1.Pozen, MW, D’agostino, RB, Mitchell, JB, Rosenfeld, M, Guglielmino, JT, Schwartz, ML, et al. The usefulness of a predictive instrument to reduce inappropriate admissions to the coronary care unit. Ann Intern Med 1980;92:238–42.
2.Goldman, L, Cook, EF, Brand, DA.A computer protocol to predict myocardial infarction in emergency department patients with chest pain. N Engl J Med 1988;318:797–803.
3.Heckerling, PS, Tape, TG, Wigston, RS.Clinical prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:664–70.
4.Bates, DW, Cook, EF, Goldman, L, Lee, TH.Predicting bacteremia in hospitalized patients: a prospectively validated model. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:495–500.
5.Wasson, JH, Sox, HC, Neff, RK, Goldman, L.Clinical prediction rules: application and methodological standards. N Engl J Med 1985;313:793–9.
6.Stiell, IG, Wells, GA.Methodologic standards for the development of clinical decision rules in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med 1999;33:437–47.
7.Feinstein, AR.Clinimetrics. New Haven (CT): Yale University Press; 1987.
8.Laupacis, A, Sekar, N, Stiell, IG.Clinical prediction rules: a review and suggested modifications of methodological standards. JAMA 1997;277:488–94.
9.McGinn, TG, Guyatt, GH, Wyer, PC, Naylor, CD, Stiell, IG, Richardson, WS.Users’ guides to the medical literature: XXII: How to use articles about clinical decision rules. JAMA 2000; 284(1):79–84.
10.Fischl, MA, Pitchenik, A, Gardner, LB.An index predicting relapse and need for hospitalization in patients with acute bronchial asthma. N Engl J Med 1981;305:783–99.
11.Rose, CC, Murphy, JG, Schwartz, JS.Performance of an index predicting the response of patients with acute bronchial asthma to intensive emergency department treatment. N Engl J Med 1984;310:573–7.
12.Centor, RM, Yarbrough, B, Wood, JP.Inability to predict relapse in acute asthma. N Engl J Med 1984;310:577–80.
13.Charlson, ME, Ales, KL, Simon, R, MacKenzie, CR.Why predictive indexes perform less well in validation studies. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:2155–61.
14.Poses, RM, Cebul, RD, Collins, M, Fager, SS.The importance of disease prevalence in transporting clinical prediction rules: the case of streptococcal pharyngitis. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:586–91.
15.Wigton, RS, Connor, JL, Centor, RM.Transportability of a decision rule for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:81–3.
16.Lee, TH.Evaluating decision aids: the next painful step. J Gen Intern Med 1990;5:528–9.
17.Stiell, IG, Wells, GA, Vandemheen, KL, Clement, CM, Lesiuk, H, De Maio, VJ, et al. The Canadian C-Spine Rule for radiography in alert and stable trauma patients. JAMA 2001;286(15):1841–8.
18.Stiell, IG, Wells, GA, McKnight, RD, Brison, R, Lesiuk, H, Clement, CM, et al. Canadian C-Spine Rule study for alert and stable trauma patients: I. Background and rationale. CJEM 2002;4:84–90.
19.Teasdale, G, Jennett, B.Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 1974;2:81–4.
20.Advanced Trauma Life Support instructor manual. 5th ed. Chicago: American College of Surgeons; 1993.
21.Jacobs, LM, Schwartz, R.Prospective analysis of acute cervical spine injury: a methodology to predict injury. Ann Emerg Med 1986;15:44–9.
22.Roberge, RJ, Wears, RC, Kelly, M, Evans, TC, Kenny, MA, Daffner, RD, et al. Selective application of cervical spine radiography in alert victims of blunt trauma: a prospective study. J Trauma 1988;28:784–8.
23.Cadoux, CG, White, JD, Hedberg, MC.High-yield roentgenographic criteria for cervical spine injuries. Ann Emerg Med 1987;16:738–42.
24.Brison, RJ, Hartling, L, Pickett, W.Need for cervical spine radiographs in persons injured in rear-end MVCs [abstract]. J Emerg Med 1998;16:225.
25.Bachulis, BL, Long, WB, Hynes, GD, Johnson, MC.Clinical indications for cervical spine radiographs in the traumatized patient. Am J Surg 1987;153:473–7.
26.Neifeld, GL, Keene, JG, Hevesy, G, Leikin, J, Proust, A, Thisted, RA.Cervical injury in head trauma. J Emerg Med 1988;6:203–7.
27.Kreipke, DL, Gillespie, KR, McCarthy, MC, Mail, JT, Lappas, JC, Broadie, TA.Reliability of indications for cervical spine films in trauma patients. J Trauma 1989;29:1438–9.
28.Bayless, P, Ray, VG.Incidence of cervical spine injuries in association with blunt head trauma. Am J Emerg Med 1989;7:139–42.
29.McNamara, RM, Heine, E, Esposito, B.Cervical spine injury and radiography in alert, high-risk patients. J Emerg Med 1990;8:177–82.
30.Saddison, D, Vanek, VW, Racanelli, JL.Clinical indications for cervical spine radiographs in alert trauma patients. Am Surg 1991;57:366–9.
31.McNamara, RM, O’Brien, MC, Davidheiser, S.Post-traumatic neck pain: a prospective and follow-up study. Ann Emerg Med 1988;17:906–11.
32.Shackford, SR, Wald, SL, Ross, SE, Cogbill, TH, Hoyt, DB, Morris, JA, et al. The clinical utility of computed tomographic scanning and neurologic examination in the management of patients with minor head injuries. J Trauma 1992;33:385–94.
33.White, AAI, Panjabi, M.Clinical biomechanics of the spine. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1990.
34.Stiell, IG, Lesiuk, H, Vandemheen, K, Worthington, JR, Verbeek, RP, Reardon, M, et al. Obtaining consensus for a definition of “clinically important cervical spine injury” in the CCC Study [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med 1999;6:435.
35.Stiell, IG, Vandemheen, K, Brison, R, Cass, DE, Dreyer, J, Eisenhauer, MA, et al. Validity evaluation of the cervical spine injury proxy outcome assessment tool in the CCC Study [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med 1999;6:434.
36.Kramer, MS, Feinstein, AR.Clinical biostatistics: LIV. The biostatistics of concordance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1982;29:111–23.
37.Landis, JR, Koch, GG.The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 1977;33:159–74.
38.Fleiss, JL.Statistical methods for rates and proportions. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1981.
39.Ciampi, A, Hogg, SA, McKinney, S, Thiffault, J.RECPAM: a computer program for recursive partition and amalgamation for censored survival data and other situations frequently occurring in biostatistics. I. Methods and program features. Comput Meth Prog Biomed 1988;26:239–56.
40.Ciampi, A, Chang, CH, Hogg, S, McKinney, S.Recursive partition: a versatile method for exploratory data analysis in biostatistics. In: MacNeill, IB, Umphrey, GJ, editors. Time series and econometric modelling. Vol 5, Biostatistics. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company; 1987. p. 23–50.
41.Friedman, JH.A recursive partitioning decision rule for nonpara-metric classification. IEEE Trans Comput 1977;16:404–8.
42.Ciampi, A, Thiffault, J, Nakache, JP, Asselain, B.Stratification by stepwise regression, correspondence analysis and recursive partition: a comparison of three methods of analysis for survival data with covariates. Comput Stat Data Anal 1986;4:185–204.
43.Flack, VF, Afifi, AA, Lachenbruch, PA, Schouten, HJA. Sample size determinations for the two rater kappa statistic. Psychometrika 1988;53:321–5.
44.Hoffman, JR, Schriger, DL, Mower, W, Luo, JS, Zucker, M.Lowrisk criteria for cervical-spine radiography in blunt trauma: a prospective study. Ann Emerg Med 1992;21:1454–60.
45.Hoffman, JR, Mower, W, Wolfson, AB, Todd, K, Zucker, M.Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. N Engl J Med 2000;343:94–9.
46.Hoffman, JR, Wolfson, AB, Todd, K, Mower, WR.Selective cervical spine radiography in blunt trauma: methodology of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS). Ann Emerg Med 1998; 32(4):461–9.
47.Stiell, IG, McKnight, RD, Wells, GA, Lesiuk, H, Vandemheen, K, Clement, C, et al. Application of the NEXUS low-risk criteria for cervical spine radiography in Canadian emergency departments [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med 2000;7:566.
48.Stiell, IG, Clement, C, Wells, GA, Morrison, L, Greenberg, GH, Dreyer, J, et al. Prospective validation of the NEXUS low-risk criteria for cervical spine radiography [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med 2002: In press.
49.Stiell, IG, Clement, C, Wells, GA, McKnight, RD, Brison, R, Worthington, J, et al. Multicenter prospective validation of the Canadian C-Spine Rule [abstract]. Acad Emerg Med 2002. In press.