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Ordering of illite-smectite in Upper Jurassic Claystones from the North Sea

  • H. Lindgreen (a1) and P. L. Hansen (a2)

Abstract

Upper Jurassic claystones of Kimmeridgian-Volgian(-Ryazanian) age are the main source rocks for oil in the Central Trough, North Sea. Drill cuttings and cores from the depth interval 2368–4548 m, the interval from early-mature to peak oil generation, have been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of ion-milled rock samples, and by HRTEM and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) of dispersed illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layers isolated from the <0·2 µm fraction. Ordering parameters were determined by XRD profile simulation. TEM on shadowed particles, combined with XRD evidence, showed that dispersed I-S consists of a mixture of 10–70 Å thick particles, whereas HRTEM showed that intact bulk rock was dominated by 50–200 Å thick particles. Disruption, possibly along smectite planes, of the larger particles in the bulk rock formed the thin particles in dispersed I-S. HRTEM showed 20 and 30 Å periodic enhancement in the contrast of lattice fringes in bulk rock samples as well as in dispersed I-S crystals. These features were interpreted as ordered I-S crystals. Indications of disintegration of larger I-S particles during sample dispersion and of the presence of ordered I-S crystals in the intact bulk rock support the layer transformation mechanism for the conversion of smectite to illite.

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