Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Acid and alkali treatment of kaolins

  • M. Pentrák (a1), J. Madejová (a1) and P. Komadel (a1)

Abstract

Two kaolins containing kaolinites of different crystallinity, as confirmed by the Aparicio-Galán-Ferrell index, were treated in HCl and KOH solutions at 95º and 80ºC, respectively, for periods up to 36 h. Changes resulting from the treatments have been characterized by several methods. Fe occurs in the octahedral sheets of both kaolinites and dissolves similarly to Al. Lower structural ordering, more structural defects and particles of smaller average size and less regular shape are responsible for faster dissolution of KGa-2 in comparison to well ordered Gold Field (Tanzania) kaolinite. More Si than Al is dissolved in KOH from both kaolins after any dissolution time. An aluminosilicate (feldspathoid) phase is thought to occur in the material prepared from KGa-2 in KOH. Near-IR spectra provide very useful information on changes in the mineral structure upon the treatments, on the solid reaction products and on the adsorbed water molecules.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Aparicio, P. & Galán, E. (1999) Mineralogical interference on kaolinite crystallinity index measurements. Clays and Clay Minerals, 47, 1227.
Aparicio, P., Galán, E. & Ferrell, R.E. (2006) A new kaolinite order index based on XRD profile fitting. Clay Minerals, 41, 811817.
Bauer, A. & Berger, G. (1998) Kaolinite and smectite dissolution rate in high molar KOH solutions at 35° and 80°C. Applied Geochemistry, 13, 905916.
Bauer, A. & Velde, B. (1999) Smectite transformation in high molar KOH solutions. Clay Minerals, 34, 259273.
Bauer, A., Velde, B. & Berger, G. (1998) Kaolinite transformation in high molar KOH solutions. Applied Geochemistry, 13, 619629.
Bauluz, B., Mayayo, M.J., Yuste, A. & González López, J.M. (2008) Genesis of kaolinite from Albian sedimentary deposits of the Iberian Range (NE Spain): analysis by XRD, SEM and TEM. Clay Minerals, 43, 459475.
Brindley, G.W., Kao, C.C., Harrison, J.L., Lipsicas, M. & Raythatha, R. (1986) Relation between structural disorder and other characteristics of kaolinites and dickites. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34, 239249.
Delineau, T., Allard, T., Müller, J.P., Barres, O., Yvon, J. & Cases, J.M. (1994) FTIR reflectance vs. EPR studies of structural iron in kaolinites. Clays and Clay Minerals, 42, 308320.
Dubikova, M., Cambier, P., Šucha, V. & Çaploviçová, M. (2002) Experimental soil acidification. Applied Geochemistry, 17, 245257.
Ece, O.I., Nakagawa, Z.E. & Schroeder, P.A. (2003) Alteration of volcanic rocks and genesis of kaolin deposits in the Śile region, northern Istanbul, Turkey. I: Clay mineralogy. Clays and Clay Minerals, 51, 675688.
Farmer, V.C. (1974) The layer silicates. Pp. 331363 in: The Infrared Spectra of Minerals (Farmer, V.C., editor). The Mineralogical Society, London.
Farmer, V.C., Fraser, A.R. & Tait, J.M. (1979) Characterization of the chemical structures of natural and synthetic aluminosilicate gels and sols by infrared spectroscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Ada, 43, 13991586.
Furquim, S.A.C., Graham, R.C., Barbiero, L., Pereira de Queiroz Neto, J. & Valles, V. (2008) Mineralogy and genesis of smectites in an alkaline-saline environment of Pantanal Wetland, Brazil. Clays and Clay Minerals, 56, 579595.
Galán, E., Carretero, M.I. & Fernandez-Caliani, J.C. (1999) Effects of acid mine drainage on clay minerals suspended in the Tinto River (Rio Tinto, Spain), an experimental approach. Clay Minerals, 34, 99108.
Gates, W.P., Anderson, J.S., Raven, M.D. & Churchman, G.J. (2002) Mineralogy of a bentonite from Miles, Queensland, Australia and characterisation of its acid activation products. Applied Clay Science, 20, 189197.
Harvey, C.C. & Lagaly, G. (2006) Conventional applications. Pp. 979995 in: Handbook of Clay Science (Bergaya, F., Theng, B.K.G. & Lagaly, G., editors) Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Hillier, S. & Lumsdon, D.G. (2008) Distinguishing opaline silica from cristobalite in bentonites: a practical procedure and perspective based on NaOH dissolution. Clay Minerals, 43, 477486.
Hinckley, D.N. (1963) Variability in ‘crystallinity’ values among the kaolin deposits of the coastal plain of Georgia and South Carolina. Clays and Clay Minerals, 11, 229235.
Johnston, C.T., Elzea Kogel, J., Bish, D.L., Kogure, T. & Murray, H.H. (2008) Low-temperature FTIR study of kaolin-group minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals, 56, 470485.
Jozefaciuk, G. & Bowanko, G. (2002) Effect of acid and alkali treatment on surface areas and adsorption energies of selected minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals, 50, 771783.
Jozefaciuk, G. & Matyka-Sarzynska, D. (2006) Effect of acid treatment and alkali treatment on nanopore properties of selected minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals, 54, 220229.
Komadel, P., Stucki, J.W. & Çiçel, B. (1993) Readily HCl-soluble iron in the fine fractions of some Czech bentonites. Geologica Carpathica — Clays, 44, 1116.
Komadel, P., Madejová, J., Janek, M., Gates, W.P., Kirkpatrick, R.J. & Stucki, J.W. (1996) Dissolution of hectorite in inorganic acids. Clays and Clay Minerals, 44, 228236.
Madejová, J. & Komadel, P. (2001) Baseline studies of The Clay Minerals Society Source Clays: Infrared methods. Clays and Clay Minerals, 49, 410432.
Madejová, J., Kraus, I. & Komadel, P. (1995) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of dioctahedral smectites and illites from the main Slovak deposits. Geologica Carpathica — Clays, 4, 2332.
Madejová, J., Bujdák, J., Janek, M. & Komadel, P. (1998) Comparative FT-IR study of the structural modifications during acid treatment of dioctahedral smectites and hectorite. Spectrochimica Ada A, 54, 13971406.
Madejová, J., Janek, M., Komadel, P., Herbert, H.J. & Moog, H.C. (2002) FTIR analyses of water in MX-80 bentonite compacted from high salinary salt solution systems. Applied Clay Science, 20, 255271.
Madejová, J., Pentrák, M., Pálková, H. & Komadel, P. (2009) Near-infrared spectroscopy: A powerful tool in studies of acid-treated clay minerals. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 49, 211218.
Metz, V. & Ganor, J. (2001) Stirring effect on kaolinite dissolution rate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Ada, 65, 34753490.
Moll, W.F. Jr. (2001) Baseline studies of The Clay Minerals Society Source Clays: Geological origin. Clays and Clay Minerals, 49, 374380.
Murray, H.H. (1999) Applied clay mineralogy today and tomorrow. Clay Minerals, 34, 3949.
Murray, H.H. (2000) Traditional and new applications for kaolin, smectite, and palygorskite: a general overview. Applied Clay Science, 17, 207221.
Qiang, X. (1996) The environmental problems and countermeasures of mineral resources utilization in China. Chinese Geographical Science, 6, 97103.
Petit, S. & Decarreau, A. (1990) Hydrothermal (200°C) synthesis and crystal chemistry of iron-rich kaolinites. Clay Minerals, 25, 181196.
Petit, S, Decarreau, A., Martin, F. & Buchet, R. (2004) Refined relationship between the position of the fundamental OH stretching and the first overtones for clays. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 585592.
Sanz, J., Madani, A. & Serratosa, J.M. (1988) Aluminium- 27 and Silicon-29 Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of the kaolinite—mullite transformation. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 71, 418421.
Singh, B., Mackinnon, I.D.R. & Page, D. (1996) Process for forming alumino-silicate derivatives. AU Patent, WO 96/18577.
Tkáç, I., Komadel, P. & Müller, D. (1994) Acid-treated montmorillonites — a study by 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Clay Minerals, 29, 1119.
Zhao, H., Deng, Y., Harsh, J.B., Flury, M. & Boyle, J.S. (2004) Alteration of kaolinite to cancrinite and sodalite by simulated Hanford tank waste and its impact on cesium retention. Clays and Clay Minerals, 52, 113.

Keywords

Acid and alkali treatment of kaolins

  • M. Pentrák (a1), J. Madejová (a1) and P. Komadel (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed