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Intraoperative echocardiographic coronary artery imaging in congenital and acquired heart disease

  • Deane Yim (a1), Luc Mertens (a2), Osami Honjo (a3) and Lynne E. Nield (a2)


Transoesophageal and epicardial echocardiography are indispensible intraoperative imaging modalities to guide paediatric heart disease surgeries and influence surgical decision-making. A less well-described role of intraoperative imaging is its utility in evaluating coronary artery patency and flow. Focused two-dimensional, colour, and spectral Doppler imaging of the coronary arteries should be performed during surgeries involving coronary manipulation or re-implantation, or in cases where there is unexpected ventricular dysfunction or electrographic signs concerning for ischaemia. Intraoperative imaging allows for any anatomical issues to be detected and addressed promptly in the operating room. Imaging of the coronary arteries should identify unobstructed coronary ostia and proximal course without kinking, angulation, narrowing, or significant calibre change to suggest stenosis or extrinsic compression from neighbouring structures. The aim of this review is to highlight the usefulness of transoesophageal and epicardial echocardiography in evaluating coronary artery patency and flow, provide a how-to guide for optimal imaging, and to introduce a practical guideline to achieve best clinical practice.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Dr Deane Yim, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Perth Children’s Hospital, 15 Hospital Avenue, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009, Australia. Tel: +61-8-6456 2222. E-mail:


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Intraoperative echocardiographic coronary artery imaging in congenital and acquired heart disease

  • Deane Yim (a1), Luc Mertens (a2), Osami Honjo (a3) and Lynne E. Nield (a2)


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