1.Heffler, S, Levitt, K, Smith, S, et al. Health spending growth up in 1999; faster growth expected in the future. Health Affairs 1999;20(2):193–203.
4.McCaig, LF, Burt, CW.National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2002 emergency department summary. Adv Data 2004;340:1–34.
5.Legramante, JM, Morciano, L, Lucaroni, F, et al. Frequent use of emergency departments by the elderly population when continuing care is not well established. PLoS One 2016;11(12):e0165939.
6.Desai, MM, Lentzner, HR, Weeks, JD.Unmet need for personal assistance with activities of daily living among older adults. Gerontologist 2001;41(1):82–8.
8.Sinha, SK, Bennett, J, Ramsden, R, et al. Delivering improved patient and system outcomes for hospitalized older adults through an Acute Care for Elders Strategy. Healthc Manage Forum 2018;31(4):126–32.
9.American College of Emergency Physicians; American Geriatrics Society; Emergency Nurses Association; Society for Academic Emergency Medicine; Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines Task Force. Geriatric emergency department guidelines. Ann Emerg Med 2014;63(5):e7–25.
10.Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). CAEP endorsement process; 2019. Available at: https://caep.ca/endorsements/ (accessed December 3, 2019).
11.Platts-Mills, TF, Owens, ST, McBride, JM.A modern-day purgatory: older emergency department patients with non-operative injuries. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014;62(3):525–8.
12.Asomaning, N, Loftus, C.Identification of seniors at risk (ISAR) screening tool in the emergency department: implementation using the plan-do-study-act model and validation results. J Emerg Nurs 2014;40(4):357–64.e1.
13.Mowbray, F, Brousseau, A-A, Mercier, E, Melady, D, Émond, M, Costa, AP. Examining the relationship between triage acuity and frailty to inform the care of older emergency department patients: Findings from a large Canadian multisite cohort study. CJEM 2020;22(1):74–81.
14.Brousseau, A-A, Dent, E, Hubbard, R, et al. Identification of older adults with frailty in the emergency department using a frailty index: results from a multinational study. Age Aging 2017;47(2):242–8.
15.Afilalo, J, Mottillo, S, Xue, X, Colacone, A, Morais, JA, Delaney, JS, Afilalo, M. Frailty and adverse outcomes in older adults being discharged from the emergency department: A prospective cohort study. CJEM 2020;22(1):65–73.
16.Eagles, D, Perry, JJ, Sirois, MJ, et al. Timed Up and Go predicts functional decline in older patients presenting to the emergency department following minor traumadagger. Age Aging 2017;46(2):214–8.