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BIOLOGY OF THE PREDATORY FLY COENOSIA TIGRINA (FAB.)(DIPTERA: ANTHOMYIIDAE): REPRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND LARVAL FEEDING ON EARTHWORMS IN THE LABORATORY1

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

Dael E. Morris
Affiliation:
Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada G1K 7P4
Conrad Cloutier
Affiliation:
Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada G1K 7P4

Abstract

Adults of the anthomyiid Coenosia tigrina (Fab.), which are predators of flying insects including pest Diptera such as the onion maggot fly, feed on earthworms in the larval stage. The bionomics of C. tigrina females were studied in the laboratory at 15, 20, and 25°C, under different mating regimes. Adult female longevity slightly exceeded 1 month at 25°C and was close to 2 months at 15°C. Oviposition started 1–3 weeks after emergence, the delay tending to decrease with increased male presence. Females laid eggs at intervals of 1 to several days, in batches averaging 10–30 eggs depending on temperature. Fecundity reached an average of 230 eggs at 25°C with the sustained presence of males. Egg hatch decreased with the mother’s age, except when males were present for most of the female’s lifetime. Females exhibited maximal daily rate of predation at 25°C, but maximal lifetime predation was observed at 20°C. Male predation was less than females’, and female predation decreased with age. The time to eclosion decreased from 11 to 5 days as the temperature of egg incubation increased from 15 to 25°C. Larval weight at eclosion decreased with mother’s age. Postembryonic development and larval growth were studied at 15, 20, and 25°C, larvae being fed on four lumbricids. Development times decreased with increasing temperature between 15 and 25°C: from 35 to 15 days for larval development, and 28 to 12 days for pupal development. Males developed at a slower rate than females, but females weighed more at emergence. Larval survival was 30–60% on worm sections, and dropped to 17% on live mature Eisenia foetida (Sav.); but survival reached 90% on live, immature E. foetida 1–2 cm long. The larvae of C. tigrina penetrate the epidermis of earthworms, and feed internally with a preference for circulatory and chlorogogonous tissues.

Résumé

Les adultes de l’anthomyiide Coenosia tigrina (Fab.) sont prédateurs d’insectes en vol, y compris des Diptères nuisibles comme la mouche de l’oignon; les larves se nourrissent de vers de terre. On a étudié les statistiques vitales et l’activité de prédation des femelles de C. tigrina au laboratoire à 15, 20 et 25°C, lorsque soumises à différents régimes d’accouplement. La longévité adulte des femelles a dépassé 1 mois à 25°C et atteint presque 2 mois à 15°C. La ponte a débuté 1–3 semaines après l’émergence, le délai variant selon la température et diminuant avec la présence accrue des mâles. Les femelles pondaient à intervalles de 1 à quelques jours, en lots de 10–30 oeufs selon la température. La fécondité a atteint une moyenne de 230 oeufs à 25°C lorsque les mâles étaient présents de façon soutenue. L’incidence d’éclosion des oeufs a diminué avec l’âge de la mère, excepté lorsque les mâles étaient présents de façon soutenue. Les femelles ont réalisé un taux journalier de prédation maximal à 25°C, mais la prédation totale maximale fut observée à 20°C. La prédation des mâles était inférieure à celle des femelles, laquelle a diminué avec l’âge en fonction de la température. La durée d’incubation des oeufs a diminué de 11 à 5 jours lorsque la température a été augmentée de 15 à 25°C. Le poids des larves à l’éclosion a diminué avec l’âge maternel. On a étudié le développement postembryonnaire et la croissance larvaire à 15, 20 et 25°C, les larves étant nourries de quatre espèces de lombrics. La durée des stades de développement a diminué avec la température entre 15 et 25°C : de 35 à 15 jours pour la phase larvaire et de 28 à 12 jours pour le stade pupal. Le développement des mâles est plus long que celui des femelles, mais celles-ci ont un poids supérieur à l’émergence. La survie larvaire était de 30–60% avec des vers sectionnés, et de 17% avec des Eisenia foetida (Sav.) matures vivants; elle a atteint 90% lorsque les larves étaient nourries avec des E. foetida immatures vivants, longs de 1–2 cm. Les larves de C. tigrina pénètrent l’épiderme des vers hôtes et se nourrissent à l’intérieur, préférentiellement sur les tissus circulatoires et chloragogène.

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Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1987

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BIOLOGY OF THE PREDATORY FLY COENOSIA TIGRINA (FAB.)(DIPTERA: ANTHOMYIIDAE): REPRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND LARVAL FEEDING ON EARTHWORMS IN THE LABORATORY1
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BIOLOGY OF THE PREDATORY FLY COENOSIA TIGRINA (FAB.)(DIPTERA: ANTHOMYIIDAE): REPRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND LARVAL FEEDING ON EARTHWORMS IN THE LABORATORY1
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BIOLOGY OF THE PREDATORY FLY COENOSIA TIGRINA (FAB.)(DIPTERA: ANTHOMYIIDAE): REPRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND LARVAL FEEDING ON EARTHWORMS IN THE LABORATORY1
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