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Indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in children with congenital and acquired heart disease: an expert consensus paper of the Imaging Working Group of the AEPC and the Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Section of the EACVI

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 March 2015

E.R. Valsangiacomo Buechel*
Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics and Children’s Research Centre, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
L. Grosse-Wortmann
The Labatt Family Heart Centre, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
S. Fratz
Department of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Klinikum an der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany
J. Eichhorn
Department of Paediatric, Klinikum Leverkusen, Leverkusen, Germany
S. Sarikouch
Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation, and Vascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
G.F. Greil
Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Rayne Institute, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK Department of Congenital Heart Disease, Evelina Children’s Hospital, London, UK
P. Beerbaum
Department of Paediatric Cardiology and Paediatric Intensive Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital, Hannover Medical University, Hannover, Germany
C. Bucciarelli-Ducci
Department of Cardiology, Bristol Heart Institute, NIHR Bristol Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Bristol and Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, NIHR Brompton Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
B. Bonello
Division of Cardiology, Timone Children’s Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France
L. Sieverding
Department of Paediatric Cardiology, University Children’s Hospital, Tuebingen, Germany
J. Schwitter
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology and Cardiac MR Center, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
W.A. Helbing
Department of Paediatrics, Division of Paediatric Cardiology and Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*Correspondence to: Tel: +41 44 266 7339; Fax: +41 44 266 7981; E-mail:,


This article provides expert opinion on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in young patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and in specific clinical situations. As peculiar challenges apply to imaging children, paediatric aspects are repeatedly discussed. The first section of the paper addresses settings and techniques, including the basic sequences used in paediatric CMR, safety, and sedation. In the second section, the indication, application, and clinical relevance of CMR in the most frequent CHD are discussed in detail. In the current era of multimodality imaging, the strengths of CMR are compared with other imaging modalities. At the end of each chapter, a brief summary with expert consensus key points is provided. The recommendations provided are strongly clinically oriented. The paper addresses not only imagers performing CMR, but also clinical cardiologists who want to know which information can be obtained by CMR and how to integrate it in clinical decision-making.

Review Article
The article has been co-published with permission in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging and Cardiology in the Young. All rights reserved in respect of Cardiology in the Young. © The Authors 2015, For European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, © The Author 2015. 

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Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. & The Author 2015.


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Indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in children with congenital and acquired heart disease: an expert consensus paper of the Imaging Working Group of the AEPC and the Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Section of the EACVI
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Indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in children with congenital and acquired heart disease: an expert consensus paper of the Imaging Working Group of the AEPC and the Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Section of the EACVI
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