Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Economic injury levels for pea aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as direct pests of commercial dry peas (Fabaceae) during reproductive growth stages in the Pacific Northwest of North America

  • Bradley S. Stokes (a1), Edward J. Bechinski (a1) and Sanford D. Eigenbrode (a1)

Abstract

Empirically-based economic injury levels are lacking for pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as a direct pest of dry peas, Pisum sativum Linnaeus (Fabaceae). To address this need, the relationship between pea aphid density and yield of dry pea (cultivar Aragorn) were quantified by encaging pea aphids at varying densities for 17-day infestation periods during 2009 and 2010 in Moscow, Idaho, United States of America. Pea aphid density after infestation at the early reproductive stage of the crop (x) significantly reduced dry pea seed yield (relative weight of US #1 dry peas, y): y = 0.7733 − 0.00998x + 0.000037x2. Economic injury levels were computed based on this relationship and incorporating the cost of control, crop market value, insecticide efficacy, and crop yield potential. The resulting economic injury levels ranged from five to 19 pea aphids per plant at the start of early reproductive growth stages of dry peas. For usability these were converted to sweep net sample size equivalents of 86–307 pea aphids per twenty-five 180-degree sweeps with a standard sweep net. These economic injury levels are applicable in the inland Pacific Northwest, United States of America, where they were developed and likely in other regions with similar climatic and agronomic conditions.

Copyright

Corresponding author

1Corresponding author (e-mail: bstokes@uidaho.edu)

Footnotes

Hide All

Subject editor: Julia Mlynarek

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Bechinski, E.J. 2000. Designing and delivering in-the-field scouting programs. In Handbook of sampling methods for arthropods in agriculture. Edited by Pedigo, L.P. and Buntin, D.G.. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America. pp. 683706.
Bragg, D.E. and Burns, J.W. 1998. Control of insects on spring peas. Arthropod Management Tests, 23(1): 250251. https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/23.1.250.
Bragg, D.E. and Burns, J.W. 1999. Control of insects in spring dry peas. Arthropod Management Tests, 24(1): F75. https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/24.1.F75.
Bragg, D.E. and Burns, J.W. 2000a. Control of insects on spring dry peas. Arthropod Management Tests, 25(1): F120. https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/25.1.F120.
Bragg, D.E. and Burns, J.W. 2000b. Control of insects on traditional and semi-leafless spring dry peas. Arthropod Management Tests, 25(1): F121. https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/25.1.F121.
Campbell, A. and Mackauer, M. 1975. Thermal constants for development of the pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) and some of its parasites. The Canadian Entomologist, 107: 419423.
Clement, S.L. 2006. Pea aphid outbreaks and virus epidemics on peas in the US Pacific Northwest: histories, mysteries, and challenges [online]. Plant Health Progress, 7. Available from https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PHP-2006-1018-01-RV [accessed 10 January 2019].
Dudley, J.E. and Bronson, T.E. 1943. The pea aphid on peas and methods for its control. United States Department of Agriculture Farmers Bulletin, 1945: 113.
Eigenbrode, S.D. and Ding, H. 2005. Pea aphid control. Arthropod Management Tests, 30(1): F56. https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/30.1.F56.
Eigenbrode, S.D. and Ding, H. 2006. Pea aphid control. Arthropod Management Tests, 31(1): F30. https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/31.1.F30.
Homan, H.W., Stoltz, R.L., and Schotzko, D.J. 1992. Aphids on peas and lentils and their control. Current Information Series, 748. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America.
Howard, R.J. and Garland, A.J. 1994. Diseases and pests of vegetable crops in Canada. Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Knott, C.M. 1987. A key for stages of development of the pea (Pisum sativum). Annals of Applied Biology, 111: 233245.
Lamb, R.J., MacKay, P.A., and Gerber, G.H. 1987. Are development and growth of pea aphids, Acrythosiphon pisum, in North America adapted to local temperatures? Oecologia, 72: 170177.
Lee, G.H. and Bechinski, E.J. 1998. Bioeconomics of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on spring barley on northern Idaho. In Response model for an introduced pest – the Russian wheat aphid. Edited by Quisenberry, S.S. and Peairs, F.B.. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, Maryland, United States of America. Pp. 392411.
Maiteki, G.A. and Lamb, R.J. 1985a. Growth stages of field peas sensitive to damage by the pea aphid, Acrythosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 78: 14421448.
Maiteki, G.A. and Lamb, R.J. 1985b. Spray timing and economic threshold for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae), on field peas in Manitoba. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78: 14491454.
Matthews, R.V. and Kurtz, T.E. 2011. Idaho Agricultural Statistics. United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service Idaho Field Office, Boise, Idaho, United States of America.
Meier, U. 2001. Growth stages of mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemical Industry Monograph. Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Berlin, Germany.
Painter, K.M. 2009. EBB1-SP-09 spring peas. Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Sociology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America.
Patterson, P.E. and Painter, K.M. 2010. Idaho crop input price summary for 2010. University of Idaho Agricultural Economics Extension Series, 10–02: 126.
Pedigo, L.P., Hutchins, S.H., and Higley, L.G. 1986. Economic injury levels in theory and practice. Annual Review of Entomology, 31: 341368.
Portman, R.W. and Manis, H.C. 1954. Idaho recommendations for insect control. Extension Publication. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America.
Poston, F.L., Pedigo, L.P., and Welch, S.M. 1983. Economic injury levels: reality and practicality. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 29: 4953.
Rosenheim, J.A., Parsa, S., Forbes, A.A., Krimmel, W.A., Law, Y.H., Segoli, M., et al. 2011. Ecoinformatics for integrated pest management: expanding the applied insect ecologist’s tool-kit. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104: 331342.
SAS Institute. 2012. SAS version 9.2. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, United States of America.
Siddiqui, W.H., Barlow, C.A., and Randolph, P.A. 1973. Effects of some constant and altering temperatures on population growth of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae). The Canadian Entomologist, 105:145156.
Soroka, J.J. and Mackay, P.A. 1990. Growth of pea aphid, Acrythosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae), populations on caged plants of six cultivars of field peas and the effects of pea aphids on harvest components of caged field peas. The Canadian Entomology, 122: 11931199.
Southwood, T.R.E. and Norton, G.A. 1973. Economic aspects of pest management strategies and decisions. Memoirs of the Ecological Society of Australia, 1: 168184.
Stokes, B.S., Bechinski, E.J., and Eigenbrode, S.D. 2013. Derivation and validation of a binomial sequential decision plan for managing pea aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as direct pests of dry pea (Fabales: Fabaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106: 26132620.
United States Department of Agriculture. 2014. United States standards for whole dry peas, split peas, and lentils [online]. Available from www.gipsa.usda.gov/fgis/standards/wholedrypeas.pdf [accessed 15 August 2018].
United States Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2018a. Crop production 2017 summary. United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America.
United States Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2018b. Crop values 2017 summary. United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America.
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Stokes et al. supplementary material
Tables S1-S2

 PDF (158 KB)
158 KB

Economic injury levels for pea aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as direct pests of commercial dry peas (Fabaceae) during reproductive growth stages in the Pacific Northwest of North America

  • Bradley S. Stokes (a1), Edward J. Bechinski (a1) and Sanford D. Eigenbrode (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed