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Efficacy of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) extract for control of insect defoliators of forest and ornamental trees

  • I.M. Scott (a1), B.V. Helson (a2), G.M. Strunz (a3), H. Finlay (a4), P.E. Sánchez-Vindas (a5), L. Poveda (a5), D.B. Lyons (a2), B.J.R. Philogène (a1) and J.T. Arnason (a1)...

Abstract

The acute toxicities of an extract obtained from a plant within the Piperaceae family and related synthetic analogues were tested against four common Canadian forest pest insects. The acute toxicity of the extract from black pepper, Piper nigrum L., was assessed after 1, 24, and 72 h by the percent larval mortality. The 24 h LC50 estimates for the P. nigrum extract were (in order of decreasing sensitivity) 0.012% for the introduced pine sawfly, Diprion similis (Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), 0.053% for the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hubner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), 0.282% for the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), and 0.998% for the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Torticidae). There was no significant increase in mortality after 72 h. Seventy percent of L. dispar larvae dropped off or moved from branches within 1 h of application of 0.2% P. nigrum extract, indicating that these compounds have a repellent effect. Pipercide and nor-pipercide were more toxic to L. dispar and M. disstria larvae than piperolein A and a P. sarmentosum Roxb. amide 72 h after either oral or topical administration of these compounds. Toxic effects of piperamides were more pronounced by oral ingestion. Ninety percent mortality of L. dispar larvae occurred following an oral dose of 5 µg pipercide in diet, whereas mortality was only 40% following topical treatment at 5 µg pipercide/insect. Whole Piper extracts might be useful for the control of sawflies and tent caterpillars in small-scale applications, based on the demonstrated efficacy and reduced risk potential.

Nous avons évalué la toxicité aiguë d'extraits d'une plante de la famille des Piperaceae et d'analogues synthétiques apparentés chez quatre espèces communes d'insectes ravageurs des forêts canadiennes. Nous avons déterminé la toxicité aiguë d'extraits du poivrier noir, Piper nigrum L., après 1, 24 et 72 h d'après le pourcentage de mortalité des larves. Les valeurs estimées de LC50 après 24 h pour les extraits de P. nigrum sont par ordre de sensibilité décroissante, 0,012 % chez le diprion importé du pin, Diprion similis (Hartig) (Hymenoptera : Diprionidae), 0,053 % chez la livrée des forêts, Malacosoma disstria Hubner (Lepidoptera : Lasiocampidae), 0,282 % chez la spongieuse, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera : Lymantriidae) et 0,998 % chez la tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épinette, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae). Il n'y a pas d'augmentation significative de la mortalité après 72 h. En moins d'une heure après le traitement, 70 % des larves de L. dispar se sont laissées choir ou ont quitté les branches après l'application d'un extrait de 0,2 % de P. nigrum, ce qui indique que ces composés ont un effet répulsif. Soixante-douze h après le traitement, le pipercide et le nor-pipercide sont plus toxiques pour les larves de L. dispar et de M. disstria que la pipéroléine A et un amide de P. sarmentosum Roxb. lors d'administrations orales ou topiques de ces composés. Les effets toxiques des piperamides sont plus prononcés lors d'ingestion par la bouche. Il se produit une mortalité de 90 % chez les larves de L. dispar après une dose orale de 5 µg de pipercide dans la ration alimentaire; par comparaison, la mortalité est de 40 % lors d'une administration topique de l'ordre de 5 µg de pipercide/insecte. Compte tenu de l'efficacité démontrée et du risque potentiel réduit des extraits entiers de Piper, ceux-ci pourraient s'avérer utiles pour la lutte contre les mouches-à-scie et les chenilles-à-tente pour des administrations à petite échelle.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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2 Correspondence author (e-mail: jarnason@science.uottawa.ca).

References

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Efficacy of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) extract for control of insect defoliators of forest and ornamental trees

  • I.M. Scott (a1), B.V. Helson (a2), G.M. Strunz (a3), H. Finlay (a4), P.E. Sánchez-Vindas (a5), L. Poveda (a5), D.B. Lyons (a2), B.J.R. Philogène (a1) and J.T. Arnason (a1)...

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