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Undersowing rutabaga with white clover: impact on Delia radicum (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and its natural enemies1

  • Peggy L. Dixon (a1), Juanita R. Coady (a2), David J. Larson (a3) and Dean Spaner (a4)

Abstract

The cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.), is a serious pest of cruciferous crops in temperate regions of North America and Europe. The effects of undersowing rutabaga, Brassica napus L. subsp. rapifera Metzg. (Brassicaceae), with white clover, Trifolium repens L. (Leguminosae), on second-generation cabbage maggot and its natural enemies were studied in Newfoundland in 1997 and 1998. In 1997, totals of 1311 and 724 eggs were recovered from bare and undersown plots, respectively. More eggs were present in bare plots than undersown plots on various specific dates. In 1997, rutabagas from bare plots weighed more than those from undersown plots, although damage ratings were similar, suggesting that competition, not cabbage maggot feeding, caused the yield differences. In 1998, there were few cabbage maggots present and little damage or yield reduction in either treatment. Similar numbers of cabbage maggot pupae were extracted and reared from each treatment in each year. In 1997, of the pupae reared from undersown plots, 48% produced cabbage maggot flies, 14% produced parasitic Hymenoptera, and 8% produced Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); 19% of the pupae from bare plots produced cabbage maggot flies, 8% produced parasitic Hymenoptera, and 36% produced A. bilineata. More A. bilineata were captured in pitfall traps in bare plots than in undersown plots. The effect of clover on carabid beetles was species specific. There were more Bembidion lampros (Herbst) and Amara bifrons (Gyllenhal) in bare plots in 1997, and more Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) in undersown plots in both years. Despite consistently lower egg numbers in undersown plots than in bare plots, the numbers of pupae in the two treatments were similar at the end of the season. We speculate that this may be due to differential, density-dependent mortality of immature stages of cabbage maggot caused by predators and parasitoids.

La mouche du chou, Delia radicum (L.) est un ravageur important des cultures de crucifères dans les régions tempérées de l'Amérique du Nord et de l'Europe. Nous avons étudié les effets de sous-semis de trèfle blanc, Trifolium repens L. (Leguminosae) dans des cultures de rutabagas, Brassica napus L. subsp. rapifera Metzg. (Brassicaceae) sur des mouches du chou de seconde génération et leurs ennemis naturels à Terre-Neuve en 1997 et 1998. En 1997, nous avons récolté un total de 1311 oeufs dans les parcelles sans sous-semis et 724 oeufs dans celles avec sous-semis. Il y avait plus d'oeufs dans les parcelles sans sous-semis que dans celles qui en avaient, et ce à plusieurs dates spécifiques d'ensemencement des sous-semis. En 1997, les rutabagas provenant des parcelles sans sous-semis étaient plus lourds que ceux des parcelles sans sous-semis, bien que les cotes d'endommagement aient été semblables, ce qui laisse croire que c'est la compétition, et non l'alimentation de la mouche du chou, qui explique les différences de rendement. En 1998, il y avait peu de mouches du chou et il y a eu peu de dommage ou de réduction de rendement dans les deux types de conditions expérimentales. Nous avons extrait et mis en élevage un nombre semblable de pupes de la mouche du chou dans les deux types de parcelles au cours des deux années. En 1997, quarante-huit pour cent des pupes provenant des parcelles avec sous-semis ont produit des mouches du chou, 14 % des hyménoptères parasites et 8 % des Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal (Coleoptera : Staphylinidae); 19 % des pupes des parcelles sans sous-semis ont produit des mouches du chou, 8 % des hyménoptères parasites et 36 % des A. bilineata. Des pièges à fosse ont récolté plus d'A. bilineata dans les parcelles sans sous-semis que dans celles avec sous-semis. Les effets du trèfle sur les carabes variaient selon l'espèce. Il y avait plus de Bembidion lampros (Herbst) et d'Amara bifrons (Gyllenhal) dans les parcelles sans sous-semis en 1997 et plus de Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) dans les parcelles avec sous-semis au cours des deux années. Malgré le nombre toujours inférieur d'oeufs dans les parcelles avec sous-semis par comparaison aux parcelles sans sous-semis, le nombre de pupes était semblable dans les deux situations à la fin de la saison. Nous posons en hypothèse que ce phénomène s'explique par une mortalité différentielle dépendante de la densité des stages immatures de la mouche du chou causée par les prédateurs et les parasitoïdes.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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Corresponding author

2 Corresponding author (e-mail: dixonpl@agr.gc.ca).

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1

Contribution 155 of the Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre.

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References

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