Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An Overview of Relations Between China and Japan, 1895–1945

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 February 2009

Extract

The relationship between China and Japan is a many-layered cake, impossible to eat all at once. This article will concentrate on the diplomatic layer of the relationship. Diplomatic history is essentially about the decisions of governments and the documents that are subsequently exchanged. Each of these aspects has its difficulties for the historian of East Asia. For substantial parts of the period under review “government” in a western sense hardly existed in China, while in Japan even the considered decisions of the government in Tokyo frequently failed to reflect the situation on the ground. In Japan's relations with China there was often a dual – if not a multiple – diplomacy at work where the army (among others) had an independent hand in fashioning “policy.”

Type
China and Japan: History, Trends and Prospects
Copyright
Copyright © The China Quarterly 1990

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1 Reynolds, D.R., “A golden age forgotten: Japan-China relations, 1898–1907,” Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 4th series, Vol. 2 (1987), pp. 93153.Google Scholar

2 Nish, I.H., The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War (London: Longman, 1987).Google Scholar

3 Resolution of the Japanese cabinet, 30 December 1903 in Nihon gaiko nempyo narabi ni shuyo bunsho (Japanese Diplomatic Chronology and Important Documents), 2 vols. (Tokyo: Foreign Ministry, 1955), Vol. 1, pp. 217–19.

4 Ibid.

5 White, J.A., The Diplomacy of the Russo-Japanese War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

6 Reynolds, “A golden age forgotten.”

7 Masaru, Ikei, “Japan's response to the Chinese Revolution of 1911,” Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 25 (1962), pp. 213227Google Scholar; Lowe, P.C., Great Britain and Japan, 1911–15 (London: Macmillan, 1969), pp. 6871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

8 Coox, A. and Conroy, H. (eds.), China and Japan: The Search for Balance Since World War I (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1978), pp. 98 ffGoogle Scholar; Okamoto Shumpei, “Ishibashi Tanzan and the Twenty-one Demands,” in Iriye, A. (ed.), The Chinese and the Japanese: Essays in Political and Cultural Interactions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), pp. 184198.Google Scholar

9 Coox and Conroy, China and Japan, pp. 98–99.

10 Borg, D. and Okamoto, S. (eds.) Pearl Harbor as History: Japanese-American Relations, 1931–41 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1973) pp. 132–33.Google Scholar

11 Conyngham Greene to Grey, 8 June and 1 August 1916 in British Foreign Office papers (Public Record Office, Kew), FO 800/68.

12 Yamagata Aritomo to Okuma, August 1914, “Tai-shi seisaku ikensho” in De Bary, W.T. (ed.), Sources of Japanese Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), pp. 714–16.Google Scholar

13 Akira, Baba, “Tai-ka kyoson kyoie shugi no hatan” (“Failure of the principles of co-existence and co-prosperity with China”), in Tochigi shigaku (Tochigi History), 1989, pp. 141–42.Google Scholar

14 Nish, I.H., Alliance in Decline (London: Athlone, 1972), pp. 274–76.Google Scholar

15 Minichiello, Sharon, Retreat from Reform: Patterns of Political Behavior in Inter-war Japan (Hawaii: Hawaii University Press, 1984), p. 50Google Scholar; articles by Katsumi, Usui and Chihiro, Hosoya, in I.H., Nish (ed.), Anglo-Japanese Alienation, 1917–51 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 7796Google Scholar and 10–18.

16 Baba Akira, “Tai-ka kyoson kyoei shugi no hatan,” pp. 136–192.

17 Nobuya, Bamba, Japanese Diplomacy in a Dilemma: New Light on Japan's China Policy, 1924–29 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1973), pp. 279282.Google Scholar

18 Bamba, Japanese Diplomacy, pp. 293–300; and Iriye, Akira, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 1921–31 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1965), pp. 151–57.Google Scholar

19 McCormack, G., Chang Tso-lin in North-East China, 1911–28 (Folkestone: Dawson, 1977), pp. 246–48.Google Scholar

20 Iriye, After Imperialism, Pt III.

21 Ibid. p. 276.

22 Diary of Sir Miles Lampson, 14 February 1932.

23 Japanese Government observations on Lytton report, 20 November 1932. trans. in Nish, , Japanese Foreign Policy, 1869–1942: Kasumigaseki to Miyakezaka (London: Routledge, 1977), pp. 298–99.Google Scholar

24 Japan to League of Nations, 27 March 1933, quoted in Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, pp. 299–300. Also Nish, , “The Showa Emperor and the end of the Manchurian Crisis,” Japan Forum, Vol. I (1989), pp. 265273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

25 Grew, J.C., Turbulent Era, 2 vols. (London: Hammond, 1953). Vol. II, pp. 957962.Google Scholar

26 Iriye, Akira in Robertson, E.M. (ed.), The Origins of the Second World War (London: Macmillan, 1971), pp. 251–52.Google Scholar

27 Cadogan to Vansittart, 29 April 1934, in Foreign Office papers, FO 800/293.

28 D. Borg and S. Okamoto (eds.) Pearl Harbor as History, pp. 139–141.

29 Ryoichi, Tobe, “Nikka Jihen ni okeru ‘peace feelers’” (“Peace feelers in relation to the China Incident”) in Kokusai Seiji (International Politics), No. 75 (1983), pp. 3048Google Scholar; Boyle, J.H., China and Japan at War, 1937–45 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972)Google Scholar; Bunker, G.F., The Peace Conspiracy: Wang Ching-wei and the China War, 1937–45 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

30 Bunker, The Peace Conspiracy, pp. 272–280.

31 Morley, J.W. (ed.), The China Quagmire: Japan's Expansion on the Asian Continent, 1933–41 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), p. xiii.Google Scholar

32 Lee, Chong-Sik, “Counterinsurgency in Manchuria: the Japanese experience, 1931–40,” RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Memorandum RM-5012-ARPA, January 1967.Google Scholar (I am grateful to Professor Marius Jansen for this reference.)

33 Shinkichi, Eto in J.W., Morley (ed.), Japan's Foreign Policy, 1868–1941 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), p. 242.Google Scholar

34 Baba Akira, “Tai-ka kyoson kyoei shugi no hatan,” pp. 136–38.

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 161 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-87htd Total loading time: 0.23 Render date: 2021-01-27T05:15:59.961Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

An Overview of Relations Between China and Japan, 1895–1945
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

An Overview of Relations Between China and Japan, 1895–1945
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

An Overview of Relations Between China and Japan, 1895–1945
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *