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First-stage palliation strategy for univentricular heart disease may impact risk for acute kidney injury

  • Bryan H. Goldstein (a1), Stuart L. Goldstein (a1) (a2), Prasad Devarajan (a2), Farhan Zafar (a1), David M. Kwiatkowski (a3), Bradley S. Marino (a4), David L. S. Morales (a1), Catherine D. Krawczeski (a3) and David S. Cooper (a1) (a2)...



Norwood palliation for patients with single ventricle heart disease is associated with a significant risk for acute kidney injury, which portends a worse prognosis. We sought to investigate the impact of hybrid stage I palliation (Hybrid) on acute kidney injury risk.


This study is a single-centre prospective case–control study of seven consecutive neonates with single ventricle undergoing Hybrid palliation. Levels of serum creatinine and four novel urinary biomarkers, namely neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-18, liver fatty acid-binding protein, and kidney injury molecule-1, were obtained before and after palliation. Acute kidney injury was defined as a ⩾50% increase in serum creatinine within 48 hours after the procedure. Data were compared with a contemporary cohort of 12 neonates with single ventricle who underwent Norwood palliation.


Patients who underwent Hybrid were more likely to be high-risk candidates (86 versus 25%, p=0.01) compared with those who underwent Norwood. Despite similar preoperative serum creatinine levels, there was a trend towards higher levels of postoperative peak serum creatinine (0.7 [0.63, 0.94] versus 0.56 [0.47, 0.74], p=0.06) and rate of acute kidney injury (67 versus 29%, p=0.17) in the Norwood cohort. Preoperative neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (58.4 [11, 86.3] versus 6.3 [5, 16.2], p=0.07) and interleukin-18 (30.6 [9.6, 167.2] versus 6.3 [6.3, 16.4], p=0.03) levels were higher in the Hybrid cohort. Nevertheless, longitudinal mixed-effect models demonstrated Hybrid palliation to be a protective factor against increased postoperative levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (estimate −1.8 [−3.0, −9.0], p<0.001) and liver fatty acid-binding protein (−49.3 [−89.7, −8.8], p=0.018).


In this single-centre case–control study, postoperative acute kidney injury risk did not differ significantly by single ventricle stage I treatment strategy; however, postoperative elevation in novel urinary biomarkers, consistent with subclinical kidney injury, was encountered in the Norwood cohort but not in the Hybrid cohort.


Corresponding author

Correspondence to: B. H. Goldstein, MD, The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 2003, Cincinnati, OH 45229, United States of America. Tel: 513 636 7072; Fax: 513 636 2410; E-mail:


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First-stage palliation strategy for univentricular heart disease may impact risk for acute kidney injury

  • Bryan H. Goldstein (a1), Stuart L. Goldstein (a1) (a2), Prasad Devarajan (a2), Farhan Zafar (a1), David M. Kwiatkowski (a3), Bradley S. Marino (a4), David L. S. Morales (a1), Catherine D. Krawczeski (a3) and David S. Cooper (a1) (a2)...


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