Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Origin of illite in the loess from the Luochuan area, Loess Plateau, Central China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2018

Junfeng Ji
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposit Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Jun Chen
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposit Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Huayu Lu
Affiliation:
Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Academia Sinica, Xi'an, 710061, China

Abstract

Illite, the predominant component of the clay fraction of the Chinese loess, has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in 33 samples taken from the Holocene palaeosol (S0), the last glacial loess (L1) and the last interglacial palaeosol (S1) in the Louchuan loess section of the Loess Plateau in China. The XRD investigations indicate that it is mainly a 2M 1 dioctahedral mineral with crystallinity values ranging from 0.23 to 0.36°Δ2θ (CIS Index). The 2M 1 polytype illites with low IC values preclude a pedogenic formation of illites in the surface horizons of aridic and semi-aridic soils or deserts, and thus the clay mineral composition was largely determined by provenance. The illites are considered to be of detrital origin derived from pre-existing sediments and very low- to low-grade metamorphic rocks, eroded from the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau. The clay content of the loess and palaeosols was largely controlled by the strength of the winter monsoon, rather than by effects of in situ pedogenetic processes.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1999

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

An, Z.S. & Porter, S.C. (1997) Millennial-scale climate oscillations during the last interglaciation in central China. Geology, 25, 603606.Google Scholar
An, Z.S., Kukla, G.J., Porter, S.C. & Xiao, J.L. (1991) Magnetic suscptibility evidence of monsoon variation on the Loess Plateau of central China during the last 130 000 years. Quat. Res. 36, 2936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
An, Z.S., Liu, T.S., Lu, Y.C., Kukla, G., Wu, X.H. & Hua, Y.M. (1990) The long-term paleomonsoon variation recorded by the loess-paleosol sequence in central China. Quat. Int. 7/8, 9195.Google Scholar
Bronger, A. & Heinkele, T. (1990) Mineralogical and clay mineralogical aspects of loess research. Quat. Int. 7/8, 3752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, G. & Brindley, G.W. (1980) X-ray diffraction procedures for clay mineral identification. Pp. 305—360 in: Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification (Brindley, G.W. & Brown, G., editors). Mineralogical Society, London.Google Scholar
Forman, S.L. (1991) Late Pleistocene chronology of loess deposition near Luochuan, China. Quat. Res. 36, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ji, J.F., Chen, I. & Lu, H.Y. (1999) Origin of illite in the Luochuan loess section: evidence from TEM study. Chin. Sci. Bull. 44, 372375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jia, C.Z., editor (1997) Tectonic Characteristics and Petroleum, Tarim Basin, China. Pp. 81 — 106. Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
Kisch, H.J. (1991) Illite crystallinity: recommendations on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings, and interlaboratory samples. J. metam. Geol. 9, 665670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kukla, G. & An, Z.S. (1989) Loess stratigraphy in central China. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 72, 203225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levinson, A.A. (1955) Studies in the mica group: polymorphism among illites and hydrous micas. Am. Miner. 40, 4149.Google Scholar
Liu, C.Q., Masuda, A., Okada, A., Yabuki, S. & Fan, Z.L. (1994) Isotope geochemistry of Quaternary deposits from the arids lands in northern China. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 127, 2538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, T.S. and 30 others (1985) Loess and the Environment. China Ocean Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
Martinson, D.G., Pisias, N.G., Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., Moore, T.C. Jr. & Shackleton, N.J. (1987) Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages: development of a high-resolution 0 to 300,000-year chronostratigraphy. Quat. Res. 27, 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxwell, D.T. & Hower, J. (1967) High-grade diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of illite in the Precambrian Belt series. Am. Miner. 52, 843857.Google Scholar
Moore, D.M. & Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1989) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1963) Potassium-rubidium ratios and polymorphism in illites and microclines from the clay size fractions of Proterozoic carbonate rocks. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ada, 27, 10971112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, A. (1988) Illite in aridic soils, desert dusts and desert loess. Sedim. Geol. 59, 251259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, A. (1989) Illite in the hot-aridic soil environment. Soil Sci. 147, 126133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Środoń, J. & Eberl, D.D. (1984) Illite. Pp. 495-544 in: Micas (Bailey, S.W., editor). Reviews in Mineralogy, 13, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
Velde, B. (1965) Experimental determination of muscovite polymorphs stabilities. Am. Miner. 50, 436449.Google Scholar
Wang, H. (1986) The tectonic framework and the geotectonic units. Pp. 237—255 in: The Geology of China (Yang, Z., Cheng, Y. & Wang, H., editors). Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
Warr, L.N. & Rice, A.H.N. (1994) Interlaboratory standardization and calibration of clay mineral crystallinity and crystallite size data. J. metam. Geol. 12, 141152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weaver, C.E. & Broekstra, B.R. (1984) Illite-mica. Pp. 67—199 in: Shale Slate Metamorphism in Southern Appalachians. Weaver, C.E. & Associates, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Yoder, H.S. & Eugster, H.P. (1955) Synthetic and natural muscovites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ada, 8, 225280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoder, H.S. (1959) Experimental studies on micas: a synthesis. Clays Clay Miner. 6, 4260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 14 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 09th July 2018 - 17th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-fgqm6 Total loading time: 0.255 Render date: 2021-01-17T10:09:24.489Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Sun Jan 17 2021 09:54:44 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Origin of illite in the loess from the Luochuan area, Loess Plateau, Central China
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Origin of illite in the loess from the Luochuan area, Loess Plateau, Central China
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Origin of illite in the loess from the Luochuan area, Loess Plateau, Central China
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *