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DAILY PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY OF FEMALES OF THE ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

Kenneth A. Pivnick
Affiliation:
Agriculture Canada Research Station, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0X2
Edith Labbé
Affiliation:
Département de biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada GlK 7P4

Abstract

The daily patterns of activity of females of the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), were observed in controlled laboratory conditions and in field conditions in eastern Saskatchewan in mid-July 1986 and 1987. In the field, during the daytime, females rested on stems of wheat plants within 30 cm of the ground and, at approximately 2000 hours CST, flew up to wheat heads. Most oviposition took place between 2000 and 2145 hours (or 75 min before, to 30 min after, sunset). Toward the end of the oviposition period, females were frequently seen drinking dew from wheat heads. On some evenings, females migrated down from the heads following oviposition, but on more than half of the evenings they remained on the heads until early morning. However, they never moved down to the low level they occupied during the day until the next morning, when the migration was usually complete by 0900–1000 hours. Light intensity appeared to regulate the vertical migration of females. Cloudy conditions may allow an earlier onset of oviposition. Flight was limited to air temperatures above 14–15 °C and oviposition to temperatures above 10–11 °C. Wind speeds of 10 km per h or more and rain occasionally limited activity. In the laboratory, oviposition activity occurred almost exclusively during the scotophase, mainly in the first 2 h. Mean total fecundity was 83.6 ± 10.9 (±SE) eggs, and mean longevity was 6.6 ± 0.6 days. No oviposition took place on the 1st night, and the greatest mean daily fecundity occurred on the 3rd night.

Résumé

Les cycles quotidiens d’activité des femelles de la Cécidomyie du blé, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), ont été étudiés en laboratoire dans des conditions contrôlées et en nature, dans l’est de la Saskatchewan, au milieu de juillet, en 1986 et 1987. En nature, durant la journée, les femelles étaient posées sur les tiges des plants de blé, à moins de 30 cm du sol; à environ 2000 heures HNC, elles volaient vers la tête des plants. La plupart des pontes se faisaient entre 2000 et 2145 heures (ou de 75 min avant à 30 min après le coucher du soleil). Vers la fin de la période de ponte, les femelles étaient souvent occupées à boire la rosée sur les épis. Certains soirs, des femelles migraient de l’épi vers la tige après la ponte, mais au cours de plus de la moitié des soirs d’observation, elles sont restées sur les épis jusqu’au petit matin. Cependant, elles ne regagnaient jamais avant le lendemain matin la position basse qu’elles occupaient sur le plant avant la ponte; la migration de retour vers le bas de la tige était ordinairement terminée entre 0900 et 1000 heures. C’est l’intensité de la lumière qui semblait régir la migration verticale des femelles. La présence de nuages déclenchait parfois la ponte plus tôt dans la soirée. Le vol se faisait seulement aux températures supérieures à 14–15 °C, et la ponte, seulement aux températures supérieures à 10–11 °C. L’activité était parfois enrayée par des vents de 10 km à l’heure ou plus ou par la pluie. En laboratoire, l’activité de ponte avait lieu presque exclusivement au cours de la scotophase, surtout au cours des 2 premières heures. La fécondité totale moyenne a été évaluée à 83,6 ± 10,9 (± erreur type) oeufs, et la longévité moyenne, à 6,6 ± 0,6 jours. Aucune ponte n’a été observée au cours de la 1re nuit et la fécondité moyenne la plus élevée au cours d’une journée a été enregistrée la 3e nuit.

[Traduit par la rédaction]

Type
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Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1993

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DAILY PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY OF FEMALES OF THE ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)
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DAILY PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY OF FEMALES OF THE ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)
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DAILY PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY OF FEMALES OF THE ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)
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