. & Guggenheim, S. (2000) Forsteritic olivine: Effect of crystallographic direction on dissolution kinetics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 1765–1772.
Bain, D.C. (1977) The weathering of ferruginous chlorite in a podzol from Argyllshire, Scotland. Geoderma, 17, 193–208.
Bain, D.C. & Duthie, D.M.L. (1984) The effect of weathering in the silt fractions on the apparent stability of chlorite in Scottish soil clays. Geoderma, 34, 221–227.
Bain, D.C., Mellor, A. & Wilson, M.J. (1990) Nature and origin of an aluminous vermiculitic weathering product in acid soils from upland catchments in Scotland. Clay Minerals, 25, 467–475.
Bain, D.C., Mellor, A., Wilson, M.J. & Duthie, D.M.L. (1994) Chemical and mineralogical weathering rates and processes in an upland granitic till catchment in Scotland. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 73, 11–27.
Banfield, J.F. & Barker, W.W. (1994) Direct observation of reactant-product interfaces formed in natural weathering of exsolved defective amphibole to smectite: Evidence for episodic, isovolumetric reactions involving structural inheritance. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 1419–1429.
Banfield, J.F. & Eggleton, R.A. (1988) Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals, 36, 47–60.
Banfield, J.F. & Eggleton, R.A. (1990) Analytical transmission electron microscope studies of plagioclase, muscovite and K-feldspar weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals, 38, 77–89.
Banfield, J.F. & Murakami, T. (1998) Atomic resolution transmission electron microscope evidence for the mechanism by which chlorite weathers to 1:1 semir e g u l a r chlorite–vermiculite. American Mineralogist, 83, 348–357.
Banfield, J.F., Veblen, D.R. & Jones, B.F. (1990) Transmission electron microscopy of subsolidus oxidation and weathering of olivine. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 106, 110–123.
Banfield, J.F., Jones, B.F. & Veblen, D.R. (1991) An AEM-TEM study of weathering and diagenesis, Abert Lake, Oregon: I. Weathering reactions in the volcanics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 2781–2793.
Banfield, J.F., Ferruzzi, G.G., Casey, W.H. & Westrich, H.R. (1995) HRTEM study comparing naturally and experimentally weathered pyroxenoids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 19–31.
Banfield, J.F., Barker, W.W., Welch, S.A. & Taunton, A. (1999) Biological impact on mineral dissolution: Application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 96, 3404–3411.
Barker, W.W. & Banfield, J.F. (1996) Biologically versus inorganically mediated weathering reactions; relationships between minerals and extracellular microbial polymers in lithobiontic communities. Chemical Geology, 132, 55–69.
Barker, W.W. & Banfield, J.F. (1998) Zones of chemical and physical interaction at interfaces between microbial communities and minerals; A model. Geomicrobiology Journal, 15, 223–244.
Barker, W.W., Welch, S.A., Chu, S. & Banfield, J.F. (1998) Experimental observations on the effects of bacteria on aluminosilicate weathering. American Mineralogist, 83, 1551–1563.
Barnhisel, R.I. & Bertsch, P.M. (1989) Chlorites and Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculite and Smectite. Pp. 729–788 in: Minerals and Soil Environments (Dixon, J.B. and Weed, S.B., editors). Published by the Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.
Barshad, I. (1948) Vermiculite and its relation to biotite as revealed by base exchange reactions, X-ray analysis, differential thermal curves and water content. American Mineralogist, 33, 655–678.
Barshad, I. & Kishk, F.M. (1968) Oxidation of ferrous iron in vermiculite and biotite alters fixation and replaceability of potassium. Science, 162, 1401–1402.
Basham, I.R. (1974) Mineralogical changes associated with deep weathering of gabbro in Aberdeenshire. Clay Minerals, 10, 189–202.
Bassett, W.A. (1960) Role of hydroxyl orientation in mica alteration. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71, 449–456.
Berner, R.A. (1991) A model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 291, 339–376.
Berner, R.A. & Holdren, G.R. (1977) Mechanism of feldspar weathering: Some observational evidence. Geology, 5, 369–372.
Berner, R.A. & Holdren, G.R. (1979) Mechanism of feldspar weathering - II. Observations of feldspars from soils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 43, 1173–1186.
Berner, R.A. & Schott, J. (1982) Mechanism of pyroxene and amphibole weathering. II Observations of soil grains. American Journal of Science. 282, 1214–1231.
Berner, R.A., Sjöberg, E.L., Velbel, M.A. & Krom, M.D. (1980) Dissolution of pyroxenes and amphiboles during weathering. Science, 207, 1205–1206.
Berner, R.A., Hodren, G.R. & Schott, J. (1985) Surface layers on dissolving silicates. (Comments on “Study of the weathering of albite at room temperature and pressure with a fluidised bed reactor” by Chou, L. & Wollast, R.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 1657–1658.
Blum, A.E. & Stillings, L.L (1995) Feldspar dissolution kinetics. Pp. 291–351 in: Chemical Weathering Rates in Silicate Minerals (White, A.F. and Brantley, S.L., editors). Reviews in Mineralogy, 31, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, D.C.
Blum, A.E., Yund, R.A. & Lasaga, A.C. (1990) The effect of dislocation density on the dissolution rate of quartz. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 283–297.
Boyle, J.R., Voigt, G.K. & Sawney, B.L. (1967) Biotite flakes; alteration by chemical and biological treatment. Science, 155, 193–195.
Brady, P.V., Dorn, R.I., Brazel, A.J., Clark, J., Moore, R.B. & Glidewell, T. (1999) Direct effects of lichen, rainfall and temperature on silicate weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 3293–3300.
Brantley, S.L. & Chen, Y. (1995) Chemical weathering rates of pyroxenes and amphiboles. Pp. 119–172 in: Chemical Weathering Rates in Silicate Minerals (White, A.F. and Brantley, S.L., editors). Reviews in Mineralogy, 31, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, D.C.
Brantley, S.R. & Stillings, L.L. (1996) Feldspar dissolution at 25°C and low pH. American Journal of Science, 296, 101–127.
Brown, G. (1953) The dioctahedral analogue of vermiculite. Clay Minerals Bulletin, 2, 64–69.
Brown, G. & Stephen, I. (1959) A structural study of iddingsite from New South Wales, Australia. American Mineralogist, 44, 251–260.
Carnicelli, S., Mirabella, A., Cecchini, G. & Sansi, G. Weathering of chlorite to a low-charge expandable mineral in a Spodosol on the Appenine mountains, Italy. Clays and Clay Minerals, 45, 28–41.
Casey, W.H., Westrich, H.R., Arnold, G.W. & Banfield, J.F. (1989) The surface chemistry of dissolving labradorite feldspar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 821–832.
Casey, W.H., Carr, M.J. & Graham, R.A. (1991a) Crystal defects and the dissolution kinetics of rutile. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 1545–1556.
Casey, W.H., Westrich, H.R. & Holdren, G.R. (1991b) Dissolution rates of plagioclase at pH = 2 and 3. American Mineralogist, 76, 211–217.
Casey, W.H., Banfield, J.F., Westrich, H.R. & McLaughlin, L. (1993) What do dissolution experiments tell us about natural weathering. Chemical Geology, 105, 1–15.
Cho, H.D. & Mermut, A.R. (1992) Evidence for halloysite formation from weathering of ferruginous chlorite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 40, 608–619.
Chou, L. & Wollast, R. (1984) Study of the weathering of albite at room temperature and pressure with a fluidised bed reactor. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48, 2205–2217.
Chou, L. & Wollast, R. (1985) Study of the weathering of albite at room temperature and pressure with a fluidised bed reactor. Reply to a comment by Berner, R.A., Holdren, G.R. Jr. and Schott, J.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 1659–1660.
Churchman, G.J. (1978) Studies on a climax sequence in soils in tussock grasslands. Mineralogy. New Zealand Journal of Science, 21, 467–480.
Churchman, G.J. (1980) Clay minerals formed from micas and chlorites in some New Zealand soils. Clay Minerals, 15, 59–76.
Cochran, M.F. & Berner, R.A. (1996) Promotion of chemical weathering by higher plants: field observations on Hawaiian basalts. Chemical Geology, 132, 71–77.
Coleman, N.T., Le Roux, F.H. & Cady, K.G. (1963) Biotite-hydrobiotite-vermiculite in soils. Nature, 198, 409–410.
Delvigne, J.E. (1998) Atlas of Micromorphology of Mineral Alteration and Weathering. The Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication No 3. Mineralogical Association of Canada, 495 pp.
Delvigne, J., Bisdom, E.B.A., Sleeman, J. & Stoops, G. (1979) Olivines, their pseudomorphs and secondary products. Pedologie, 29, 247–309.
Denison, I.A., Fry, W.H. & Gile, P.L. (1929) Alteration of muscovite and biotite in the soil. Technical Bulletin, No. 128. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
De Kimpe, C. & Tardy, Y. (1968) Etude de l’altération d’une biotite en kaolinite par spectroscopie infrarouge. Bulletin de Groupe français des Argiles, 19, 81–85.
Dong, H., Peacor, D.R. & Murphy, S.F. (1998) TEM study of progressive alteration of igneous biotite to kaolinite throughout a weathered soil profile. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 1881–1887.
Drever, J.I. (1994) The effect of land plants on weathering rates of silicate minerals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 2325–2332.
Drever, J.I. & Stillings, L.L. (1997) The role of organic acids in mineral weathering. Colloids and Surfaces. A. Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 120, 167–181.
Eggleton, R.A. (1975) Nontronite topotaxial after hedenbergite. American Mineralogist, 60, 1063–1068.
Eggleton, R.A. (1984) Formation of iddingsite rims on olivine: a transmission electron microscope study. Clays and Clay Minerals, 32, 1–11.
Eggleton, R.A. & Boland, J.N. (1982) Weathering of enstatite to talc through a sequence of transitional phases. Clays and Clay Minerals, 30, 11 –20.
Eggleton, R.A. & Buseck, P.R. (1980) High resolution electron microscopy of feldspar weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals, 28, 173–178.
Eswaran, H. & Bin, W.C. (1978) A study of a deep weathering profile on granite in peninsular Malaysia. III. Alteration of feldspars. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 42, 154–158.
Eswaran, H. & Heng, Y.Y. (1976) The weathering of biotite in a profile on gneiss in Malaysia. Geoderma, 16, 9–20.
Evans, L.J. & Adams, W.A. (1975) Chlorite and illite in some Lower Palaeozoic mudstones of Mid-Wales. Clay Minerals, 10, 387–397.
Farmer, V.C. & Wilson, M.J. (1970) Experimental conversion of biotite to hydrobiotite. Nature, 226, 841–842.
Farmer, V.C., Russell, J.D., McHardy, W.J., Newman, A.C.D., Ahlrichs, J.L. & Rimsaite, J.H.Y. (1971) Evidence for loss of protons and octahedral iron from oxidised biotites and vermiculites. Mineralogical Magazine, 38, 121–137.
Fordham, A.W. (1990a) Formation of trioctahedral illite from biotite in a soil profile over granite gneiss. Clays and Clay Minerals, 38, 187–195.
Fordham, A.W. (1990b) Weathering of biotite into dioctahedral clay minerals. Clay Minerals, 25, 51–63.
Franke, W.A. & Teschner-Steinhardt, R. (1994) An experimental approach to the sequence of the stability of rock-forming minerals towards chemical stability. Catena, 21, 279–290.
Ghabru, S.K., Mermut, A.R. & St Arnaud, R.J. (1990) Isolation and characterization of an iron-rich chlorite-like mineral from soil clays. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 54, 281–287.
Gilkes, R.J. (1973) The alteration products of potassium depleted oxybiotite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 21, 301–313.
Gilkes, R.J. & Little, I.P. (1972) Weathering of chlorite and some associations of trace elements in Permian phyllites in southeast Queensland. Geoderma, 7, 233–247.
Gilkes, R.J. & Suddhiprakarn, A. (1979a) Biotite alteration in deeply weathered granite. I. Morphological, mineralogical and chemical properties. Clays and Clay Minerals, 27, 349–360.
Gilkes, R.J. & Suddhiprakarn, A. (1979b) Biotite alteration in deeply weathered granite. II. The oriented growth of secondary minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals, 27, 361–367.
Gilkes, R.J., Young, R.C. & Quirk, J.P. (1972) The oxidation of octahedral iron in biotite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 20, 303–315.
Gilkes, R.J., Young, R.C. & Quirk, J.P. (1973a) Artificial weathering of oxidised biotite: I. Potassium removal by sodium chloride and sodium tetraphenylboron solutions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 37, 25–28.
Gilkes, R.J., Young, R.C. & Quirk, J.P. (1973b) Artificial weathering of oxidised biotite: II. Rates of dissolu tion in 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001M HCl. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 37, 29–33.
Goldich, S.S. (1938) A study in rock weathering. Journal of Geology, 46, 17–58.
Grandstaff, D.E. (1977) Some kinetics of bronzite orthopyroxene dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 41, 1097–1103.
Grandstaff, D.E. (1978) Changes in surface area and morphology and the mechanism of forsterite dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 42, 1899–1901.
Hamer, M., Graham, R.C., Amrhein, C. & Bozhilov, K.N. (2003) Dissolution of ripidolite (Mg,Fe-chlorite) in organic and inorganic acid solutions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67, 654–664.
Harris, W.G., Zelazny, L.W., Baker, J.C. & Martens, D.C. (1985a) Biotite kaolinization in Virginia Piedmont soils: I. Extent, profile trends and grain morphological effects. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49, 1290–1297.
Harris, W.G., Zelazny, L.W. & Bloss, F.D. (1985b) Biotite kaolinization in Virginia Piedmont soils: II. Zonation in single grains. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49, 1297–1302.
Herbillon, A.J. & Makubi, L. (1975) Weathering of chlorite in a soil derived from a chlorito-schist under humid tropical conditions. Geoderma, 13, 89–104.
Hettelingh, J., Downing, R. & de Smet, P. (1991) Mapping critical loads for Europe. CCE Technical Report No. 1, RIVM. Report No. 259101001, Co-ordination Center for Effects, RIVM.
Hochella, M.F. & Banfield, J.F. (1996) Chemical weathering of silicates in nature: A microscopic perspective with theoretical considerations. Pp. 353–406 in: Chemical Weathering Rates in Silicate Minerals (White, A.F. and Brantley, S.L., editors). Reviews in Mineralogy 31, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, D.C.
Hoffland, E., Giesler, R., Jongmans, T. & van Breemen, N. (2002) Increasing feldspar tunnelling by fungi across a north Sweden podzol chronosequence. Ecosystems, 5, 11–22.
Holdren, G.R. & Berner, R.A. (1979) Mechanism of feldspar weathering–I. Experimental studies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 43, 1161–1171.
Holdren, G.R. and Speyer, P.M. (1985) Reaction ratesurface area relationships during the early stages of weathering. I. Initial observations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 675–681.
Holdren, G.R., Casey, W.H., Westrich, H.R., Carr, M. & Bosclough, M. (1988) Bulk dislocation densities and dissolution rates in a calcic plagioclase feldspar. Chemical Geology, 70, 79.
Huang, W.H. & Keller, W.D. (1970) Dissolution of rockforming minerals in organic acids: Simulated first stage weathering of fresh mineral surfaces. American Mineralogist, 55, 2076–2094.
Huang, W.H. & Kiang, W.C. (1972) Laboratory dissolution of plagioclase in water and organic acids at room temperature. American Mineralogist, 57, 1849–1859.
Inskeep, W.P., Nater, E.A., Bloom, P.R., Vandervoort, D. & Erich, S.R. (1991) Characterization of laboratory weathered labradorite surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 787–800.
Ismail, F.T. (1969) Role of ferrous iron oxidation in the alteration of biotite and its effect on the type of clay minerals formed in soils of arid and humid regions. American Mineralogist, 54, 1460–1466.
Ismail, F.T. (1970) Biotite weathering and clay formation in arid and humid regions, California. Soil Science, 109, 257–261.
Jenny, H. (1941) Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology. McGraw Hill, New York, 281 pp.
Jeong, G.Y. (1998) Vermicular kaolinite epitactic on primary phyllosilicates in the weathering profile of anorthsite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 46, 509–520.
Jeong, G.Y. (2000) The dependence of localized crystallization of halloysite and kaolinite on primary minerals in the weathering profile of granite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 196–203.
Jeong, G.Y. & Kim, H.B. (2003) Mineralogy and chemistry of oxidized biotite in the weathering profile of granitic rocks. American Mineralogist, 88, 352–364.
Johnson, L.J (1964) Occurrence of regularly interstratified chlorite vermiculite as a weathering product of chlorite in the soil. American Mineralogist, 49, 556–572.
Jolicoeur, S., Ildefonse Ph. & Bouchard, M. (2000) Kaolinite and gibbsite weathering of biotite within saprolites and soils of central Virginia. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 1118–1129.
Jones, D., Wilson, M.J. & Tait, J.M. (1980) Weathering of a basalt b. Pertusaria, corallina. The Lichenologist, 12, 277–289.
Jones, D., Wilson, M.J. and McHardy, W.J. (1981) Lichen weathering of rock-forming minerals: application of scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analysis. Journal of Microscopy, 124, 95–104.
Jongmans, A.G., Van Breemen, N., Lundström, U.S., van Hees, P.A.W., Finlay, R.D., Srinivasam, N., Unestam, T., Giesler, R., Melkerud, P.-A. and Olsson, M. (1997) Rock-eating fungi. Nature, 289, 682–683.
Kalinowski, B.E. & Scheda, P. (1996) Kinetics of muscovite phlogopite and biotite dissolution and alteration at pH 1-4, room remperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 367–385.
Kapoor, B.S. (1972) Weathering of micaceous clays in some Norwegian podzols. Clay Minerals, 9, 383–394.
Karathanasis, A.D. (1988) Compositional and solubility relationships between aluminum hydroxy-interlayered soil smectites and vermiculites. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52, 1500–1508.
Kato, Y. (1965) Mineralogical study of weathering products of granodiorite at Shinshiro City, Japan. III. Weathering of primary minerals. (2) Mineralogical characteristics of weathered mineral grains. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 11, 30–40.
Kawano, M. & Tomita, K. (1996) Amorphous aluminum hydroxide formed at the earliest weathering stages of K-feldspar. Clays and Clay Minerals, 44, 672–676.
Kirby, S.H. & Wegner, M.W. (1978) Dislocation substructure of mantle-derived olivine as revealed by selective chemical etching and transmission electron microscopy. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 3, 309–330.
Kodama, H., Schnitzer, M. & Jaakkimainen, M. (1983) Chlorite and biotite weathering by fulvic acid solutions in closed and open systems. Candian Journal of Soil Science, 63, 619–629.
Kretzschmar, R., Robarge, W.P., Amoozegar, A. & Veprskas, M.J. (1997) Biotite alteration to halloysite and kaolinite in soil-saprolite profiles developed from mica schist and granite gneiss. Geoderma, 75, 155–170.
Landeweert, R., Hoffland, E., Finlay, R.D., Kuyper, T.W. & van Breemen, N. (2001) Linking plants to rocks: ectomucorrizhal fungi mobilize nutrients from minerals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 248–254.
Lee, M.R. & Parsons, I. (1995) Microtextural controls of weathering of perthitic alkali feldspars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 4465–4488.
Lee, M.R. & Parsons, I. (1999) Biomechanical and biochemical weathering of lichen-encrusted granite: textural controls on organic-mineral interactions and deposition of silica-rich layers. Chemical Geology, 161, 385–397.
Lee, M.R., Hodson, M.E. & Parsons, I. (1998) The role of intergranular microtextures and microstructures in chemical and mechanical weathering: direct comparisons of experimentally and naturally weathered alkali feldspars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2771–2788.
Leyval, C. & Berthelin, J. (1991) Weathering of mica by roots and rhizospheric microorganisms. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55, 1009–1016.
Luce, R.W., Bartlett, W.B. & Parks, G.A. (1972) Dissolution kinetics of magnesium silicates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 36, 35–50.
Locke, W.W. (1986) Rates of hornblende etching in soils on glacial deposits, Baffin Island, Canada. Pp. 129–145 in: Rates of Chemical Weathering of Rocks and Minerals (Colman, S.M. and Dethier, D.P., editors). Academic Press, London, New York.
MacEwan, D.M.C. (1954) “Cardenite’, a trioctahdral montmorillonoid derived from biotite. Clay Minerals Bulletin, 2, 120–126.
Makumbi, L. & Herbillon, A.K. (1972) Vermiculitisation experimentale d’une chlorite. Bulletin de Groupe français des Argiles, 24, 153–164.
Malmström, M., Banwart, S., Lewenhagen, J., Duro, L. & Bruno, J. (1996) The dissolution of biotite and chlorite at 25 degrees C in the near neutral pH region. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 21, 201–213.
Manley, E.P. & Evans, L.J. (1986) Dissolution of feldspars by low molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic acids. Soil Science, 141, 106–112.
Martin, H.W. & Sparks, D.L. (1985) On the behaviour of non-exchangeable potassium in soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 16, 133–162.
Mast, M.A. & Drever, J.I. (1986) The effect of oxalate on the dissolution rates of oligoclase and tremolite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51, 2559–2568.
Martin-Garcia, J.M., Delgado, G., Sández Maronón, M., Párraga, J.F. & Delgado, R. (1997) Nature of dioctahedral micas in Spanish red soils. Clay Minerals, 32, 107–122.
Mitsuda, T. (1960) Pseudomorphs of kaolinite after biotite. Studies on mechanism of weathering; 1st Report. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series IV. Geology and Mineralogy, 10, 481–494.
Mogk, D.W. & Locke, W.W. III (1988) Application of Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) to naturally weathered hornblende. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 2537–2542.
Mojalalli, M. & Weed, S.B. (1978) Weathering of micas by mycorrizhal soybean plants. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 42, 367–372.
Moon, H.S., Song, Y. & Lee, S.Y. (1994) Supergene vermiculitization of phlogopite and biotite in ultramafic and mafic rocks, central Korea. Clays and Clay Minerals, 42, 259–268.
Mortland, M.M. & Lawton, K. (1961) Relationships between particle size and potassium release from biotite and its analogues. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 25, 473–476.
Mortland, M.M., Lawton, K. & Uehara, G. (1956) Alteration of biotite to vermiculite by plant growth. Soil Science, 82, 477–481.
Moulton, K.L., West, J. & Berner, R.A. (2000) Solute flux and mineral mass balances approaches to the quantification of plant effects on silicate weathering. American Journal of Science, 300, 539–570.
Muir, I.J., Bancroft, M.G. & Nesbitt, H.W. (1989) Characteristics of altered labradorite surfaces by SIMS and XPS. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 1235–1241.
Muir, I.J., Bancroft, M.G., Shotyk & Nesbitt, H.W. (1990) A SIMS and XPS study of dissolving plagioclase. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 2247–2256.
Murakami, T., Isobe, H., Sato, T. & Ohnuki, T. (1996) Weathering of chlorite in a quartz-chlorite schist. I. Mineralogical and chemical changes. Clays and Clay Minerals, 44, 244–256.
Nahon, D.B. & Colin, F. (1982) Chemical weathering of orthopyroxenes under lateritic conditions. American Journal of Science, 282, 1232–1245.
Nahon, D., Colin, F. & Tardy, Y. (1982) Formation and distribution of Mg, Fe, Mn-smectites in the first stages of the lateritic weathering of forsterite and tephroite. Clay Minerals, 17, 339–348.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Muir, I.J. (1988) SIMS depth profiles of weathered plagioclase and processes affecting dissolved Al and Si in some acidic soil solutions. Nature, 334, 336–338.
Nesbitt, H.W., Macrae, N.D. & Shotyk, W. (1991) Congruent and incongruent dissolution of labradorite in dilute acidic salt solutions. Journal of Geology, 99, 429–442.
Newman, A.C.D. (1969) Cation exchange properties of micas. I. The relation between mica composition and K-exchange in solutions of different pH. Journal of Soil Science, 20, 357–373.
Newman, A.C.D. & Brown, G. (1966) Chemical changes during the alteration of micas. Clay Minerals, 6, 297–309.
Nilsson, J. & Grennfelt, P. (1988) Critical Loads for Sulphur and Nitrogen. Nordic Council of Ministers. Nord. 1988, 15.
Norrish, K. (1973) Factors in the weathering of vermiculite. Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, Madrid (Serratosa, J.M., editor). CSIC, Madrid, pp. 419–432.
Nugent, M.A., Brantley, S.L., Pantano, C.G. & Maurice, P.A (1998) The influence of natural mineral coatings on feldspar weathering. Nature, 395, 588–591.
Oxburgh, R., Drever, J.I. & Sun, Y.T. (1994) Mechanism of plagioclase dissolution in acid solution at 25°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 661–669.
Parham, W.P. (1969a) Halloysite-rich tropical weathering products of Hong Kong. Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, Tokyo I, 431–440.
Parham, W.P. (1969b) Formation of halloysite from feldspar: low temperature artificial weathering versus natural weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals, 17, 13–22.
Petit, J.C., Della Mea, G., Dran, J.C., Schott, J. & Berner, R.A. (1987) Mechanism of diopside dissolution from hydrogen depth profiling. Nature, 325, 705–707.
Petrovic, R., Berner, R.A. & Goldhaber, M.B. (1976) Rate control in dissolution of alkali feldspars-I. Study of residual feldspar grains by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 40, 537–548.
Pokrovsky, O.S. & Schott, J. (2000a) Forsteritic surface composition in aqueous solutions: A combined potentiometric, electrokinetic and spectroscopic approach. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 3299–3312.
Pokrovsky, O.S. & Schott, J. (2000b) Kinetics and mechanism of forsterite dissolution at 25°C and pH from 1 to 12. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 3313–3325.
Proust, D. (1982) Supergene alteration of hornblende in an amphibolite from Massif Central, France. Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, 1981 (van Olphen, H. and Veniale, F., editors), pp. 357-364.
Proust, D., Eymery, J.D. & Beaufort, D. (1986) Supergene vermiculitization of a magnesian chlorite; iron and magnesium removal processes. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34, 572–580.
Prudêncao, M.I., Sequeira-Braga, M.A., Paquet, H., Warenborgh, J.C., Pereira, L.C.J. and Gouveia, M.A. (2002) Clay mineral assemblages in weathered basalt profiles from central and southern Portugal: Climatic significance. Catena, 49, 77–89.
Purvis, O.W. (1984) The occurrence of copper oxalate in lichens growing on copper sulphide-bearing rocks in Scandinavia. The Lichenologist, 16, 197–204.
Raman, K.V. & Jackson, M.L. (1965) Mica surface morphology changes during weathering. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 29, 29–32.
Rausell-Colom, J.A., Sweatman, T.R., Wells, C.B. & Norrish, K. (1964) Studies in the artificial weathering of mica. Pp. 40–72 in: Experimental Pedology. Butterworths, London.
Rebertus, R.A., Weed, S.B. & Buol, S.W. (1986) Transformations of biotite to kaolinite during saprolite-soil weathering. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50, 810–819.
Reed, M.G. & Scott, A.D. (1962) Chemical extraction of potassium from soils and micaceous minerals with solutions containing tetraphenyboron. II. Biotite. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 26, 41–45.
Reichenbach, H. Graf von & Rich, C.I. (1969) Potassium release from muscovite as influenced by particle size. Clays and Clay Minerals, 17, 23–29.
Robert, M., Hardy, M. & Elsass, F. (1991) Crystallochemistry, properties and organization of soil clays derived from major saedimentary rocks in France. Clay Minerals, 26, 409–420.
Robertson, I.D.M. & Eggleton, R.A. (1991) Weathering of granitic muscovite to kaolinite and halloysite and of plagioclase-derived kaolinite to halloysite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 39, 113–126.
Rodgers, G.P. & Holland, H.D. (1979) Weathering products in microcracks in feldspars. Geology, 7, 278–280.
Romero, R., Robert, M., Elsass, F. & Garcia, C. (1992) Evidence by transmission electron microscopy of weathering microsystems in soils developed from crystalline rocks. Clay Minerals, 27, 21–34.
Ross, G.J. (1968) Structural decomposition of an orthochlorite during its acid dissolution. The Canadian Mineralogist, 9, 522–530.
Ross, G.J. (1969) Acid dissolution of chlorites; release of magnesium, iron, aluminum and mode of acid attack. Clays and Clay Minerals, 17, 347–354.
Ross, G.J. & Kodama, H. (1976) Experimental alteration of a chlorite into a regularly interstratified chloritevermiculite by chemical oxidation. Clays and Clay Minerals, 24, 183–190.
Ross, G.J. & Kodama, H. (1976) Experimental transformation of a chlorite into a vermiculite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 22, 205–211.
Ross, G.J., Wang C, Ozkan, A.I. & Rees, H.W. (1982) Weathering of chlorite and mica in a New Brunswick podzol developed on till derived from chlorite-mica schist. Geoderma, 27, 255–267.
Ruiz Cruz, M.D. (1999) New data for metamorphic vermiculite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 533–548.
Schott, J. & Berner, R.A. (1983) X-ray photoelectron studies of the mechanism of iron silicate dissolution during weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 47, 2233–2240.
Schott, J., Berner, R.A. & Sjöberg, E.L. (1981) Mechanism of pyroxene and amphibole weathering. I. Experimental studies of iron-free minerals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 45, 2123–2135.
Schott, J., Brantley, S.L., Crerar, D., Guy C, Borcsik, M. & Willaime, C. (1989) Dissolution kinetics of strained calcite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 373–382.
Scott, A.D. & Amonette, J. (1988) Role of iron in mica weathering. Pp. 537–623 in: Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals (Stucki, J.W., Goodman, B.A. and Schwertmann, U., editors). NATO ASI Series C: Mathematical and Physical Sciences. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Scott, A.D. and Smith, S.J. (1966) Susceptibility of interlayer potassium in micas to exchange with sodium. Clays and Clay Minerals, 14, 69–81.
Senkayi, A.L., Dixon, J.B. & Hossner, J.R. (1981) Transformation of chlorite to smectite through regularly interstratified intermediates. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 45, 650–656.
Shau, Y.H., Peacor, D.R. & Essene, E.J. (1990) Corrensite and mixed layer chlorite corrensite in metabasalt from northern Taiwan; TEM, AEM EMPA, XRD and optical studies. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 105, 123–142.
Siever, R. & Woodford, N. (1979) Dissolution kinetics and the weathering of mafic minerals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 43, 717–724.
Singh, B. & Gilkes, R.J. (1991) Weathering of a chromium muscovite to kaolinite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 39, 571–579.
Singh, B. & Gilkes, R.J. (1993) Weathering of spodumene to smectite in a lateritic environment. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, 624–630.
Smith, K.L., Milnes, A.R. & Eggleton, R.A. (1987) Weathering of basalt, formation of iddingsite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 36, 418–428.
Spyridakis, D.E., Chesters, G. & Wilde, S.A. (1967) Kaolinisation of biotite as a result of coniferous and deciduous seedling growth. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 31, 203–210.
Stillings, L.L. & Brantley, S.L. (1995) Feldspar dissolution at 25°C and pH 3: Reaction stoichiometry and the effect of cations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 1483–1496.
Stillings, L.L., Drever, J.I., Brantley, S.L., Sun, Y. & Oxburgh, R. (1996) Rates of feldspar dissolution at pH 3–7 with 0–8 mM oxalic acid. Chemical Geology, 132, 79–89.
Sverdrup, H. & Warfvinge, P. (1990) The role of weathering and forestry in determining the acidity of lakes in Sweden. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 52, 71–78.
Sverdrup, H. de Vries, W. & Henriksen, A. (1990) Mapping critical loads. Miljørapport 1990, 14. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
Sverdrup, H., Warfvinge, P. & Nihlga rd, B. (1994) Assessment of soil acidification effects on forest growth in Sweden. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 78, 1–36.
Tazaki, K. (1976) Scanning electron microscopic study of formation of gibbsite from plagioclase. Papers of the Institute for Thermal Springs Research, No 45, 11–24.
Tazaki, K. & Fyfe, W.S. (1987) Primitive clay precursors formed on feldspar. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 24, 506–527.
Teng, H.H. (2004) Controls by saturation state on etch pit formation during calcite dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68, 253–262.
Teng, H.H., Fenter, P., Cheng, L. & Sturchio, N.C. (2001) Resolving orthoclase dissolution processes with atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 3459–3474.
Tomita, K. (1977) Experimental transformation of 2M sericite into a rectorite-type mixed-layer mineral by treatment with various salts. Clays and Clay Minerals, 25, 302–308.
Tsuzuki, Y., Nagasawa, K. & Isobe, K. (1968) Weathered biotite from Matsusaka, central Japan. Mineralogical Journal, 5, 365–382.
Turpault, M.P. & Trotignon, L. (1994) The dissolution of biotite single crystals in dilute HNO3 at 24°C; Evidence of an anisotropic corrosion process of micas in acidic solutions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 2761–2775.
Van Breemen, N., Finlay, R.D., Lundström, U.S., Jongmans, A.G., Giesler, R. & Melkerud, P.-A. (2000) Mycorrhizal weathering: a true case of mineral plant nutrition. Biogeochemistry, 49, 53–67.
Van Hees, P.A.W., Lundström, U.S. & Mörth CM. (2002) Dissolution of microcline and labradorite in a forest O horizon extract: the effect of naturally occurring organic acids. Chemical Geology, 189, 199–211.
Varadachari, C., Barman, A.K. & Ghosh, K. (1994) Weathering of silicate minerals by organic acids. II Nature of residual products. Geoderma, 61, 251–268.
Velbel, M.A. (1985) Geochemical mass balances and weathering rates in forested watersheds of the southern Blue Ridge. American Journal of Science, 285, 904–930.
Velbel, M.A. (1989) Weathering of hornblende to ferruginous products by a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism: petrography and stoichiometry. Clays and Clay Minerals, 37, 515–524.
Violante, P. & Wilson, M.J. (1983) Mineralogy of some Italian Andosols with special reference to the origin of the clay fraction. Geoderma, 29, 157–174.
Walker, G.F. (1949) The decomposition of biotite in the soil. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 693–703.
Walker, J.C.G., Hays, P.B. & Kasting, J.F. (1981) A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilisation of the Earth's surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 9776–9782.
Wallander, H. (2000) Use of strontium isotopes and foliar K content to estimate weathering of biotite induced by pine seedlings colonised by ectomycorrhizal fungi from two different soils. Plant and Soil, 222, 215–219.
Wallander, H. & Wickman, T. (1999) Biotite and microcline as potassium sources in ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Mycorrhiza, 9, 25–32.
Weed, S.B., Davey, C.B. & Cook, M.G. (1969) Weathering of micas by fungi. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 33, 702–706.
Welch, S.S. & Ullman, W.J. (1993) The effect of organic acids on plagioclase dissolution rates and stoichiometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 2725–2737.
Welch, S.A. & Banfield, J.F. (2002) Modification of olivine surface morphology and reactivity by microbial activity during microbial weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 213–221.
Welch, S.A., Barker, W.W. & Banfield, J.F. (1999) Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 1405–1419.
Wilson, M.J. (1966) The weathering of biotite in some Aberdeenshire soils. Mineralogical Magazine, 35, 1080–1093.
Wilson, M.J. (1969) A gibbsitic soil derived from the weathering of an ultrabasic rock on the island of Rhum. Scottish Journal of Geology, 5, 81–89.
Wilson, M.J. (1970) A study of rock weathering in a soil derived from a biotite-hornblende rock. I. Weathering of biotite. Clay Minerals, 8, 291–303.
Wilson, M.J. (1975) Chemical weathering of some primary rock-forming minerals. Soil Science, 119, 349–345.
Wilson, M.J. (2004) Weathering of rocks by lichens with special reference to stonework: a review. Land Reconstruction and Management, 3, 51–60.
Wilson, M.J. & Duthie, D.M.L. (1981) Some aspects of interstratal alteration of biotite in Old Red Sandstone. Scottish Journal of Geology, 17, 65–72.
Wilson, M.J. & Farmer, V.C. (1970) A study of weathering in a soil derived from a biotite-hornblende rock. II Weathering of hornblende. Clay Minerals, 8, 435–444.
Wilson, M.J. & Jones, D. (1983) Lichen weathering of minerals: Implications for pedogenesis. In “Residual Deposits: Surface Related Weathering Processes and Materials.” Special issue of the Journal of the Geological Society, 5–12.
Wilson, M.J. & Jones, D. (1984) The occurrence and significance of manganese oxalate in Pertusaria corallina (Lichenes). Pedobiologia, 26, 373–379.
Wilson, M.J. & McHardy, W.J. (1980) Experimental etching of a microcline-perthite and implications concerning natural weathering. Journal of Microscopy, 120, 291–302.
Wilson, M.J., Bain, D.C. & McHardy, W.J. (1971) Clay mineral formation in a deeply weathered boulder conglomerate in north east Scotland. Clays and Clay Minerals, 19, 345–352.
Wilson, M.J., Jones, D. & McHardy, W.J. (1981) The weathering of serpentinite b. Lecanora atra. The Lichenologist, 13, 167–176.
Wollast, R. (1967) Kinetics of the alteration of Kfeldspar in buffered solutions at low temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 31, 635–548.
Zhang, H., Bloom, P.R. & Nater, E.A. (1993) Change in surface area and dissolution rates during hornblende dissolution at pH 4.0. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 1681–1689.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Weathering of the primary rock-forming minerals: processes, products and rates

  • M. J. Wilson (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.