Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

LIFE HISTORY, BEHAVIOUR, AND MORTALITY OF THE WESTERN ASH BARK BEETLE, HYLESINUS CALIFORNICUS (SWAINE) (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE), IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA

  • David W. Langor (a1) and Colin R. Hergert (a2)

Abstract

The life history, behaviour, and mortality of the western ash bark beetle, Hylesinus californicus (Swaine), was investigated in green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanicus var. subintergerrima (Vahl) Fern., in Calgary, Alberta. This species is univoltine with an apparent obligate diapause in the adult (overwintering) stage. Adults emerge from overwintering sites in the bases of ash boles from mid-April to mid-May and fly or walk up the bole to the crown where maturation feeding, mating, and reproduction occur. Eggs are present by late April, larvae by early May, pupae by mid-July, and new adults by late July. There are three larval instars. Beetles emerge from larval galleries in August and enter fresh phloem in uninfested parts of branches to feed for up to 6 weeks. Beetles leave feeding galleries from mid-September to early November and migrate by walking, falling, and flying to overwintering sites in the base of ash boles. Total mortality from egg to eclosed brood adult was 80.6%. Disease, parasitoids, and dehydration were the main causes of mortality. Eight hymenopterous parasitoid species were identified; the pteromalid wasp Rhaphitelus maculatus Walker was the most abundant. Tree hazard rating, maintenance of tree health, removal of susceptible and infested host material, and application of pesticides are suggested for management of western ash bark beetle populations.

Le cycle biologique, le comportement et la mortalité ont été étudiés chez le Scolyte du Frêne de l’Ouest, Hylesinus californicus (Swaine) sur des Frênes rouges, Fraxinus pennsylvanicus var, subintergerrima (Vahl) Fern,, à Calgary en Alberta. L’espèce est univoltine et il semble y avoir une diapause obligatoire chez les adultes qui survivent à l’hiver. Les adultes sortent de leur site d’hibernation à la base des troncs entre la mi-avril et la mi-mai et ils gagnent le sommet de l’arbre, en volant ou en marchant sur le tronc, pour y manger, atteindre leur maturité, s’accoupler et pondre. On peut trouver des oeufs dès la fin d’avril, des larves au début de mai, des nymphes vers la mi-juillet et de nouveaux adultes à la fin de juillet. Il y a trois stades larvaires. Les adultes sortent des tunnels larvaires en août et envahissent le phloème frais, dans des parties saines des branches, et s’y nourrissent jusqu’à 6 semaines. Les scolytes quittent leurs tunnels alimentaires entre la mi-septembre et le début de novembre et migrent alors vers leurs sites d’hibernation à la base des troncs en marchant, en se laissant tomber ou en volant. La mortalité totale du stade oeuf à la fin de l’émergence des adultes a été évaluée à 80,6%. La maladie, les parasitoïdes et la déshydratation sont les principales causes de la mortalité. Huit espèces de parasitoïdes hyménoptères ont été identifiées et la plus abondante est la guêpe ptéromalidée Rhaphitelus maculatus Walker. L’évaluation des dommages aux arbres, la préservation de la santé des arbres, l’amputation des parties infestées ou susceptibles de l’être et l’administration de pesticides sont recommandées comme stratégies d’aménagement des populations de Scolytes du Frêne de l’Ouest.

[Traduit par la rédaction]

Copyright

Corresponding author

1Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

References

Hide All
Berryman, A.A. 1968. Development of sampling techniques and life tables for the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The Canadian Entomologist 100: 11381147.
Bright, D.E. Jr., 1976. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 2: The Bark Beetles of Canada and Alaska (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canada Department of Agriculture Publication 1576: 241 pp.
Burks, B.D. 1979. Pteromalidae. pp. 768–834 in Krombein, K.V. et al. , (Eds.), Catalog of Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 2184 pp.
Cerezke, H.F., and Emond, F.J.. 1989. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories in 1987. Forestry Canada Information Report NOR–X–300: 25 pp.
Cole, W.E. 1975. Interpreting some mortality factor interactions within mountain pine beetle broods. Environmental Entomology 4: 97102.
Emond, F.J., and Cerezke, H.F.. 1989. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories in 1988 and Predictions for 1989. Forestry Canada Information Report NOR–X–303: 29 pp.
Emond, F.J., and Cerezke, H.F.. 1990. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories in 1989 and Predictions for 1990. Forestry Canada Information Report NOR–X–313: 23 pp.
Essig, E.O. 1917. The Olive Insects of California. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 283: 4364.
Harris, J.L. (Ed.). 1990. Western Committee on Crop Pests, 1990 Report. Regina, Sask. 149 pp.
Kelton, L.A. 1978. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 4: The Anthocoridae of Canada and Alaska. Canada Department of Agriculture Publication 1639: 101 pp. Ottawa, Ontario.
Langor, D.W. 1991. Arthropods and nematodes co-occurring with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex [Col., Scolytidae], in Newfoundland. Entomophaga 36: 303313.
Langor, D.W., and Raske, A.G.. 1987. Reproduction and development of the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in Newfoundland. The Canadian Entomologist 119: 985992.
Lanier, G.N. 1989. Trap trees for control of Dutch Elm Disease. Journal of Arboriculture 15: 105111.
Lanier, G.N., Sherman, J.F., Rabaglia, R.J., and Jones, A.H.. 1984. Insecticides for control of bark beetles that spread Dutch elm disease. Journal of Arboriculture 10: 265272.
Lekander, B. 1968. The number of larval instars in some bark beetles. Entomologiske Tidskrift 89: 2534.
McClelland, W.T., Hain, F.P., Demars, C.J., Fargo, W.S., Coulson, R.N., and Nebeker, T.E.. 1978. Sampling bark beetle emergence: A review of methodologies, a proposal for standardization and a new trap design. Entomological Society of America Bulletin 24: 137140.
McKnight, M.E., and Aarhus, D.G.. 1973. Bark beetles, Leperisinus californicus and L. criddlei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), attacking green ash in North Dakota. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 66: 955957.
Matthews, R.W. 1970. A revision of the genus Spathius in America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 4(5): 186.
Moody, B.H., and Cerezke, H.F.. 1986. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories in 1985 and Predictions for 1986. Canadian Forestry Service Information Report NOR–X–276: 22 pp.
Rudinsky, J.A., and Vernoff, S.. 1979. Evidence of a female-produced aggregative pheromone in Leperisinus californicus Swaine (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 55: 299303.
Ryan, B.F., Joiner, B.L., and Ryan, T.A. Jr., 1985. Minitab Handbook, 2nd ed. Duxbury Press, Boston, MA. 379 pp.
Schmitt, M.T., and Goyer, R.A.. 1983. Consumption rates and predatory habits of Scoloposcelis mississippensis and Lyctocoris elongatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on pine bark beetles. Environmental Entomology 12: 363367.
Swedenborg, P.D., Jones, R.L., Ascerno, M.E., and Landwehr, V.L.. 1988. Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Attraction to broodwood, host colonization behavior, and seasonal activity in central Minnesota. The Canadian Entomologist 120: 10411050.
Tagestad, A. 1988. North Dakota Forest Pest Conditions and Survey Report 1987. North Dakota For. Serv., Bottineau, ND. 38 pp.
Underhill, R.A. 1951. Life History and Habits of Leperisinus californicus Swaine and Leperisinus oregonus Blackman with a Revision of the Genus Leperisinus of North America North of Mexico. Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State College, Corvallis, OR. 84 pp.
Van Driesche, R.G. 1983. Meaning of “percent parasitism” in studies of insect parasitoids. Environmental Entomology 12: 16111622.
Vernoff, S. 1979. Sound Production in Leperisinus oregonus Blackman and L. californicus Swaine (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 138 pp.
Vernoff, S. 1980. Emergence, maturation, and parasites of two ash bark beetles, Leperisinus oregonus Blackman and L. californicus Swaine (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 56: 181184.
Vernoff, S., and Rudinsky, J.A.. 1980. Sound production and pairing behavior of Leperisinus californicus Swaine and L. oregonus Blackman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attacking Oregon ash. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie 90: 5874.
Wood, S.L. 1982. The Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a Taxonomic Monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 6: 1359 pp.
Yonker, C.R. 1990. Pheromone trapping applications for monitoring European elm bark beetle populations. Journal of Arboriculture 16: 148152.

LIFE HISTORY, BEHAVIOUR, AND MORTALITY OF THE WESTERN ASH BARK BEETLE, HYLESINUS CALIFORNICUS (SWAINE) (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE), IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA

  • David W. Langor (a1) and Colin R. Hergert (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed