Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Chemical control in forest pest management

  • Stephen B. Holmes (a1) and Chris J.K. MacQuarrie (a1)

Abstract

Chemical insecticides have been an important tool in the management of forest insect pests in Canadian forests. Aerial application of insecticides began in the 1920s and expanded greatly after World War II with the widespread adoption of DDT primarily for the suppression of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and other defoliating insects. Significant progress was made in the development of new chemical insecticides and formulations including fenitrothion and tebufenozide, as well as technology for the application of insecticides against various insect pests. However, widespread opposition to the use of chemical insecticides in forest management has led to significant reductions in the number of insecticides registered for use in Canadian forests. Developments in the past 20 years have focussed on new insecticides, formulations, and technologies that seek to limit the impacts on non-target organisms and subsequent ecosystem effects. These developments have resulted in significant improvements in the management of traditional management targets, such as the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens); Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) but also the management of invasive species, especially wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae).

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Chemical control in forest pest management
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Chemical control in forest pest management
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Chemical control in forest pest management
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

2 Corresponding author (e-mail: Christian.MacQuarrie@canada.ca).

Footnotes

Hide All

Subject editor: David Langor

1

Retired

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Addison, J.A. 1996. Safety testing of tebufenozide, a new molt-inducing insecticide, for effects on nontarget forest soil invertebrates. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 33: 5561. doi:10.1006/eesa.1996.0006.
Anonymous. 1992. Permethrin – technical reference. Report CPPA-FPMI-TR-8. Joint report of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Montreal, Quebec. Canada and Forestry Canada Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Anonymous. 1993. Registration status of fenitrothion insecticide. Discussion Document D93-01. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Plant Industry Directorate Information Division, Nepean, Ontario, Canada.
Anonymous. 1995. Registration status of fenitrothion insecticide. Decision Document E95-01. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Plant Industry Directorate Information Division, Nepean, Ontario, Canada.
Anonymous. 2007. Chemical watch fact sheet: rotenone [online]. Available from http://www.beyondpesticides.org/pesticides/factsheets/Rotenone.pdf [accessed 6 March 2013].
Armstrong, J.A. 1970. The operational application of candidate insecticides for the control of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.). In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 29 October 1970, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Fisheries and Forestry Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 11.
Armstrong, J.A. and Ives, W.G.H. 1995. Forest insect pests in Canada. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Armstrong, J.A. and Nigam, P.C. 1975. The effectiveness of the aerial application of Orthene® against spruce budworm at Petawawa Forest Experiment Station during 1974. Information Report CC-X-82. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Beltrán, E., Ibáñez, M., Gracia-Lor, E., Sancho, J.V., Hernández, F., and Thompson, D.G. 2014. Application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in assessment of potential use of azadirachtins (TreeAzinTM) against Asian longhorned beetle. Analytical Methods, 6: 80638071. doi:10.1039/C4AY01553C.
Blais, J.R. 1983. Trends in the frequency, extent, and severity of spruce budworm outbreaks in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13: 539547. doi:10.1139/x83-079.
Blais, J.R., Benoit, P., and Martineau, R. 1975. Aerial control operations against the spruce budworm in Quebec. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 113125.
Booth, M. and Goettel, M. 2012. Control of red elm bark weevil (Magdalis armicollis) in American elm (Ulmus americana) by trunk injection of azadirachtin. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 38: 255257.
Booth, M. and Johnson, D. 2009. Pressurized-canister trunk injection of acephate, and changes in abundance of red elm bark weevil (Magdalis armicollis) on American elm (Ulmus americana). Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 35: 148151.
British Columbia Ministry of Forests. 1995. Bark beetle management guidebook. British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, Resources Management Branch, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Buckner, C.H. and McLeod, B.B. 1975. Impact of aerial applications of Orthene® upon non-target organisms. Information Report CC-X-104. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Busby, D.G., Holmes, S.B., Pearce, P.A., and Fleming, R.A. 1987. The effect of aerial applications of Zectran® on brain cholinesterase activity in forest songbirds. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 16: 623629. doi:10.1007/BF01055819.
Busby, D.G., Pearce, P.A., and Garrity, N.R. 1981. Brain cholinesterase response in songbirds exposed to experimental fenitrothion spraying in New Brunswick, Canada. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 26: 401406. doi:10.1007/BF01622110.
Busby, D.G., Pearce, P.A., Garrity, N.R., and Reynolds, L.M. 1983. Effect of an organophosphorus insecticide on brain cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrows exposed to aerial forest spraying. Journal of Applied Ecology, 20: 255263. doi:10.2307/2403391.
Busby, D.G., White, L.M., and Pearce, P.A. 1990. Effects of aerial spraying of fenitrothion on breeding white-throated sparrows. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27: 743755. doi:10.2307/2404316.
Cadogan, B.L. 1986a. Control of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in eastern Canada with the experimental mexacarbate formulation Zectran UCZF19. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79: 726730. doi:10.1093/jee/79.3.726.
Cadogan, B.L. 1986b. Relative field efficacies of Sumithion 20% flowable and Sumithion technical formulations against spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 118: 11431149. doi:10.4039/Ent1181143-11.
Cadogan, B.L. 1987. Experimental aerial application of Matacil flowable insecticide to control spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Crop Protection, 6: 130135. doi:10.1016/0261-2194(87)90111-6.
Cadogan, B.L. 1995. Aerial control equipment. In Forest insect pests in Canada. Edited by J.A. Armstrong and W.G.H. Ives. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 539543.
Cadogan, B.L., Retnakaran, A., and Meating, J.H. 1997. Efficacy of RH-5992, a new insect growth regulator against spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a boreal forest. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90: 551559. doi:10.1093/jee/90.2.551.
Cadogan, B.L., Scharbach, R.D., Krause, R.E., and Knowles, K.R. 2002. Evaluation of tebufenozide carry-over and residual effects on spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 95: 578586. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-95.3.578.
Cadogan, B.L., Sundaram, K.M.S., Mickle, R.E., Robinson, A.G., Knowles, K.R., and Scharbach, R.D. 1998a. Efficacy of tebufenozide applied by aircraft using only upwind atomizers to control spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Crop Protection, 17: 315321. doi:10.1016/S0261-2194(98)00019-2.
Cadogan, B.L., Thompson, D., Retnakaran, A., Scharbach, R.D., Robinson, A., and Staznik, B. 1998b. Deposition of aerially applied tebufenozide (RH-5992) on balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and its control of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]). Pesticide Science, 53: 8090. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199805)53:1<80::AID-PS736>3.0.CO;2-B.
Carrow, J.R. 1974. Aerial spraying operations against blackheaded budworm on Vancouver Island – 1975. Information Report BC-X-101. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Carson, R. 1962. Silent spring. Houghton Mifflon, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Castilli, J.F. and Vigod, T. 1987. Pesticides in Canada: an examination of federal law and policy. Protection of Life Series. Law Reform Commission of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Chang, W.-Y., Lantz, V.A., and MacLean, D.A. 2009. Public attitudes about forest pest outbreaks and control: case studies in two Canadian provinces. Forest Ecology and Management, 257: 13331343. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2008.11.031.
Crummey, H.J. 1986. Information on Newfoundland’s 1985 operational spray program against eastern hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria fiscelleria (Guen.). In Report of the thirteenth annual forest pest control forum, 19–21 November 1985, Ottawa, Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 70–75.
Crummey, H.J. 1987. Insect control program in Newfoundland in 1986. In Report of the fourteenth annual forest pest control forum, 18–20 November 1986, Ottawa, Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 37–46.
Crummey, H.J. 1988. Insect control program in Newfoundland in 1987. In Report of the fifteenth annual forest pest control forum, 17–19 November 1987, Ottawa, Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 64–76.
Crummey, H.J. 1989. Hemlock looper control program in Newfoundland in 1988. In Report of the sixteenth annual forest pest control forum, 15–17 November 1988, Ottawa, Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 111–121.
Crummey, H.J. 2002. Newfoundland: status of forest insect activity in 2001 and preliminary outlook for 2002. In Proceedings of the forest pest management forum 2001, 27–29 November 2001, Ottawa, Ontario. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 272–280.
Crummey, H.J. 2003. Newfoundland: status of forest insect activity in 2002 and preliminary outlook for 2003. In Proceedings of the forest pest management forum 2002, 13–15 November 2002, Ottawa, Ontario. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 160–169.
Crummey, H.J. 2004. Newfoundland and Labrador: status of forest insect activity in 2003 and preliminary outlook for 2004. In Proceedings of the forest pest management forum 2003, 2–4 December 2003, Ottawa, Ontario. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada. Pp. 175–184.
Dallaire, R., Labrecque, A., Marcotte, M., Bauce, E., and Delisle, J. 2004. The sublethal effects of tebufenozide on the precopulatory and copulatory activities of Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 112: 169181. doi:10.1111/j.0013-8703.2004.00193.x.
DeBoo, R.F. 1975. Plantation research: XV. Experimental aerial applications of methomyl, phoxim and trichlorfon for control of Choristoneura fumiferana on white spruce in Quebec, 1975. Information Report CC-X-105. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
DeBoo, R.F. 1980. Experimental aerial applications of permethrin for control of Choristoneura fumiferana in Quebec, 1976–1977. Information Report FPM-X-41. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
DeBoo, R.F. and Campbell, L.M. 1974. Plantation research: XII. Experimental applications of insecticides by mistblower for control of Choristoneura fumiferana on white spruce in Quebec, 1974. Information Report CC-X-88. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
DeBoo, R.F. and Hildahl, V. 1967. Aerial spraying for control of the jack-pine budworm in Manitoba. Manitoba Entomologist, 1: 2126.
DeBoo, R.F. and Taylor, S.P. 1995. Insect control in British Columbia, 1974–1988. In Forest insect pests in Canada. Edited by J.A. Armstrong and W.G.H. Ives. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 709716.
Dixon, C. and Irving, H.J. 1985. Aerial navigation of spruce budworm spraying in New Brunswick. In Recent advances in spruce budworm research - proceedings of the CANUSA spruce budworms research symposium, 16–20 September 1984, Bangor, Maine. Edited by C.J. Sanders, R.W. Stark, E.J. Mullins, and J. Murphy. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 406–408.
Dorais, L., Auger, M., and Pelletier, M. 1995. Insect control in Quebec, 1974–1987. In Forest insect pests in Canada. Edited by J.A. Armstrong and W.G.H. Ives. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 667678.
Doucet, D., Frisco, C., Cusson, M., Bauce, E., Palli, S.R., Tomkins, B., et al. 2007. Diapause disruption with tebufenozide for early-instar control of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana . Pest Management Science, 63: 730736. doi:10.1002/ps.1400.
Duthie-Holt, M.A., Borden, J.H., and Rankin, L.J. 1999. Translocation and efficacy of a neem-based insecticide in lodgepole pine using Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) as an indicator species. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92: 180186. doi:10.1093/jee/92.1.180.
Dyer, E.D.A. and Hall, P. 1979. Timing of cacodylic acid treatments to kill mountain pine beetles. Canadian Forest Service Bi-monthly Research Notes, 35: 13.
Elbert, A., Becker, B., Hartwig, J., and Erdelen, C. 1991. Imidacloprid – a new systemic insecticide. Pfanzenschutz -Nachrichten Bayer, 44: 113136.
Ernst, W.P., Pearce, P.A., and Pollock, T.L. 1989. Environmental effects of fenitrothion use in forestry: impacts on insect pollinators, songbirds & aquatic organisms. Environment Canada Conservation and Protection, Atlantic Region, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Ernst, W.P., Wade, S., Hennigar, P., and Julien, G. 1994. Toxicity to aquatic organisms of pond water contaminated by fenitrothion during forest spraying. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 52: 612618. doi:10.1007/BF00194151.
European Food Safety Authority. 2013. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid. European Food Safety Authority Journal, 11: 3068. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3068.
Fairchild, W.L. and Eidt, D.C. 1993. Perturbation of the aquatic invertebrate community of acidic bog ponds by the insecticide fenitrothion. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 25: 170183. doi:10.1007/BF00212128.
Fettes, J.J. and Randall, A.P. 1965. Chemical control trials against the spruce budworm in New Brunswick. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 9 December 1965, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 7.
Fishel, F.M. 2013. Pest management and pesticides: a historical perspective [online]. Document PI219. Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/PI/PI21900.pdf [accessed 5 March 2013].
Forest Protection Limited. 1994. 1993 spruce budworm and hemlock looper aerial treatment program report. In Report to the twenty-first annual forest pest control forum, Ottawa, Ontario, 16–18 November 1993. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 123–149.
Fowle, C.D. 1965. A Preliminary report on the effects of phosphamidon on bird populations in central New Brunswick. Occasional Paper 7. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Glynne-Jones, A. 2001. Pyrethrum. Pesticide Outlook, 12: 195198. doi:10.1039/B108601B.
Green, G.W. 1988. FPMI report on staffing and program changes and areas of concern. In Report of the fifteenth annual forest pest control forum, 17–19 November 1987, Ottawa, Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 309–315.
Grimalt, S., Thompson, D., Chartrand, D., McFarlane, J., Helson, B., Lyons, B., et al. 2011. Foliar residue dynamics of azadirachtins following direct stem injection into white and green ash trees for control of emerald ash borer. Pest Management Science, 67: 12771284. doi:10.1002/ps.2183.
Hartling, L. and Carter, N. 1991. 1990 hemlock looper spray program in New Brunswick. Report of the eighteenth annual forest pest control forum, 20–22 November 1990, Ottawa, Ontario. Forestry Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 127–136.
Hastings, F.L., Holsten, E.H., Shea, P.J., and Werner, R.A. 2001. Carbaryl: a review of its use against bark beetles in coniferous forests of North America. Environmental Entomology, 30: 803810. doi:10.1603/0046-225X-30.5.803.
Healthy Forest Partnership. 2015. Research overview [online]. Available from healthyforestpartnership.ca [accessed 15 February 2015].
Helson, B. 2001. Natural products entomology. Frontline Express 14. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Helson, B.V., de Groot, P., McFarlane, J.W., Zylstra, B., and Scarr, T. 1998. Leader and systemic applications of neem EC formulations for control of white pine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on jack pine and white pine. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 129: 107113.
Helson, B.V., Lyons, D.B., and Wanner, K.W. 2001. Control of conifer defoliators with neem-based systemic bioinsecticides using a novel injection device. The Canadian Entomologist, 133: 729744. doi:10.4039/Ent133729-5.
Helson, B.V. and Nigam, P.C. 1995. Neurotoxic insecticides. In Forest insect pests in Canada. Edited by J.A. Armstrong and W.G.H. Ives. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario. Pp. 359371.
Hodgkinson, R. 1985. Use of trap trees for spruce beetle management in British Columbia, 1979–1984. A review with recommendations. Pest Management Report 5. British Columbia Forest Service, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Holmes, S.B. 1986. A preliminary report on the impact of an experimental aerial application of ZECTRAN (mexacarbate) insecticide on aquatic ecosystems in New Brunswick, Canada. File Report 70. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Holmes, S.B. 1998. Reproduction and nest behaviour of Tennessee warblers, Vermivora peregrina, in forests treated with Lepidoptera-specific insecticides. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35: 185194. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2664.1998.00298.x.
Holmes, S.B. and Kingsbury, P.D. 1980. The environmental impact of nonyl phenol and the Matacil® formulation. Part I: aquatic ecosystems. Information Report FPM-X-35. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Holmes, S.B. and Millikin, R.L. 1981. A preliminary report on the effects of a split application of Reldan® on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Forest Pest Management Institute File Report 13. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Holmes, S.B., Millikin, R.L., and Kingsbury, P.D. 1981. Environmental effects of a split application of Sevin-2-oil. Information Report FPM-X-46. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Holmes, S.B., Pauli, B.D., McMartin, D.W., Barber, K.N., and Burgess, N.M. 1997. Indirect effects of forest spraying with Lepidoptera-specific insecticides on forest songbirds [online]. Spray efficacy research group report 1995/12/FINAL. Available from: http://www.serginternational.org/orderreports.html [accessed 18 February 2015].
Holmes, S.E. and Kettela, E.G. 2006. Efficacy of Entrust® 80 W on pine false webworm by ground and aerial application: Ontario, 2005 [online]. Spray efficacy research group report for project #2005-01-O. Available from: http://www.serginternational.org/orderreports.html [accessed 13 May 2015].
Hopewell, W.W. 1975. Field evaluation of Orthene®, Phosvel®, FMC 33297 and TH 6040, against Choristoneura fumiferana, applied as simulated aerial spray. Information Report CC-X-115. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Hopewell, W.W. 1977. Field evaluation of the pyrethroid NRDC-143, compared with fenitrothion, acephate and chlorpyrifos-methyl as simulated aerial spray deposit for control of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem. Information Report CC-X-132. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Hopewell, W.W. and Nigam, P.C. 1974. Field evaluation of Orthene®, phoxim and fenitrothion against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana), applied as simulated aerial spray. Information Report CC-X-83. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Johnson, W.W. and Finley, M.T. 1980. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Resource Publication 137. United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.
Juneau, A. 1989. A review of aerial spraying technology for spruce budworm control in private woodlots in eastern Quebec. Forestry Canada, Quebec Region, Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada.
Kerswill, C.J. 1957. The research program. In Investigation and management of Atlantic salmon in 1956. Department of Fisheries of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 515.
Kerswill, C.J. 1967. Studies on effects of forest sprayings with insecticides, 1952–63, on fish and aquatic invertebrates in New Brunswick streams: introduction and summary. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 24: 701708.
Kerswill, C.J. and Edwards, H.E. 1967. Fish losses after forest sprayings with insecticides in New Brunswick, 1952–62, as shown by caged specimens and other observations. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 24: 709729.
Kettela, E.G. 1968. Summary statement of the entomological assessment of the 1968 spruce budworm aerial spraying program in New Brunswick and forecast of conditions for 1969. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 20–21 November 1968, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 6.
Kettela, E.G. 1969. Summary statement of the entomological assessment of the 1969 spruce budworm aerial spraying program in New Brunswick and forecast of conditions for 1970. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 25 November 1969, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 8.
Kettela, E.G. 1971. Aerial spraying against the spruce budworm in New Brunswick in 1971, and a forecast for conditions in the Martimes Region in 1972. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 22 November 1971, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of the Environment Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 2.
Kettela, E.G. 1975a. Aerial spraying against the spruce budworm in 1974 and a forecast of conditions in the Maritimes Region in 1975. In Report of the annual forest pest control forum, 19 November 1974, Hull, Quebec. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 1.
Kettela, E.G. 1975b. Aerial spraying for protection of forests infested by spruce budworm. The Forestry Chronicle, 51: 141142. doi:10.5558/tfc51141-4.
Kettela, E.G. 1995. Insect control in New Brunswick, 1974–1989. In Forest insect pests in Canada. Edited by J.A. Armstrong and W.G.H. Ives. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 655665.
Kettela, E.G., Stewart, R., Pest, M., and Holmes, S.E. 2006. Development of aerial application efficacy data for ENTRUST 80 W (80% Spinosad) on yellowheaded spruce sawfly (Pikonema alaskensis): Fort McMurray, Alberta, 2005 [online]. Spray efficacy research group report for project #2005-01-A. Available from: http://www.serginternational.org/orderreports.html [accessed 13 May 2015].
Kinghorn, J.M. and Richmond, H.A. 1965. The green-striped forest looper infestation. Part II. Experimental control with phosphamidon. Information Report BC-X-1. Department of Forestry, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Kingsbury, P.D. 1995. Environmental concerns related to forest insect control programs 1973–1980. In Forest insect pests in Canada. Edited by J.A. Armstrong and W.G.H. Ives. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 546549.
Kingsbury, P.D., Holmes, S.B., and Millikin, R.L. 1980. Environmental effects of a double application of azamethiphos on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Information Report FPM-X-33. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Kingsbury, P.D. and Kreutzweiser, D.P. 1985. The impact of permethrin on aquatic ecosystems in Canadian forests. Pesticide Science, 16: 202203. doi:10.1002/ps.2780160214.
Kingsbury, P.D. and Kreutzweiser, D.P. 1987. Permethrin treatments in Canadian forests. Part 1. Impact on stream fish. Pesticide Science, 19: 3548. doi:10.1002/ps.2780190106.
Kingsbury, P.D. and McLeod, B.B. 1979. Terrestrial impact studies in forest ecosystems treated with double applications of permethrin. Information Report FPM-X-28. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Kingsbury, P.D., McLeod, B.B., and Millikin, R.L. 1981. The environmental impact of nonyl phenol and the Matacil® formulation. Part II: terrestrial ecosystems. Information Report FPM-X-36. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Kreutzweiser, D.P. 1991. Permethrin treatments in Canadian forests. Part 3. Environmental fate and distribution in streams. Pesticide Science, 33: 3546. doi:10.1002/ps.2780330105.
Kreutzweiser, D.P., Back, R.C., Sutton, T.M., Pangle, K.L., and Thompson, D.G. 2004a. Aquatic mesocosm assessments of a neem (azadirachtin) insecticide at environmentally realistic concentrations. 2: Zooplankton community responses and recovery. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 59: 194204. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2003.09.008.
Kreutzweiser, D.P., Back, R.C., Sutton, T.M., Thompson, D.G., and Scarr, T.A. 2002. Community-level disruptions among zooplankton of pond mesocosms treated with a neem (azadirachtin) insecticide. Aquatic Toxicology, 56: 257273. doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(01)00216-8.
Kreutzweiser, D.P., Capell, S.S., Wainio-Keizer, K.L., and Eichenberg, D.C. 1994. Toxicity of a new molt-inducing insecticide (RH-5992) to aquatic macroinvertebrates. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 28: 1424. doi:10.1006/eesa.1994.1030.
Kreutzweiser, D., Good, K.P., Chartrand, D.T., Scarr, T.A., Holmes, S.B., and Thompson, D.G. 2008a. Effects on litter-dwelling earthworms and microbial decomposition of soil-applied imidacloprid for control of wood-boring insects. Pest Management Science, 64: 112118. doi:10.1002/ps.1478.
Kreutzweiser, D., Good, K.P., Chartrand, D.T., Scarr, T.A., and Thompson, D.G. 2007. Non-target effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 68: 315325. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.04.011.
Kreutzweiser, D., Good, K.P., Chartrand, D.T., Scarr, T.A., and Thompson, D.G. 2008b. Are leaves that fall from imidacloprid-treated maple trees to control Asian longhorned beetles toxic to non-target decomposer organisms? Journal of Environmental Quality, 37: 639646. doi:10.2134/jeq2007.0278.
Kreutzweiser, D., Good, K.P., Chartrand, D.T., Scarr, T.A., and Thompson, D.G. 2008c. Toxicity of the systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, to forest stream insects and microbial communities. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 80: 211214. doi:10.1007/s00128-007-9347-8.
Kreutzweiser, D.P., Gunn, J.M., Thompson, D.G., Pollard, H.G., and Faber, M.J. 1998. Zooplankton community responses to a novel forest insecticide, tebufenozide (RH-5992), in littoral lake enclosures. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 55: 639648. doi:10.1139/cjfas-55-3-639.
Kreutzweiser, D.P. and Kingsbury, P.D. 1987. Permethrin treatments in Canadian forests. Part 2. Impact on stream invertebrates. Pesticide Science, 19: 4960. doi:10.1002/ps.2780190107.
Kreutzweiser, D.P. and Sibley, P.K. 1991. Invertebrate drift in a headwater stream treated with permethrin. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 20: 330336. doi:10.1007/BF01064398.
Kreutzweiser, D.P., Sutton, T.M., Back, R.C., Pangle, K.L., and Thompson, D.G. 2004b. Some ecological implications of a neem (azadirachtin) insecticide disturbance to zooplankton communities in forest pond enclosures. Aquatic Toxicology, 67: 239254. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.01.011.
Kreutzweiser, D.P. and Thomas, D.R. 1995. Effects of a new molt-inducing insecticide, tebufenozide, on zooplankton communities in lake enclosures. Ecotoxicology, 4: 307328. doi:10.1007/BF00118597.
Kreutzweiser, D., Thompson, D.G., Grimalt, S., Chartrand, D., Good, K., and Scarr, T. 2011. Environmental safety to decomposer invertebrates of azadirachtin (neem) as a systemic insecticide in trees to control emerald ash borer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 74: 17341741. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.04.021.
Kreutzweiser, D.P., Thompson, D.G., and Scarr, T.A. 2009. Imidacloprid in leaves from systemically treated trees may inhibit litter breakdown by non-target invertebrates. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72: 10531057. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.09.017.
Lejeune, R.R. 1975a. Saddle-backed looper. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 193195.
Lejeune, R.R. 1975b. Western black-headed budworm. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 159166.
Lejeune, R.R. 1975c. Western false hemlock looper. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 185187.
Lejeune, R.R. 1975d. Western hemlock looper. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 179184.
Lejeune, R.R. and Richmond, H.A. 1975. Striped ambrosia beetle. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 246249.
Lyons, D.B., Helson, B.V., Jones, G.C., McFarlane, J.W., and Scarr, T. 1996. Systemic activity of neem seed extracts containing azadirachtin in pine foliage for control of the pine false webworm, Acantholyda erythrocephala (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 127: 4555.
Lyons, D.B. Helson, B.V., Thompson, D.G., Jones, G.C., McFarlane, J.W., Robinson, A.G., et al. 2003. Efficacy of ultra-low volume aerial application of an azadirachtin-based insecticide for control of the pine false webworm, Acantholyda erythrocephala (L.) (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae), in Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Pest Management, 49: 18. doi:10.1080/713867832.
Macdonald, D.R. 1963. Summary statement on the biological assessment of the 1963 spruce budworm aerial spraying program in New Brunswick and forecast of conditions for 1964. In Report of a meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 29 October 1963, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 1.
MacDonald, H., McKenney, D.W., and Nealis, V. 1997. A bug is a bug is a bug: symbolic responses to contingent valuation questions about forest control programs. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 45: 145163. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7976.1997.tb00199.x.
MacQuarrie, C.J.K., Lyons, D.B., Seehausen, M.L., and Smith, S.M. 2016. A history of biological control in Canadian forests, 1882–2014. The Canadian Entomologist, in press.
Martineau, R. 1975. Jack-pine budworm. Quebec control projects, 1970, 1972. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 157.
McClay, W. 2000. Rotenone use in North America (1988–1997). Fisheries Management, 25: 1521. doi: 10.1577/1548-8446(2000)025<0015:RUINA>2.0.CO;2.
McKenzie, N., Helson, B., Thompson, D., Otis, G., McFarlane, J., Buscarini, T., et al. 2010. Azadirachtin: an effective systemic insecticide for control of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 103: 708717. doi: 10.1603/EC09305.
McLeod, I.M., Lucarotti, C.J., Hennigar, C.R., McLean, D.A., Holloway, A.G.L., Cormier, G.A., et al. 2012. Advances in aerial application technologies and decision support for integrated pest management. In Integrated pest management and pest control–current and future tactics. Edited by M.L. Larramendy and S. Soloneski. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. Pp. 651668.
McMullen, L.H., Safranyik, L., and Linton, D.A. 1986. Suppression of mountain pine beetle infestations in lodgepole pine forests. Information Report BC-X-276. Canadian Forestry Service. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Meating, J.H., Retnakaran, A., Lawrence, H.D., Robinson, A.G., and Howse, G.M. 1996. The efficacy of single and double applications of a new insect growth regulator, Tebufenozide (RH5992), on Jack pine budworm in Ontario. Information Report O-X-444. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Metcalf, C.L. and Flint, W.P. 1939. Destructive and useful insects: their habits and control, 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill, London, United Kingdom.
Miller, C.A. and Kettela, E.G. 1975. Aerial control operations against the spruce budworm in New Brunswick, 1952–1973. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 94112.
Miller, C.A., Varty, I.W., Thomas, A.W., Greenbank, D.O., and Kettela, E.G. 1980. Aerial spraying of spruce budworm moths, New Brunswick 1972–77. Information Report M-X-110. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.
Morrissey, C.A., Albert, C.A., Dods, P.L., Cullen, W.R., Lai, V.W.-M., and Elliott, J.E. 2007. Arsenic accumulation in bark beetles and forest birds occupying mountain pine beetle infested stands treated with monosodium methanearsonate. Environmental Science and Technology, 41: 14941500. doi: 10.1021/es061967r.
Morrissey, C.A., Dods, P.L., and Elliott, J.E. 2008. Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior. Ecological Applications, 18: 172184. doi: 10.1890/07-0015.1.
National Forestry Database. 2012. National forestry database [online]. Available from http://nfdp.ccfm.org/ [accessed 2 April 2013].
Naumann, K. and Rankin, L.J. 1999. Pre-attack systemic applications of a neem-based insecticide for control of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderasae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 96: 1319.
Naumann, K., Rankin, L.J., and Isman, M.B. 1994. Systemic action of neem seed extract on mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in lodgepole pine. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87: 15801585. doi: 10.1093/jee/87.6.1580.
Nigam, P.C. 1968. Laboratory evaluation of insecticides against forest insect pests – 1968. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 20–21 November 1968, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 4.
Nigam, P.C. 1975. Chemical insecticides. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 824.
Nigam, P.C. and Hopewell, W.W. 1973. Preliminary field evaluation of phoxim and Orthene® against spruce budworm on individual trees as simulated aircraft spray. Information Report CC-X-60. Canadian Forestry Service Chemical Control Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Oghiakhe, S. and Holliday, N.J. 2011. Evaluation of insecticides for control of overwintering Hylurgopinus rufipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 104: 889894. doi: 10.1603/EC10336.
Ono, H. 2002. Important forest pest conditions in Alberta. In Proceedings of the forest pest management forum 2001, Ottawa, Ontario, 27–29 November 2001. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 55–73.
Ontario Environmental Assessment Board. 1994. Class environmental assessment by the Ministry of Natural Resources for timber management on crown lands in Ontario. EA81-02. Province of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2003. Declaration order regarding Ministry of Natural Resources’ class environmental assessment approval for forest management on crown lands in Ontario. Declaration Order MNR-71. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2007. Amendment of the declaration order regarding Ministry of Natural Resources’ class environmental assessment approval for forest management on crown lands in Ontario. Declaration order MNR-71/2. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Otvos, I.S. and Warren, G.L. 1975. Eastern hemlock looper. The Newfoundland project, 1968, 1969. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 170173.
Palli, S.R., Primavera, M., Tomkins, W., Lambert, D., and Retnakaran, A. 1995. Age-specific effects of a non-steroidal ecdysteroid agonist, RH-5992, on the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). European Journal of Entomology, 92: 325332.
Paquet, G. and Desaulniers, R. 1977. Aerial spraying against the spruce budworm in Quebec in 1976 and plans for 1977. In Report to the annual forest pest control forum, 23–24 November 1976, Ottawa, Ontario. Environment Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 17.
Pauli, B.D., Holmes, S.B., Sebastien, R.J., and Rawn, G.P. 1993. Fenitrothion risk assessment. Technical Report Series 165. Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Payne, N.J., Retnakaran, A., and Cadogan, B.L. 1997. Development and evaluation of a method for the design of spray applications: aerial tebufenozide applications to control the eastern spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.). Crop Protection, 16: 285290. doi: 10.1016/S0261-2194(96)00081-6.
Pearce, P.A. 1968. Effects on bird populations of phosphamidon and Sumithion used for spruce budworm control in New Brunswick and hemlock looper control in Newfoundland in 1968: a summary statement. Manuscript Report 14. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Pearce, P.A., Peakall, D.B., and Erskine, A.J. 1976. Impact on forest birds of the 1975 spruce budworm spray operation in New Brunswick. Progress Note 62. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Peryea, F.J. 1998. Historical use of lead arsenate insecticides, resulting soil contamination and implications for soil remediation [online]. In Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of Soil Science, 20–26 August 1998, Montpellier, France. Available from http://soils.tfrec.wsu.edu/historical-use-of-lead-arsenate-insecticides/ [accessed 30 September 2015].
Pines, I. 2010. Forest pests in Manitoba – 2010. In Proceedings of the forest pest management forum – 2010, 30 November–2 December 2010, Gatineau, Quebec. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 71–78.
Plowright, R.C., Pendrel, B.A., and McLaren, I.A. 1978. The impact of aerial fenitrothion spraying upon the population biology of bumble bees (Bombus Latr.: Hym) in southwestern New Brunswick. The Canadian Entomologist, 110: 11451156. doi:10.4039/Ent1101145-11.
Plowright, R.C. and Rodd, F.H. 1980. The effect of aerial insecticide spraying on hymenopterous pollinators in New Brunswick. The Canadian Entomologist, 112: 259270. doi:10.4039/Ent112259-3.
Poland, T.M., Haack, R.A., Petrice, T.R., Miller, D.L., and Bauer, L.S. 2006. Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of systemic insecticides for control of Anoplophora glabripennis and Plecrodera scalator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 99: 8593. doi:10.1093/jee/99.1.85.
Prebble, M.L. 1975a. Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Prebble, M.L. 1975b. Eastern hemlock looper. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 167169.
Prebble, M.L. 1975c. Jack-pine budworm. Introduction. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 152153.
Prebble, M.L., Prentice, R.M., and Fettes, J.J. 1975. Epilogue. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 320325.
Randall, A.P. 1965. Evidence of DDT resistance in populations of spruce budworm, Choristoneurn fumiferana (Clem.), from DDT-sprayed areas of New Brunswick. The Canadian Entomologist, 97: 12811293. doi: 10.4039/Ent971281-12.
Randall, A.P. 1967a. Summary report on insecticide investigations 1966. Project (CC 1-1) ultra low volume control trials against the spruce budworm in New Brunswick 1966. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 3 January 1967, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Forestry and Rural Development, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 1.
Randall, A.P. 1967b. Summary report on insecticide investigations 1967. Project (CC 1-1) ultra low volume aerial application of pesticides for the control of spruce budworm C. fumiferana (Clem.) in New Brunswick. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 8 November 1967, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Forestry and Rural Development, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 1, pp. 1–8.
Randall, A.P. 1968. Summary report on insecticide investigations 1968. Project (CC 1-1) aerial application of pesticides for the control of spruce budworm C. fumiferana (Clem.) in New Brunswick, 1968. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 20–21 November 1968, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 5.
Randall, A.P. 1975. Application technology. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 3455.
Randall, A.P. and Armstrong, J.A. 1969. Summary report on insecticide investigations 1969. Project (CC-1-1) chemical control of the spruce budworm C. fumiferana (Clem.) in New Brunswick, 1969. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 25 November 1969, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Fisheries and Forestry Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 7.
Randall, A.P., Hopewell, W.W., Haliburton, W., and Zylstra, B. 1970. Field evaluation of the effectiveness of ultra-low-volume application of insecticidal sprays from aircraft for the control of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem) in New Brunswick 1970. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 29 October 1970, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Fisheries and Forestry Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 10.
Randall, A.P., Hopewell, W.W., Haliburton, W., and Zylstra, B. 1971. Studies on the control of the spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) by aerial application of the chemicals. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 22 November 1971, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of the Environment Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 18.
Randall, A.P. and Nigam, P.C. 1967. Laboratory evaluation of new insecticidal compounds against spruce budworm, larch sawflies, and jackpine sawflies – 1966. In Report of meeting of the interdepartmental committee on forest spraying operations, 3 January 1967, Ottawa, Ontario. Department of Forestry and Rural Development, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Appendix 2.
Régnière, J., Cadogan, L., and Retnakaran, A. 2005. Mimic applied against L1 and L5 spruce budworm: Manitoba trials 2000/2001 [online]. Spray Efficacy Research Group Report. Available from http://www.serginternational.org/orderreports.html [accessed 18 February 2015].
Retnakaran, A., Gelbic, I., Sundaram, M., Tomkins, W., Ladd, T., Primavera, M., et al. 2001. Mode of action of the ecdysone agonist tebufenozide (RH-5992), and an exclusion mechanism to explain resistance to it. Pest Management Science, 57: 951957. doi: 10.1002/ps.377.
Retnakaran, A., Krell, P., Feng, Q., and Arif, B.M. 2003. Ecdysone agonists: mechanism and importance in controlling insect pests of agriculture and forestry. 2003. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 54: 187199. doi: 10.1002/arch.10116.
Retnakaran, A., Smith, L.F.R., Tomkins, W.L., Primavera, M.J., Palli, S.R., and Payne, N.J. 1997. Effect of RH-5992, a nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist, on the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Laboratory, greenhouse, and ground spray trials. 1997. The Canadian Entomologist, 129: 871885. doi: 10.4039/Ent129871-5.
Reynolds, H.T., Stern, V.M., Fukuto, T.R., and Peterson, G.D. 1960. Potential use of Dylox and other insecticides in a control program for field crop pests in California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 53: 7278. doi:10.1093/jee/53.1.72.
Richmond, M.L., Henny, C.J., Floyd, R.L., Mannan, R.W., Finch, D.M., and DeWeese, L.R. 1979. Effects of Sevin-4-Oil, Dimilin, and Orthene on forest birds. Research Paper PSW-148. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
Rondeau, G., Sanchez-Bayo, F., Tennekes, H.A., Decourtye, A., Ramirez-Romero, R., and Desneux, N. 2014. Delayed and time-cumulative toxicity of impadlocprid in bees, ants and termites. Scientific Reports, 4: 18. doi: 10.1038/srep05566.
Schmeltz, I. 1971. Nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids. In Naturally occurring insecticides. Edited by M. Jacobson and D.G. Crosby. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, New York, United States of America. Pp. 99136.
Schmutterer, H. 1990. Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica . Annual Review of Entomology, 35: 271297. doi: 10.1146/annurev.en.35.010190.001415.
Shea, P.J. and Nigam, P.C. 1984. Chemical control. In Spruce budworms handbook: managing the spruce budworm in eastern North America. Edited by M. Schmitt, D.G. Grimble, and J.L. Searcy. Agriculture Handbook 620. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America. Pp. 115132.
Shore, T.L. and McLean, J.A. 1995. Ambrosia beetles. In Forest insect pests in Canada. Edited by J.A. Armstrong and W.G.H. Ives. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 165170.
Sibley, P.K., Kaushik, N.K., and Kreutzweiser, D.P. 1991. Impact of a pulse application of permethrin on the macroinvertebrate community of a headwater stream. Environmental Pollution, 70: 3555. doi: 10.1016/0269-7491(91)90130-O.
Sippell, W.L. and Howse, G.M. 1975. Jack-pine budworm. Ontario control projects, 1968–1972. In Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Edited by M.L. Prebble. Environment Canada Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 155156.
Slaney, G.L., Lantz, V.A., and MacLean, D.A. 2009. The economics of carbon sequestration through pest management: application to forested landbases in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, Canada. Forest Policy and Economics, 11: 525534. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2009.07.009.
Slaney, G.L., Lantz, V.A., and MacLean, D.A. 2010. Assessing costs and benefits of pest management on forested landbases in eastern and western Canada. Journal of Forest Economics, 16: 1934. doi: 10.1016/j.jfe.2009.05.002.
Smagghe, G. and Degheele, D. 1994. Action of a novel nonsteroidal ecdysteroid mimic, tebufenozide (RH-5992), on insects of different orders. Pesticide Science, 42: 8592. doi: 10.1002/ps.2780420204.
Spear, R.J. 2005. The great gypsy moth war: the history of the first campaign in Massachusetts to eradicate the gypsy moth, 1890–1901. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Sundaram, K.M.S. 1994. Degradation kinetics of tebufenozide in model aquatic systems under controlled laboratory conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B, 29: 10811104. doi: 10.1080/03601239409372917.
Sundaram, K.M.S. 1995. Persistence and fate of tebufenozide (RH-5992) insecticide in terrestrial microcosms of a forest environment following spray application of two Mimic® formulations. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B, 30: 321358. doi: 10.1080/03601239509372942.
Sundaram, K.M.S. 1997a. Persistence and mobility of tebufenozide in forest litter and soil ecosystems under field and laboratory conditions. Pesticide Science, 51: 115130. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199710)51:2<115::AID-PS599>3.0.CO;2-W.
Sundaram, K.M.S. 1997b. Persistence of tebufenozide in aquatic ecosystems under laboratory and field conditions. Pesticide Science, 51: 720. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199709)51:1<7::AID-PS589>3.0.CO;2-A.
Sundaram, K.M.S., Boyonoski, N., and Feng, C.C. 1987. Degradation and metabolism of mexacarbate in two types of forest litters under laboratory conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B, 22: 2954. doi: 10.1080/03601238509372544.
Sundaram, K.M.S., Feng, C.C., Boyonoski, N.W., and Manniste-Squire, V. 1985. Leaching, degradation and fate of 14C-mexacarbate in columns packed with forest soils. Information Report FPM-X-71. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Sundaram, K.M.S., Holmes, S.B., Kreutzweiser, D.P., Sundaram, A., and Kingsbury, P.D. 1991. Environmental persistence and impact of diflubenzuron in a forest aquatic environment following aerial application. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 20: 313324. doi: 10.1007/BF01064396.
Sundaram, K.M.S. and Nott, R. 1985. Mexacarbate residues in selected components of a conifer forest following aerial applications of oil-based and aqueous spray formulations. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B, 20: 425444. doi: 10.1080/03601238509372487.
Sundaram, K.M.S., Nott, R., and Curry, J. 1996a. Deposition, persistence and fate of tebufenozide (RH-5992) in some terrestrial and aquatic components of a boreal forest environment after aerial application of Mimic. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B, 31: 699750. doi: 10.1080/03601239609373035.
Sundaram, K.M.S., Nott, R., Holmes, S.B., and Boyonoski, N.W. 1986. The distribution and fate of mexacarbate in a forest aquatic ecosystem. Information Report FPM-X-73. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
Sundaram, K.M.S., Sundaram, A., and Sloane, L. 1996b. Foliar persistence and residual activity of tebufenozide against spruce budworm larvae. Pesticide Science, 47: 3140. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199605)47:1<31::AID-PS380>3.0.CO;2-4.
Sundaram, M., Palli, S.R., Krell, P.J., Sohi, S.S., and Retnakaran, A. 1999. Selective mechanism of action of tebufenozide on lepidopteran cell lines. Pest Management Science, 55: 654655. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199906)55:6<654::AID-PS995>3.0.CO;2-M.
Thompson, D.G., Harris, B.J., Buscarini, T.M., and Chartrand, D.T. 2002a. Fate of spinosad in litter and soils of a white spruce plantation in central Ontario. Pest Management Science, 58: 397404. doi: 10.1002/ps.467.
Thompson, D.G., Harris, B.J., Lanteigne, L.J., Buscarini, T.M., and Chartrand, D.T. 2002b. Fate of spinosad in litter and soils of a mixed conifer stand in the Acadian forest region of New Brunswick. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50: 790795. doi: 10.1021/jf011319l.
Thompson, D.G. and Kreutzweiser, D.P. 2007. A review of the environmental fate and effects of natural “reduced-risk” pesticides in Canada. In American Chemical Society symposium series 947 – Certified organic and biologically derived pesticides: environmental, health and efficacy assessments. Edited by A. Felsot and K. Racke. American Chemical Society, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America. Pp. 245274.
Thompson, D.G., Mickle, R.E., Lyons, D.B., Helson, B.V., Robinson, A.G., Chartrand, D.T., et al. 2003. Deposition of azadirachtin following ultra-low volume aerial applications to red pine plantations for control of pine false webworm, Acantholyda erythrocephala (L.) (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae), in Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Pest Management, 49: 915. doi: 10.1080/713867833.
Thurston, G.S. 2000. Biological control of forest insects in eastern Canada. CFS - AFC research activities 1999. In Report to the forest pest management forum, 16–17 November 1999, Ottawa, Ontario. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 293–301.
Turnquist, R. 1991. Western hemlock looper in British Columbia. Forest insect and disease survey report 91-8. Forestry Canada, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
van der Sluijs, J.P., Amaral-Rogers, V., Belzunces, L.P., Bijleveld van Lexmond, M.F.I.J., Bonmatin, J.-M., Chagnon, M., et al. 2015. Conclusions of the worldwide integrated assessment on the risks of neonicotinoids and fipronil to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22: 148154. doi:10.1007/s11356-014-3229-5.
van Frankenhuyzen, K., Lucarotti, C., and Lavallée, R. 2016. Canadian contributions to forest insect pathology and to the use of pathogens in forest pest management. The Canadian Entomologist, in press.
Varty, I.W. and Titus, F.A. 1974. Effects of phosphamidon sprays on non-target insects in fir-spruce forest; spruce budworm adulticide trials, 1973. Information Report M-X-47. Canadian Forestry Service, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.
Wanner, K.W., Helson, B.V., and Kostyk, B.C. 1997. Foliar and systemic applications of neem seed extract for control of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), infesting black and white spruce seed orchards. The Canadian Entomologist, 129: 645655. doi: 10.4039/Ent129645-4.
West, R.J., Thompson, D.G., Sundaram, K.M.S., Sundaram, A., Retnakaran, A., and Mickle, R.E. 1997. Efficacy of aerial applications of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and tebufenozide against the eastern hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The Canadian Entomologist, 129: 613626. doi: 10.4039/Ent129613-4.
Zinkl, J.G., Henny, C.J., and Shea, P.J. 1979. Brain cholinesterase activities of passerine birds in forests sprayed with cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides. In Animals as monitors of environmental pollutants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America. Pp. 356365.
Zylstra, B.F. and Obarymskyj, A. 1984. Experimental aerial applications of permethrin, carbaryl and chlorpyrifos-methyl for control of eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) in New Brunswick in 1980. Information Report FPM-X-56. Canadian Forestry Service Forest Pest Management Institute, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.

Chemical control in forest pest management

  • Stephen B. Holmes (a1) and Chris J.K. MacQuarrie (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed