1. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization. 2001 sedation and anesthesia care standards. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): JCAHO, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2005.
2. Levine, DA. Novel monitoring techniques for use with procedural sedation. Curr Opin Pediatr 2005; 17: 351–354.
3. Krauss, B, Green, SM. Procedural sedation and analgesia in children. Lancet 2006; 367: 766–780.
4. Agrawal, D, Feldman, HA, Krauss, B, Waltzman, ML. Can bispectral index monitoring quantify depth of sedation during procedural sedation and analgesia in the pediatric emergency department? Ann Emerg Med 2004; 43: 247–255.
5. Malviya, S, Voepel-Lewis, T, Tait, AR, Merkel, S, Tremper, K, Naughton, N. Depth of sedation in children undergoing computed tomography: validity and reliability of the University of Michigan Sedation Scale. Br J Anesth 2002; 88: 241–245.
6. McDermott, NB, VanSickle, T, Motas, D, Friesen, RH. Validation of the bispectral index monitor during conscious and deep sedation in children. Anesth Analg 2003; 97: 39–43.
7. Overly, FL, Wright, RO, Connor, FA, Jay, GD, Linakis, JG. Bispectral analysis during deep sedation of pediatric oral surgery patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005; 63: 215–219.
8. Akin, A, Esmaoglu, A, Guler, G, Demircioglu, R, Narin, N, Boyaci, A. Propofol and propofol-ketamine in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Pediatr Cardiol 2005; 26: 553–557.
9. Aneja, R, Heard, AMB, Fletcher, JE, Heard, CMB. Sedation monitoring of children by the Bispectral Index in the pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2003; 4: 60–64.
10. Morse, Z, Kaizu, M, Sano, K, Kanri, T. BIS monitoring during midazolam and midazolam-ketamine conscious intravenous sedation for oral surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002; 94: 420–424.
11. Triltsch, AE, Nestmann, G, Orawa, H, et al. . Bispectral index versus Comfort score to determine the level of sedation in pediatric intensive care unit patients: a prospective study. Crit Care 2005; 9: R9–R17.
12. Miner, JR, Fringer, R, Siegel, T, Gaetz, A, Ling, L, Biros, M. Serial bispectral index scores in patients undergoing observation for sedative overdose in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med 2006; 24: 53–57.
13. Liu, J. Electroencephalogram bispectral analysis predicts the depth of midazolam-induced sedation. Anesthesiology 1996; 84: 64–69.
14. Johansen, JW, Sebel, PS. Development and clinical application of electroencephalographic (EEG) bispectrum monitoring. Anesthesiology 2000; 93: 1336–1344.
15. Sakai, M, Edmonds, HL, Tsueda, K, et al. . Effect of ketamine on clinical endpoints of hypnosis and EEG variables during propofol infusion. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999; 43: 212–216.
16. Friedberg, BL. The effect of a dissociative dose of ketamine on the bispectral index during propofol hypnosis. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11: 4–7.
17. Parker, RI, Mahan, RA, Giugliano, D, Parker, MM. Efficacy and safety of intravenous midazolam and ketamine as sedation for therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in children. Pediatrics 1997; 99: 427–432.
18. Cheuk, DKL, Wong, WHS, Ma, E, et al. . Use of midazolam and ketamine as sedation for children undergoing minor operative procedures. Support Care Cancer 2005; 13: 1001–1009.
19. Kissin, I. Depth of anesthesia and bispectral index monitoring. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 1114–1117.
20. Bahn, EL, Holt, KR. Procedural sedation and analgesia: a review and new concepts. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2005; 23: 503–517.
21. Steward, DJ. A simplified scoring system for the post-operative recovery room. Can Anaesth Soc J 1975; 22: 111–113.
22. Denman, WT, Swanson, EL, Rosow, D, Ezbicki, K, Connors, PD, Rosow, CE. Pediatric evaluation of the bispectral index (BIS) monitor and correlation of BIS with end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in infants and children. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 872–877.
23. Glass, PS, Bloom, M, Kearse, L, Rosow, C, Sebel, P, Manberg, P. Bispectral analysis measures sedation and memory effects of propofol, midazolam, isoflurane, and alfentanil in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 1997; 86: 836–847.
24. Tosun, Z, Akin, A, Guler, G, Esmaoglu, A, Boyaci, A. Dexmedetomidine-ketamine and propofol-ketamine combinations for anesthesia in spontaneously breathing pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20: 515–519.
25. Jobeir, A, Galal, MO, Bulbul, ZR, Solymar, L, Darwish, A, Schmaltz, AA. Use of low-dose ketamine and/or midazolam for pediatric cardiac catheterization: Is an anesthesiologist needed. Pediatr Cardiol 2003; 24: 236–243.
26. Auletta, JJ, O’Riordan, MA, Nieder, ML. Efficacy and safety of atropine-midazolam-ketamine in pediatric oncology patients. Curr Ther Res 1999; 60: 683–693.
27. Auden, SM, Sobczyk, WL, Solinger, RE, Goldsmith, LJ. Oral ketamine/midazolam is superior to intramuscular meperidine, promethazine,and chlorpromazine for pediatric cardiac catheterization. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 299–305.