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Commentary: Defining Death: Definitions, Criteria, and Tests



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1. Bernat, JL, Dalle Ave, AL. Aligning the criterion and tests for brain death. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 2019;28(4):635–41.

2. Bernat, JL, Culver, CM, Gert, B. On the definition and criterion of death. Annals of Internal Medicine 1981;94:389–94, at 390.

3. See note 2, Bernat et al. 1981, at 390.

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5. Cannon, WB. The Wisdom of the Body. New York: The Norton Library; 1932.

6. See note 2, Bernat et al. 1981, at 390.

7. Burkle, CM, Sharp, RR, Wijdicks, EF. Why brain death is considered death and why there should be no confusion. Neurology 2014;83:1464–9.

8. Wijdicks, EFM. Deliberating death in the summer of 1968. New England Journal of Medicine 2018;379:412–5.

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11. Shewmon, DA. Spinal shock and brain death’: Somatic pathophysiological equivalence and implications for the integrative-unity rationale. Spinal Cord 1999;37:313–24.

12. The president’s council on bioethics. Controversies in the Determination of Death: A White Paper of the President’s Council on Bioethics, December 2008, at 40.

13. Veatch, RM. The whole-brain-oriented concept of death. An outmoded philosophical formulation. Journal of Thanatology 1975;3:1330, at 15.

14. See note 2, Bernat et al. 1981, at 390.

15. Academy of medical royal colleges. A Code of Practice for the Diagnosis and Confirmation of Death . 2008; available at (last accessed 26 Feb 2019).

16. Shewmon, DA. False-positive diagnosis of brain death following the pediatric guidelines: Case report and discussion. Journal of Child Neurology 2017;32:1104–17.

17. Shewmon, DA. The case of jahi mcmath: A neurologist’s view. Hastings Center Report 2018;48 Suppl 4:S74–S6.

18. Hornby, K, Hornby, L, Shemie, SD. A systematic review of autoresuscitation after cardiac arrest. Critical Care Medicine 2010;38:1246–53.

Commentary: Defining Death: Definitions, Criteria, and Tests



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