A significant association between migraine and ischemic stroke has been demonstrated in population and case-control studies. The risk of ischemic stroke appears to be higher in migraine with aura (MWA) than migraine without aura (MwoA). Migraine-stroke comprises a number of distinct entities, including migrainous infarction, in which ischemic stroke occurs during an attack of MWA and migraine-related stroke, in which the causal link is less clear. Migrainous infarction accounts for only one-third of migraine-stroke, strokes may occur during attacks of MwoA, and a number of cerebrovascular disorders may present as MWA or MwoA. Migraine may occur as a consequence of conditions that are known to cause stroke; therefore it remains to be determined whether migraine predisposes to stroke in the absence of any known disease associations, if it is an epiphenomenon of an underlying stroke diathesis, or if it requires the presence of another stroke risk factor to produce cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, it is unclear if ischemia results in migraine more often than migraine results in ischemia. Careful clinical studies that evaluate this bidirectional relationship are needed to determine why migraine patients are subject to a higher risk of ischemic stroke.