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P010: Code Silver: Lessons learned from the design and implementation of Active Shooter Simulation In-Situ Training (ASSIST)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2017

N. Argintaru
Affiliation:
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
A. Petrosoniak
Affiliation:
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
C. Hicks
Affiliation:
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
K. White
Affiliation:
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
M. McGowan
Affiliation:
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
S.H. Gray
Affiliation:
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Abstract

Introduction: Hospital shootings are rare events that pose extreme and immediate risk to staff, patients and visitors. In 2015, the Ontario Hospital Association mandated all hospitals devise an armed assailant Code Silver protocol, an alert issued to mitigate risk and manage casualties. We describe the design and implementation of ASSIST (Active Shooter Simulation In-Situ Training), an institutional, full-scale hybrid simulation exercise to test hospital-wide response and readiness for an active shooter event, and identify latent safety threats (LSTs) related to the high-stakes alert and transport of internal trauma patients. Methods: A hospital-wide in-situ simulation was conducted at a Level 1 trauma centre in downtown Toronto. The two-hour exercise tested a draft Code Silver policy created by the hospital’s disaster planning committee, to identify missing elements and challenges with protocol implementation. The scenario consisted of a shooting during a hospital meeting with three casualties: a manikin with life-threatening head and abdomen gunshot wounds (GSWs), a standardized patient (SP) with hypotension from an abdominal GSW, and a second SP with minor injuries and significant psychological distress. The exercise piloted the use of a novel emergency department (ED)-based medical exfiltration team to transport internal victims to the trauma bay. The on-call trauma team provided medical care. Ethnographic observation of response by municipal police, hospital security, logistics and medical personnel was completed. LSTs were evaluated and categorized using video framework analysis. Feasibility was measured through debriefings and impact on ED workflow. Results: Seventy-six multidisciplinary medical and logistical staff and learners participated in this exercise. Using a framework analysis, the following LSTs were identified: 1) Significant communication difficulties within the shooting area, 2) Safe access and transport for internal casualties, 3) Difficulty accessing hospital resources (blood bank) 4) Challenges coordinating response with external agencies (police, EMS) and 5) Delay in setting up an off-site command centre. Conclusion: In situ simulation represents a novel approach to the development of Code Silver alert processes. Findings from ethnographic observations and a video-based analysis form a framework to address safety, logistical and medical response considerations.

Type
Poster Presentations
Copyright
Copyright © Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians 2017 

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P010: Code Silver: Lessons learned from the design and implementation of Active Shooter Simulation In-Situ Training (ASSIST)
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