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GEOGRAPHIC INCIDENCE AND DAMAGE LEVELS OF ALFALFA SEED CHALCID, BRUCHOPHAGUS RODDI (HYMENOPTERA: EURYTOMIDAE), IN SASKATCHEWAN, AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO WEATHER AND AGRONOMIC VARIABLES AND PRODUCTION PRACTICES1

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

Juliana J. Soroka
Affiliation:
Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0X2
D.T. Spurr
Affiliation:
Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0X2

Abstract

A 5-year survey of Saskatchewan alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. sensu lato) seed fields was undertaken to determine the level of infestation by the alfalfa seed chalcid, Bruchophagus roddi (Gussakovsky). Seed samples were taken from commercial seed fields, hay fields, and roadsides just before pod maturity. From sample lots of 250 pods, the numbers of healthy, chalcid-damaged, and frozen or immature seed were determined. Later, producers were questioned about the attributes of and management practices employed in their fields. Seed yields and infestation levels were correlated with temperature, precipitation, and degree-day data from the year of and the year preceding seed collection. Alfalfa seed chalcid infestation level was correlated most closely with the temperature and rainfall in July and August of both years. The proportion of damaged seed was highest the year following warm, dry summers. Alfalfa cultivar also influenced infestation levels; winter-hardy cultivars that became dormant early in the autumn had lower levels of chalcid-damaged seeds than less hardy cultivars which maintained growth later in the season. Management practices such as the use of insecticides (for plant bug and aphid control), fertilizers, and herbicides, size or age of field, soil type, and application of irrigation water did not affect the proportion of seeds injured by chalcids.

Résumé

En Saskatchewan une étude pendant cinq années des champs du graines de la luzerne (Medicago sativa L. sensu lato) ont été entrepris déterminer le niveau d’invasion par chalcis granivore de la luzerne, Bruchophagus roddi (Gussakovsky). Échantillons des graines ont été prise des champs commerçants, champs du foin, et bords de les routes juste avant la maturité de les cosses. Des échantillons de 250 écosses, les nombres d’en bonne santé, chalcis endommagé, et graines congelée ou pas mûr ont été déterminée. Plus tard, les producteurs ont été questionnés pour l’information des attributs et les méthodes d’agriculture ont employé dans leurs champs. La production des graines et niveau d’invasion ont correspondu avec la température, la précipitation, et l’information degrés-jour pour l’année de et de l’année avant la collection des graines. Les niveaux d’infestation de chalcis granivore de la luzerne ont correspondu le plus étroitement avec la température et la pluie dans juillet et août des deux années. La proportion des graines endommagée était plus hauts l’année suivant les étés chaud et sec. La variété de la luzerne a influencé aussi le niveau de l’invasion; les variétés rustiques qui sont devenues dormantes tôt à l’automne avaient les niveaux inférieurs de graines endommagées par les chalcis que les variétés moins rustiques, qui ont continuées à criore plus tard à l’autumne. Les méthodes de l’agriculture comme l’utilization des insecticides (pour lutte des punaises et pucerons), des engrais, et des herbicides, les dimensions ou l’age de champ, la variété de la terre, et l’application de l’eau de l’irrigation n’ont pas influé la proportion des graines endommagées par les chalcis.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1998

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GEOGRAPHIC INCIDENCE AND DAMAGE LEVELS OF ALFALFA SEED CHALCID, BRUCHOPHAGUS RODDI (HYMENOPTERA: EURYTOMIDAE), IN SASKATCHEWAN, AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO WEATHER AND AGRONOMIC VARIABLES AND PRODUCTION PRACTICES1
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GEOGRAPHIC INCIDENCE AND DAMAGE LEVELS OF ALFALFA SEED CHALCID, BRUCHOPHAGUS RODDI (HYMENOPTERA: EURYTOMIDAE), IN SASKATCHEWAN, AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO WEATHER AND AGRONOMIC VARIABLES AND PRODUCTION PRACTICES1
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GEOGRAPHIC INCIDENCE AND DAMAGE LEVELS OF ALFALFA SEED CHALCID, BRUCHOPHAGUS RODDI (HYMENOPTERA: EURYTOMIDAE), IN SASKATCHEWAN, AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO WEATHER AND AGRONOMIC VARIABLES AND PRODUCTION PRACTICES1
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