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Introduction: Masculinity and the Third Reich

  • Thomas Kühne (a1)
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I would like to express my deep gratitude to Andrew I. Port for his superior guidance in putting together this special issue and for his superb editing of my and all the other articles.



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1 Kimmel, Michael, The Gendered Society, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 6.

2 Influential monographs and anthologies in sociology include Brod, Harry, ed., The Making of Masculinities: The New Men's Studies (Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin, 1987); Brod, Harry and Kaufman, Michael, eds., Theorizing Masculinities (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994); in anthropology, see Gilmore, David D., Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990); Herdt, Gilbert H., Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981); in literary studies, see Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985); in history, see Stearns, Peter N., Be a Man! Males in Modern Societies (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1979); Mangan, J. A. and Walvon, James, eds., Manliness and Morality: Middle-class manliness in Britain and America, 1800–1940 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987); Roper, Michael and Tosh, John, eds., Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain since 1800 (London: Routledge, 1991).

3 Kimmel, Michael and Messner, Michael A., eds., Men's Lives, 9th ed. (Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013); Kimmel, Michael and Aronson, Amy, eds., Men and Masculinities: A Social, Cultural, and Historical Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio, 2004); Kimmel, Michael S., Hearn, Jeff, and Connell, R. W., eds., Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2004); Horlacher, Stefan, Jansen, Bettina, and Schwanebeck, Wieland, eds., Männlichkeit. Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch (Stuttgart: Metzler, 2016). The last is an excellent survey of the development of the field in different countries and disciplines, with no equivalent in English. Also see Peretz, Tal, “Why Study Men and Masculinities? A Theorized Research Review,” Graduate Journal of Science 12, no. 3 (2012): 3043.

4 Theweleit, Klaus, Male Fantasies, vol. I: Women, Floods, Bodies, History; vol. II: Male Bodies: Psychoanalyzing the White Terror, trans. Conway, Stephen (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989). The German original appeared as Männerphantasien, 2 vols. (Frankfurt/Main: Roter Stern, 1977–1978). The reception is scrutinized in Reichardt, Sven, “Klaus Theweleits ‘Männerphantasien’—ein Erfolgsbuch der 1970er-Jahre,” Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History 3 (2006): 401–21. For an early, yet still important critique, see Evans, Richard J., “Geschichte, Psychologie und Geschlechterbeziehungen,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 7, no. 3–4 (1981): 597606.

5 Koonz, Claudia, “A Tributary and a Mainstream: Gender, Public Memory, and Historiography of Nazi Germany,” in Gendering Modern German Historiography, ed. Hagemann, Karen and Quataert, Jean H. (New York: Berghahn, 2007), 151. This article is also useful for the debates in the 1980s.

6 Koonz, Claudia, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family, and Nazi Politics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987).

7 Grossmann, Atina, “Feminist Debates,” Gender & History 3, no. 3 (1991): 350–58; Saldern, Adelheid von, “Victims or Perpetrators? Controversies about the Role of Women in the Nazi State,” in Nazism and German Society, 1933–1945, ed. Crew, David F. (London: Routledge, 1994), 141–66; Stibbe, Mathew, Women in the Third Reich (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).

8 Schwarz, Gudrun, Eine Frau an seiner Seite. Ehefrauen in der „SS-Sippengemeinschaft“ (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 1997); Harvey, Elizabeth, Women and the Nazi East: Agents and Witnesses of Germanization (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003); Joshi, Vandani, Gender and Power in the Third Reich: Female Denouncers and the Gestapo (1933–45) (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003); Mailänder, Elissa, Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence: The Majdanek Concentration Camp, 1942–1944 (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2015); Lower, Wendy, Hitler's Furies: German Women in the Nazi Killing Fields (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2013).

9 Scott, Joan W., “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” American Historical Review 91, no. 5 (1986): 1053–75.

10 The discussion was initiated and shaped by Goldenberg, Myrna, “Different Horrors, Same Hell: Women Remembering the Holocaust,” in Thinking the Unthinkable: Meanings of the Holocaust, ed. Gottlieb, R. (New York: Paulist, 1991), 150–66; Rittner, Carol and Roth, John K., eds., Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust (New York: Paragon, 1993); Baumel, Judith Tydor, Double Jeopardy: Gender and the Holocaust (London: Valentine Mitchell, 1998); Ofer, Dalia and Weitzman, Leonore, eds., Women in the Holocaust (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998). Recent research surveys include Weitzman, Leonore J., “Women,” in The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies, ed. Hayes, Peter and Roth, John K. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 203–17; Caplan, Jane, “Gender and the Concentration Camps,” in Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, ed. Caplan, Jane and Wachsmann, Nikolaus (London: Routledge, 2010), 5881; Pine, Lisa, “Gender and the Holocaust: Male and Female Experiences of Auschwitz,” in Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Survey, ed. Randall, Amy E. (London: Bloomsbury, 2015), 3761.

11 Kaplan, Marion, “Gender: A Crucial Tool in Holocaust Research,” in Lessons and Legacies IV, ed. Thompson, Larry V. (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2003), 163–70; idem, Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); Tec, Nechama, Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003).

12 Hagemann, Karen and Schüler-Springorum, Stefanie, eds., Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in Twentieth-Century Germany (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 2002); Hagemann, Karen, Dudink, Stefan, and Rose, Sonya O., eds., Oxford Handbook of Gender, War and the Western World since 1600 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).

13 Margaret, and Higonnet, Patrice, “The Double Helix,” in Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars, ed. Higonnet, Margaret et al. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987), 3147.

14 Jeffords, Susan, The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989). On post-1945 Germany, see Moeller, Robert G., “The ‘Remasculinization’ of Germany in the 1950s: Introduction,” Signs 24, no. 1 (1998): 101–6; idem, “Heimkehr ins Vaterland: Die Remaskulinisierung Westdeutschlands in den fünfziger Jahren,” Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift 60, no. 2 (2001): 403–36; Frank Biess, “Men of Reconstruction, the Reconstruction of Men: Returning POWs in East and West Germany,” in Hagemann and Schüler-Springorum, Home/Front, 335–58.

15 Interest in the topic was spurred by the essayistic assessments by Mosse, George L., Fallen Soldiers: Shaping the Memory of the World Wars (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990); idem, The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

16 Bourke, Joanna, Dismembering the Male: Men's Bodies, Britain, and the Great War (London: Reaction, 1996).

17 Michael Roper and John Tosh, “Introduction: Historians and the Politics and Masculinity,” in Roper and Tosh, Manful Assertions, 1–24; Kühne, Thomas, “Männergeschichte als Geschlechtergeschichte,” in Männlichkeit im Wandel der Moderne, ed. Kühne, Thomas (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 1996), 730.

18 Carrigan, Tim, Connell, Bob, and Lee, John, “Towards a New Sociology of Masculinity,” Theory and Society 14, no. 5 (1985): 551–64; Connell, R. W., Gender and Power (Cambridge: Polity, 1987); idem, Masculinities (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); idem, “The Social Organization of Masculinity,” The Masculinities Reader, ed. Frank J. Barrett and Stephen Whitehead (Cambridge: Polity, 2001), 38–40; Connell, R. W. and Messerschmidt, James W., “Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept,” Gender & Society 19, no. 2 (2005): 829–59. Cf. Tosh, John, “Hegemonic Masculinity and the History of Gender,” in Masculinities in Politics and War: Gendering Modern History, ed. Dudink, Stefan, Hagemann, Karen, and Tosh, John (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), 4158. Also see Barrett, Frank J., “The Organizational Construction of Hegemonic Masculinity: The Case of the US Navy,” Gender, Work and Organization 3, no. 3 (1996): 129–42.

19 Reeser, Todd W., Masculinities in Theory. An Introduction (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 8, 12, 14, 39–40; Butler, Judith, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York: Routledge, 1990).

20 Halberstam, Judith, Female Masculinity (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998). Cf. Reeser, Masculinities in Theory, 119–43.

21 de Almeida, Miguel Vale, The Hegemonic Male: Masculinity in a Portuguese Town (Providence, RI: Berghahn, 1996), 116.

22 Collins, Patricia Hill and Bilge, Sirma, eds., I ntersectionality (Cambridge: Polity, 2016). Cf. Reeser, Masculinities in Theory, 144–70; Rose, Sonya O., What is Gender History? (Cambridge: Polity, 2010), 3655.

23 Reeser, Masculinities in Theory, 38–39, 45.

24 Canning, Kathleen, Gender History in Practice: Historical Perspectives on Bodies, Class, and Citizenship (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006), 15.

25 Frevert, Ute, “Männergeschichte oder die Suche nach dem ‘ersten’ Geschlecht,” in Was ist Gesellschaftsgeschichte? Positionen, Themen, Analysen, ed. Hettling, Manfred et al. (Munich: C. W. Beck, 1991), 3144; Kühne, Thomas, ed., Männergeschichte—Geschlechtergeschichte. Männlichkeit im Wandel der Moderne (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 1996); Erhart, Walter and Herrmann, Britta, eds., Wann ist der Mann ein Mann? Zur Geschichte der Männlichkeit (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1997); Dinges, Martin, ed., Männer—Macht—Körper. Hegemoniale Männlichkeiten vom Mittelalter bis heute (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 2005); Hanisch, Ernst, Männlichkeiten. Eine andere Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts (Cologne: Böhlau, 2005); Borutta, Manuel and Verheyen, Nina, eds., Die Präsenz der Gefühle. Männlichkeit und Emotion im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Bielefeld: transcript, 2010). Excellent surveys include Martschukat, Jürgen and Stieglitz, Olaf, Geschichte der Männlichkeiten (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 2008); Hagemann and Quataert, Gendering Modern German Historiography; Walter Erhart, “Deutschsprachige Männlichkeitsforschung,” in Horlacher, Jansen, and Schwanebeck, Männlichkeit, 11–25.

26 Some recent research is included in Dietrich, Anette and Heise, Ljiljana, eds., Männlichkeitskonstruktionen im Nationalsozialismus. Formen, Funktionen und Wirkungsmacht von Geschlechterkonstruktionen im Nationalsozialismus und ihre Reflektion in der pädagogischen Praxis (Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 2013). Three excellent literature reviews note the neglect of men and masculinities: Stibbe, Matthew, “In and Beyond the Racial State: Gender and National Socialism, 1933–1945,” Politics, Religion & Ideology 13, no. 2 (2012): 161; Saldern, Adelheid von, “Innovative Trends in Women's and Gender Studies of the National Socialist Era,” German History 27, no. 1 (2009): 84–112; Heineman, Elizabeth D., “Sexuality and Nazism: The Doubly Unspeakable,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11, no. 1–2 (2002): 2266.

27 Diehl, Paula, Macht—Mythos—Utopie. Die Körperbilder der SS-Männer (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2005); Wildmann, Daniel, Begehrte Körper. Konstruktion und Inszenierung des „arischen” Männerkörpers im „Dritten Reich“ (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 1998); Patel, Kiran Klaus, „Erziehungsziel: Männlichkeit. Körperbilder und Körperpraktiken im Nationalsozialismus und im New Deal in den USA,” in Körper im Nationalsozialismus. Bilder und Praxen, ed. Diehl, Paula (Munich: Funk, 2006), 229–48.

28 Heineman, Elizabeth, What Difference Does a Husband Make? Women and Marital Status in Nazi and Postwar Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999); Herzog, Dagmar, Sex After Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005); Mühlhäuser, Regina, “Between ‘Racial Awareness’ and Fantasies of Potency: Nazi Sexual Politics in the Occupied Territories of the Soviet Union, 1942–1945,” in Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century, ed. Herzog, Dagmar (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2009); idem, Eroberungen. Sexuelle Gewalttaten und intime Beziehungen deutscher Soldaten in der Sowjetunion (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2010).

29 Plant, Richard, The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War against Homosexuals (New York: Henry Holt, 1986); Jellonnek, Burkhard, Homosexuelle unter dem Hakenkreuz: Die Verfolgung von Homosexuellen im Dritten Reich (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1990); Grau, Günter, ed., Hidden Holocaust? Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933–45 (London: Cassell, 1995); Giles, Geoffrey, “The Denial of Homosexuality: Same-Sex Incidents in Himmler's SS and Police,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11, no. 1–2 (2002): 256–90; Nieden, Susanne zur, ed., Homosexualität und Staatsräson. Männlichkeit, Homophobie und Politik in Deutschland 1900–1945 (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 2005); Wackerfuss, Andrew, Stormtrooper Families—Homosexuality and Community in the Early Nazi Movement (New York: Harrington Park Press, 2015). Also see Jason Crouthamel's contribution to this issue.

30 Kühne, Thomas, “Kameradschaft–“das Beste im Leben des Mannes”. Die deutschen Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges in erfahrungs- und geschlechtergeschichtlicher Perspektive,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 22, no. 4 (1996): 504–29; idem, Kameradschaft: Die Soldaten des nationalsozialistischen Krieges und das 20. Jahrhundert (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006); idem, “Male Bonding and Shame Culture: Hitler's Soldiers and the Moral Basis of Genocidal Warfare,” in Ordinary People as Mass Murderers: Perpetrators in Comparative Perspectives, ed. Olaf Jensen, Claus-Christian W. Szejnmann, and Martin L. Davies (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 55–77; idem, Belonging and Genocide: Hitler's Community, 1918–1945 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010); idem, The Rise and Fall of Comradeship: Hitler's Soldiers, Male Bonding and Mass Violence in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017). Cf. Dröge, Martin, “Männlichkeit undVolksgemeinschaft’. Der Westfälische Landeshauptmann Karl Friedrich Kolbow (1899–1945): Biographie eines NS-Täters (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2015); Werner, Frank, “‘Hart müssen wir hier draußen sein.’ Soldatische Männlichkeit im Vernichtungskrieg 1939–1945,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 34, no. 1 (2008): 540; Dejung, Christof, Aktivdienst und Geschlechterordnung. Eine Kultur- und Alltagsgeschichte des Militärdiensts in der Schweiz, 1939–1945 (Zurich: Chronos, 2007).

31 Magnus Koch, “Männlichkeit und Verweigerung. Deserteure der Wehrmacht aus geschlechtergeschichtlicher Perspektive,” in Dietrich and Heise, Männlichkeitskonstruktionen im Nationalsozialismus, 83–98; idem, Fahnenfluchten. Deserteure der Wehrmacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2008). See also Fritsche, Maria, “Proving One's Manliness: Masculine Self-perceptions of Austrian Deserters in the Second World War,” Gender & History, 24, no. 1 (2012): 3555.

32 Todd Richard Ettelson, “The Nazi ‘New Man.’ Embodying Masculinity and Regulating Sexuality in the SA and SS, 1930–1939,” PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 2002; Dillon, Christopher, Dachau and the SS: A Schooling in Violence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

33 Wünschmann, Kim, Before Auschwitz: Jewish Prisoners in the Prewar Concentration Camps (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015); idem, “Männlichkeitskonstruktionen jüdischer Häftlinge in NS-Konzentrationslagern”; Dietrich and Heise, Männlichkeitskonstruktionen im Nationalsozialismus, 201–19; Carey, Maddy, Jewish Masculinity in the Holocaust: Between Destruction and Construction (London: Bloomsbury, 2017).

34 Browning, Christopher, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins, 1992). See also Welzer, Harald, Täter. Wie aus ganz normalen Menschen Massenmörder werden (Frankfurt/Main: S. Fischer, 2005).

35 Cf. Kühne, Belonging and Genocide, 84–87, and my contribution to this special issue.

36 See the nuanced reflections on the development of Holocaust perpetrator research since 1992 in Christopher Browning, “Twenty-Five Years Later,” in idem, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, rev. ed. (New York: Harper Perennial, 2017), 225–91.

37 For an attempt toward a gendered application, see Stephen R. Haynes, “Ordinary Masculinity: Gender Analysis and Holocaust Scholarship,” in Randall, Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century, 165–88. While Adam Jones in particular has drawn attention to gender selective killings, genocide studies have, more generally, only occasionally deployed the conceptual suggestions of men's studies; see Jones, Adam, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, 3rd ed. (London: Routledge, 2017), 625–59; Joeden-Forgey, Elisa von, “Gender and Genocide,” in The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies, ed. Bloxham, Donald and Moses, Dirk (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 6180.

38 Westermann, Edward B., Hitler's Police Battalions: Enforcing Racial War in the East (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005).

39 Crouthamel, Jason, An Intimate History of the Front: Masculinity, Sexuality, and German Soldiers in the First World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014); idem, “‘Comradeship’ and ‘Friendship’: Masculinity and Militarization in Germany's Homosexual Emancipation Movement after the First World War,” Gender & History 23, no. 1 (2011): 111–29.

40 See Michael James Geheran, “Betrayed Comradeship: German-Jewish World War I Veterans under Hitler,” PhD thesis, Clark University, 2016. On the historical context, see Baader, Benjamin Maria, Gillerman, Sharon, and Lerner, Paul, eds., Jewish Masculinities: German Jews, Gender, and History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014).

41 Hart, Mitchell B., The Healthy Jew: The Symbiosis of Judaism and Modern Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); Presner, Todd Samuel, Muscular Judaism: The Jewish Body and the Politics of Regeneration (London: Routledge, 2007); Wildmann, Daniel, Der veränderbare Körper. Jüdische Turner, Männlichkeit und das Wiedergewinnen von Geschichte in Deutschland um 1900 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009); Brenner, Michael and Reuveni, Gideon, eds., Emancipation through Muscles: Jews and Spirts in Europe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006); Kugelmass, Jack, ed., Jews, Sports, and the Rite of Citizenship (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007). Cf. Dutton, Kenneth R., The Perfectible Body: The Western Ideal of Male Physical Development (New York: Continuum, 1995); Budd, Michael Anton, The Sculpture Machine: Physical Culture and Body Politics in the Age of Empire (New York: New York University Press, 1997); Mangan, J. A., ed., Shaping the Superman: Fascist Body as Political Icon—Aryan Fascism (London: Frank Cass, 1999).

42 This question has been paradigmatically discussed with regard to the variety of, and competition among, different masculinities in various Jewish communities, including the American and the Israeli ones. See Imhoff, Sarah, Masculinity and the Making of American Judaism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017); Hakak, Yohai, Haredi Masculinities between Yeshiva, the Army, Work and Politics (Leiden: Brill, 2016); Nur, Ofer Nordheimer, Eros and Tragedy: Jewish Male Fantasies and the Masculine Revolution of Zionism (Boston, MA: Academic Studies Press, 2014); Brod, Harry and Zevit, Shawn Israel, eds., Brother Keepers: New Perspectives on Jewish Masculinity (Harrimen, TN: Men's Studies Press, 2010); Brod, Harry, ed., A Mensch Among Men: Explorations in Jewish Masculinity (Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1988).

I would like to express my deep gratitude to Andrew I. Port for his superior guidance in putting together this special issue and for his superb editing of my and all the other articles.

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Central European History
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