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The effects of sublethal and lethal doses of ivermectin on the reproductive physiology and larval development of the dung beetle Euoniticellus intermedius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

  • Imelda Martínez M. (a1), Jean-Pierre Lumaret (a2), Rosario Ortiz Zayas (a1) and Nassera Kadiri (a2)

Abstract

This study assesses the effects of the veterinary medical product ivermectin (IVM) in a range of concentrations on adult reproductive physiology and larval mortality of the dung beetle Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The ecotoxicological tests comprised eight treatments, including two controls and six increasing ivermectina concentrations (3.16, 10.0, 31.6, 63.2, 100, and 316 µg IVM/kg fresh dung). After 10 days of exposure, the females were dissected and the brood balls counted (fecundity). The brood balls were opened 15 days later and live larvae were counted to estimate larval mortality. Ivermectin altered the morphology of the ovary and stopped vitellogenesis, causing oocyte resorption and thus decreasing fecundity. The 30% threshold of decline in fecundity was reached at 115.9 µg IVM/kg dung, with no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) values of 10.0 and 31.6 µg IVM/kg dung, respectively. Larval sensitivity to ivermectin was higher, with a lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population of 85.9 μg IVM/kg dung, and NOEC and LOEC of 3.16 and 10.0 µg IVM/kg dung, respectively. After cattle were treated with ivermectin at the recommended dose, the ivermectin concentration in their dung during the two first weeks after administration far exceeded the thresholds determined for E. intermedius.

Les effets de l’ivermectine (IVM) sur la reproduction des femelles d’Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) ont été évalués. La mortalité des larves a également été mesurée. Huit traitements ont été réalisés, soit deux témoins et six concentrations d’ivermectine (3,16 ; 10,0 ; 31,6 ; 63,2 ; 100 et 316 µg IVM/kg de bouse fraîche). Après 10 jours d’exposition, les femelles ont été disséquées et les pelotes fécales fabriquées ont été décomptées (fécondité). Ces boules ont été ouvertes 15 jours plus tard et les larves vivantes dénombrées (estimation de la mortalité larvaire). L’ivermectine modifie la morphologie de l’ovaire et interrompt la vitellogenèse, provoquant une résorption des ovocytes et une diminution de la fécondité. On observe 30% de baisse de fécondité à 115.9 µg IVM/kg bouse fraîche, aucun effet observable (NOEC) à 10,0 µg IVM et un début d’effet (LOEC) à 31,6 µg IVM/kg. Le seuil de sensibilité des larves est un peu plus élevé, avec une concentration létale de 50% (CL50) de 85,9 µg IVM/kg bouse fraîche et des valeurs de NOEC et LOEC de 3,16 et 10,0 µg IVM/kg, respectivement. Après le traitement du bétail, la concentration d’ivermectine dans les bouses dépasse largement les seuils établis ici pour E. intermedius.

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1 Corresponding author (e-mail: imelda.martinez@inecol.mx)

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Subject editor: Andrew Smith

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References

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The effects of sublethal and lethal doses of ivermectin on the reproductive physiology and larval development of the dung beetle Euoniticellus intermedius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

  • Imelda Martínez M. (a1), Jean-Pierre Lumaret (a2), Rosario Ortiz Zayas (a1) and Nassera Kadiri (a2)

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