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The Revolutions of 1841–2 in Afghanistan

  • M. E. Yapp

Extract

The Anglo-Saddozai government in Afghanistan was overthrown by a series of risings in 1841–2. The first of these risings was that of the eastern Ghilzai tribes, who broke the line of communīcatīons between Kabul and Jalālābād at the end of September and the beginning of October 1841. On 1 November disturbances began in Kabul and these were followed by risings in the Kohistān, in the area of Ghaznī, and, sometime later, at Qandahar. In January 1842 the Kabul garrison withdrew, under treaty, but was entirely destroyed. In March 1842 the garrison at Ghazni surrendered and was destroyed. The garrisons at Jalālābād and Qandahar held out and were reinforced from Peshawar and Quetta respectively. In August and September they advanced and reoccupied Kabul, but soon afterwards the British withdrew altogether from Afghanistan. Between January and August 1842 there was a struggle for power among the various groups in eastern Afghanistan, which ended in the victory of Muḥammad Akbar, son of Dost Muḥammad. Although Akbar and his supporters were forced to fly at the time of the reconquest they were soon able to return, resume power, and prepare for the restoration of Dost Muhammad in May 1843.

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1 This article, like its two predecessors, Disturbances in eastern Afghanistan, 1839–42,’ BSOAS, XXV, 3, 1962, 499523, and Disturbances in western Afghanistan, 1839–41,’ BSOAS, XXVI, 2, 1963, 288313, to which the reader is referred for background information, is based principally on the series entitled ‘Enclosures to Secret Letters from India’, in the India Office Library. The ‘Enclosures’ are duplicates of the letters which are in the series entitled ‘India Secret Consultations’. I have used the Enclosures, partly because of a preference for the arrangement of the documents in that series, and partly because, owing to Lord Ellenborough's profound mistrust of his officials, and to his absence from Calcutta during much of 1842, the Consultations became temporarily disorganized. The Enclosures have two other advantages. They contain useful pencilled notes by the President of the Board of Control and others, and they are the copies from which papers for the Cabinet and Parliament were printed and are marked accordingly, showing which documents and which sections were deleted. In the period covered by these articles the contents of the two series are the same, although this does not hold true of all periods. In the early 1830's some bulky memoranda were not transmitted to London. The letters printed for Parliament are in H. of C. 1843, vol. XXXVII. This selection was made to explain British policy and not internal developments in Afghanistan; most of the letters used in this article do not appear in it. The letters in the Parliamentary Papers also contain a number of errors. I have therefore used the MS letters throughout. Other documents were published inStocqueler, J. H., Memorials of Afghanistan, Calcutta, 1843. I have occasionally referred to the F.O. papers and to the collections of private papers used by W. A. J. Archbold in his article in the Cambridge History of India, vol. v. But these papers are primarily of interest for British policy and the information they contain is only rarely useful for internal developments. Neither the Enclosures nor the Consultations were available to Mr. Archbold. There are several first-hand accounts of these events published by participants. Perhaps the most important of these is Lal, Mohan, Life of Dost Mohammad, 2 vols., London, 1846. Mohan Lal lived in Kabul throughout the period under consideration and his letters form one of the principal sources. Several of these letters have been published, mostly in summary form, in Gupta, H. R., Life and work of Mohan Lai Kashmiri, Lahore, 1943. Mohan Lal lived in the Qizilbāsh quarter. The other main source, Lieut. J. B. Conolly, lived with first, Zamān Khān Bārakzai, and later Mīr Hājjī. Their letters therefore make excellent controls on each other. Of the two, Lal was the more frequent correspondent and the best informed. He had regular informants in the Bālā Ḥiṣār and sent agents round daily to the houses of all the principal chiefs. Conolly's opportunities for gathering information were more restricted and his methods of transmitting it much less organized. Some of his letters were written in Greek characters, in rice water, on glazed paper, and it proved impossible to read them in their entirety. With the writings of other prisoners and Afghan correspondents the events at Kabul are amply documented. Elsewhere the situation is much poorer. At Qandahar we are heavily dependent on Rawlinson. The unlucky hoof of a mule, which kicked over a camp-fire, destroyed nearly all the records of the Qandahar agency. From Ghaznī and Kalāt-i Ghilzai, where the taciturn Major Leech held silent sway, there is almost nothing. A few private letters in certain biographies are a little help. Of the later mono-graphs by far the most important is that of Kaye, J. W., History of the war in Afghanistan, second ed., 3 vols., London, 1858. Kaye had access to many of the MS sources including some which are not available now. The important private papers of Henry Rawlinson, however, including his private journal of the rebellion at Qandahar, which was used by Kaye, are available at the Royal Geographical Society Library in London. Kaye's first interest was in British policy but he does include a substantial amount of material on internal developments.

2 See the article ‘Ghilzyes’ in Macgregor, C. A. (ed.), Central Asia. Part II. Afghanistan, Calcutta, 1871.

3 Eyre, V., The Kabul insurrection of 1841–2, ed. Malleson, , London, 1879, 68–9; Sale, F., A journal of the disasters in Affghunistan, 1841–2, London, 1843, 78; Macgregor to Macnaghten Oct. 1841, ESL, 86, No. 38A of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

4 Macnaghten to Maddock 26 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 10 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

5 Macnaghten to Macgregor 30 Jan. 1841, ESL, 91, No. 2 of No. 4 of No. 16 of 8 Mar. 1842; Trcvor to Macnaghten 2 Oct. 1841, ibid., No. 4; Eyre, 70.

6 Macnaghten to Auckland (pte.) 13 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841; Gray to Luard 7 Feb. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 53 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842; Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

7 Macnaghten to Maddock 26 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 10 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841; Macnaghten to Macgregor 7 Oct. 1841, ESL, 91, No. 7 of No. 4 of No. 16 of 8 Mar. 1842.

8 Macnaghten to Colvin (pte.) 6 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841; Macnaghten to Auckland (pte.), 10 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

9 Burn to Mackeson (pte.) 14 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 15 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841; Burn to Ferris (pte.) 14 Oct. 1841, ibid.; Macnaghten to Auckland (pte.) 10 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

10 Macnaghten to Macgregor 24 Oct. 1841, ESL, 91, No. 17 of No. 4 of No. 16 of 8 Mar. 1843; Maenaghten to Macgregor 27 Oct. 1841, ibid., No. 21; Kaye, II, 160.

11 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

12 Mackeson to Maddock 11 Nov. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 13 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841. It is not clear what the evidence rests on. The statement is not borne out by the letter of ‘Abd alKarīm Khan to ‘Abd al-Raḥmān Popalzai the Shāh's agent, quoted by Mackeson in evidence.

13 Mackeson to Clerk 11 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 18 of No. 96 of 20 Nov. 1841. Mackeson gives Burn as his source.

14 Captaīn A. W. Gray to Luard 7 Feb. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 53 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

15 Shujā' thought the terms offered to the Ghilzais too lenient. See Macnaghten to Macgregor 27 Oct. 1841, ESL, 91, No. 21 of No. 4 of No. 16 of 8 Mar. 1843.

16 Burn to Mackeson 10 Oct. 1841, 17 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 15 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

17 Sale, 15; Eyre, 75.

18 Eyre, 73; Macnaghten to Macgregor 18 Oct. 1841, ESL, 91, No. 11, 19 Oct. 1841, No. 13, 25 Oct. 1841, No. 18, 27 Oct. 1841, No. 21 (Shujā' was unwilling to admit the guilt of the officer in charge), 29 Oct. 1841, No. 23, of No. 4 of No. 16 of 8 Mar. 1843.

19 Mackeson to Maddock 9 Nov. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 21 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

20 See, for example, Macnaghten to Macgregor 20 Oct. 1841, ESL, 91, No. 14 of No. 4 of No. 16 of 8 Mar. 1843.

21 Lal, II, 412. See also Lal to Colvin 29 Jan. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30B of No. 14 of 17 May 1842; Kaye, II, 179.

22 Lawrence, G., Forty-three years in India, London, 1874, 75.

23 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lal, II, 389.

21 Lal, II, 392.

25 This account of the feudal system in Afghanistan is based on the following sources: Captain R. S. Trevor, Report, 15 Nov. 1839, ESL, 64, No. 45 of No. 2 of 13 Jan. 1840; Trevor, Report, 31 Aug. 1840, ESL, 73, No. 5 of No. 140 of 19 Dec. 1840; Trevor, Report, 9 Sept. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 23 of No. 96 of 20 Nov. 1841; Macnaghten to Maddock 6 Jan. 1841, ESL, 74, No. 49 of No. 13 of 19 Feb. 1841; Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 29 July 1840, Rawlinson MSS. I have not attempted here to do more than provide enough information to support the argument that the position of the chiefs was seriously menaced. A full exposition of the problems of military organization and land-holding in Afghanistan must await a correlation of British and Mughul sources with whatever may come to light in Afghanistan. The similarities of the system described here to that of the Mughuls are obvious. For information on this, see Irvine, W., The army of the Indian Moghuls, London, 1903; Moreland, W. H., India at the death of Akbar, London, 1920, and From Akbar to Aurangzeb, London, 1923; Aziz, Abdul, The mansabdārī system and the Mughal army, Lahore, 1946.

26 Trevor, Report, 31 Aug. 1840, ESL, 73, No. 5 of No. 140 of 19 Dec. 1840.

27 See Macnaghten to Maddock 17 June 1841, ESL, 79, No. 90 of No. 68 of 20 Aug. 1841. But see also Macnaghten to Maddock 6 Aug. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 29 of No. 88 of 21 Oct. 1841, and Macnaghten to Maddock 28 Aug. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 35 of No. 88 of 21 Oct. 1841. Macnaghten was very conscious of the political dangers of reductions.

28 See Trevor, Report, 7 June 1841, ESL, 79, No. 109 of No. 68 of 20 Aug. 1841.

28 Macnaghten to Maddock 5 Sept. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

30 Lieut. E. Haley, Report on the Ḥāẓirbāsh, 12 Aug. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 21 of No. 88 of 21 Oct. 1841; Trevor, Report, 7 June 1841, ESL, 79, No. 109 of No. 68 of 20 Aug. 1841.

31 Trevor to G. Lawrence Aug. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 20 of No. 88 of 21 Oct. 1841; Trevor, Report, 9 Sept. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 23 of No. 96 of 20 Nov. 1841; Mackeson to Maddock 11 Nov. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 13 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

32 Macnaghten to Maddock 17 June 1841, ESL, 79, No. 90 of No. 68 of 20 Aug. 1841. There is abundant evidence of the effects of the inflation in the reports of C.O.'s of new regiments, trying to equip their men, e.g. Maule to Lawrence 26 Jan. 1841, ESL, 77, No. 36 of No. 53 of 1 July 1841.

33 Burnes to Macnaghten 7 Aug. 1840, ESL, 71, No. 65 of No. 112 of 16 Oct. 1840. Cf. also the opposition by Macnaghten to Rawlinson's proposals to reduce the price of meat in Qandahar; Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 1 Sept. 1840, Rawlinson MSS.

34 Lal, II, 321.

35 Official values of grain were raised by 50–100%; Trevor, Report, 9 Sept. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 23 of No. 96 of 20 Nov. 1841. But an attempt was also made to make the holders take payment in cash; Trevor, Report, 15 Nov. 1839, ESL, 64, No. 45 of No. 2 of 13 Jan. 1840.

36 Lal, II, 365.

37 Macnaghten t o Maddock 15 Mar. 1841, ESL, 76, No. 21 of No. 37 of 12 May 1841.

38 Lal to Colvin 29 Jan. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30B of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

39 Lal, II, 365–8.

40 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

41 Lal, II, 391–9, deals with this complaint in detail. See also Lawrence, 130. Shuja' to Auckland 25 Feb. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 27 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842. In March 1842 a revealing incident took place. A woman and her lover murdered the woman's husband. The Qāẓī, 'Abd al-Karīm ordered them both to be stoned to death. ‘The people were gratified at this act of justice and observed that it would never have been administered to them under the British reign’ (Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence to 31 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842).

42 Lieut. Haley, Report on th e Hāẓirbāsh, 12 Aug. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 70 of No. 88 of 21 Oct. 1841.

43 Macnaghten to Auckland (pte.) 30 June 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841; Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 25 June 1841, Rawlinson MSS.

44 Macnaghten t o Auckland (pte.) 4 July 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

45 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Macnaghten to Maddock 13 Jan. 1840, ESL, 60, No. 3 of No. 15 of 17 Feb. 1840; Rawlinson to McNeill (pte.) 11 Dec. 1841, BM Add. MS 43238, fol. 329; Mackeson to Clerk 11 Oct. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 18 of No. 96 of 20 Nov. 1841.

46 Macnaghten to Colvin (pte.) 1 Sept. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

47 Macnaghten to Auckland (pte.) 5 Sept. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841. Shujā' claimed that he pardoned them only at the request of Macnaghten and the Niẕām (Shujā' to Auckland n.d., ESL, 84, No. 91 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842).

48 Macnaghten to Auckland (pte.) 27 Sept. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64B of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

49 Lal, II, 383–5.

50 Burnes, Memo, of conversation with Shujā', 12 July 1840, ESL, 70, No. 35 of No. 99 of 13 Sept. 1840.

51 Macnaghten, Statement, 21 Aug. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 35 of No. 88 of 21 Oct. 1841, Appendix A.

52 Shujā' to Macnaghten n.d., c. Apr. 1841, ESL, 77, No. 21 of No. 47 of 9 June 1841.

53 Macnaghten to Maddock 28 Aug. 1841, ESL, 80, No. 35 of No. 88 of 21 Oct. 1841.

55 Shujā' to Clerk n.d., c. Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 30 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842.

56 Macnaghten to Colvin (pte.) 1 Sept. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

57 Macnaghten to Auckland (pte.) 6 Oct. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 64 of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

58 Burnes, Memo, of conversation with Shāh Shujā', 12 July 1840, ESL, 70, No. 35 of No. 99 of 13 Sept. 1840.

59 Shujā' to Auckland 25 Feb. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 27 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842.

60 Lal, II, 315–24; Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

61 Mackeson to Clerk 4 Dec. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 62C of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

62 Shujā' to Clerk n.d., c. Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 20 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842; Shujā' to Auckland n.d., ESL, 84, No. 91 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

63 Lawrence, 65.

64 Lal, II, 407. The wording is slightly different in his Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

65 Lal to Thomason 28 May 1843, ESL, 95, No. 3 of No. 1 of 6 Jan. 1844.

66 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

67 Sale to Sale 9 Dec. 1841, ESL, 82, No. 9 of No. 2 of 9 Jan. 1842.

68 Lal, II, 408.

69 Conolly to Macgregor 17 Nov. 1841, ESL, 86, No. 38A of No. 14 of 17 May 1842. See also Maekeson to Clerk 4 Dec. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 62C of No. 109 of 27 Dec. 1841.

70 Sale, 94.

71 Sale, 111.

72 Sale to Sale 9 Dec. 1841, ESL, 82, No. 9 of No. 2 of 9 Jan. 1842.

73 Sale, 91 and 120. The rebels were estimated to have lost over 2,000 killed and wounded by this date; Muhammad Rāfiq to Mullā Ḥusain 5 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 73 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

74 Sale, 120.

75 Conolly to Macgregor 7 Dec. 1841, ESL, 86, No. 38A of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

76 Sale, 134.

77 Sale, 136.

78 Macnaghten to Macgregor n.d., c. 10 Dec. 1841, ESL, 82, No. 9 of No. 2 of 9 Jan. 1842.

79 G. Lawrence to H. Lawrence (pte.) Jan. 1841, ESL, 83, Agra Letter, 19 Feb. 1842.

80 Eyre, 198–203; Lawrence, 105–8; Macnaghten to Maddock n.d., c. 20 Dec. 1841, ESL, 88, No. 47A of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Kaye, II, 425.

81 Macnaghten summoned Mohan Lal and Sulṭān Muḥammad Khān, son-in-law of Khān Shīrīn. and instructed them on the need to adopt in public the appearance of support for the Bārakzais and of hostility to Shāh Shujā'; Macnaghten to Lal 17 Dec. 1841, in Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842. See also Macnaghten to Lal 15 Dec. 1841, ESL, 95, No. 7 of No. 7 of No. 1 of 6 Jan. 1844; Lal to Colvin 29 Jan. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30B of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

82 Muḥammad Rāfiq to Mullā Ḥusain 5 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 73 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842; Shujā' to Auckland 25 Feb. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 27 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842; Eyre, 206; Macnaghten to Maddock n.d., c. 20 Dec. 1841, ESL, 88, No. 47A of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

83 Shujā' to Clerk n.d., c. Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 30 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842.

84 Sale, 140.

85 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842, and enclosure, Macnaghten to Lal 20 Dec. 1841. Also Macnaghten to Lal 15 Dec. 1841, and 16 Dec. 1841, ESL, 95, Nos. 7 and 8 of No. 7 of No. 1 of 6 Jan. 1844.

86 Mīrzā Āghā Jan to his father, Dec. 1841, ESL, 82, No. 18T of No. 9 of 22 Jan. 1842.

87 News Letter No. 3, 22 Jan. 1842, ESL, 90.

88 Muḥammad Rāfiq to Mullā Ḥusain 5 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 73 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

89 Macnaghten to Skinner 18 Dec. 1841, ESL, 89, No. 6 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842.

90 Sale, 152–3; Lawrence, 114–15.

91 Kaye, II, 413.

92 Akbar to 'Abd al-Samad Khān in Bukhāra, 26 Dec. 1841, F.O. 60/87.

93 Elphinstone to Macnaghten 13 Dec. 1841, and 16 Dec. 1841, ESL, 91, Nos. 60 and 61 of No. 4 of No. 16 of 8 Mar. 1843.

94 Eyre, 214, 221; Lawrence, 115.

95 Kaye, II, 413.

96 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

97 See the accounts of the meeting in Eyre, 217; Lawrence, 118; Kaye, II, 413; Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Muḥammad Rāfiq to Mullā Ḥusain 5 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 73 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842; Lawrence to Pottinger 10 May 1842, ESL, 88, No. 47A of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Sale to Sale 31 Dec. 1841, ESL, 82, Agra Letter, 22 Jan. 1842, p. 8; Akbar to 'Abd al-Samad Khān 26 Dec. 1841, F.O. 60/87.

88 Pottinger to Maddock 1 Feb. 1842, ESL, 88, No. 47A of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

99 Conolly to Macgregor 17 Jan. 1842, ESL, 83, Agra Letter, 19 Feb. 1842.

100 Conolly to Macgregor 1 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 2 4 of No. 3 of 21 Mar. 1842; Kaye, II, 426–7.

101 Shujā' to Gov.-Gen. c. 26 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 27 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

102 Conolly to Macgregor 17 Jan. 1842, ESL, 83, Agra Letter, 19 Feb. 1842; Kaye, in, 422–3; Conolly to Clerk c. 24 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 27 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842. Money continued to be coined in the name of Zamān, at least until February; Macgregor to Pollock (pte.) 14 Feb. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 12 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

103 Shujā' to Macgregor n.d., ESL, 84, No. 11 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842; Conolly to Greathed c. 24 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 29 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

104 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lal to Macgregor 10 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 4 of No. 36 of 13 May 1842.

105 Lal to Colvin 29 Jan. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30A of No. 14 of 17 May 1842; Conolly to Clerk 26 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 27 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842; Kaye, III, 424.

106 The chiefs tried to induce Shujā' to kill the hostages; Webb to Richardson 16 Jan. 1842, and Webb to his sister 17 Jan. 1842, India Office Library, European MS 489, 6 and 8; Shujā' to Macgregor n.d., ESL, 84, No. 11 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

107 Lal to Macgregor 30 Jan. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

108 For this correspondence see ESL, 85, No. 28 of No. 3 of 21 Mar. 1842; also Broadfoot, W., ‘Defence of Jalalabad’, EHR, VIII, 1, 1893, 93108.

109 Shujā' to Macgregor 8 Feb. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 24 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

110 Shujā' to Macgregor reed. 7 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 24 of No. 3 of 21 Mar. 1842.

111 Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence to 31 Mar. 1842 (under 20 Mar.), ESL, 85, No. 4, Agra Letter, 23 Apr. 1842.

112 Lal to Macgregor 10 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

113 Conolly to Macgregor 15 Feb. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 91 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842; Kaye, III, 424–6; Conolly to Macgregor 1 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 24 of No. 37 of 21 Apr. 1842; Kaye, III, 426–7. But Conolly claims that he refused to advance money to Zamān after March; Conolly to Macgregor 18 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 27 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842. On 16 March the commander of Zamān's force deserted to the Saddozais, ibid. See also Lal to Macgregor 18 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

114 Lal to Colvin 15 Feb. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30B of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

115 Lal to Macgregor 28 Feb. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

116 Conolly to Macgregor 2 or 5 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 21 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842; Conolly to Macgregor 3 Mar. 1842, ibid., No. 24; Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence to 31 Mar. 1842 (under 19 Mar. 1842), ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

117 Lal to Macgregor 18 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

118 Lal to Macgregor 31 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842; Conolly to Rawlinson 30 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 22 of No. 10 of 11 May 1842.

119 Shujā' to Gov.-Gen. n.d., c. 26 Mar. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 27 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

120 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

121 Lal to Macgregor 5 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

122 Lal to Macgregor 10 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842; Lal to Mackeson 10 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 4 of No. 36 of 13 May 1842; Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence, 20 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 28 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

123 Lal to Macgregor 25 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 31 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

124 Lal to Macgregor 17 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 5 of No. 36 of 13 May 1842 (P in C). Amīnullāh attempted to stop this by a declaration that anyone who attempted to remove his property should have it plundered; Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence, 27 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, Agra Letter, 14 May 1842.

125 Conolly to Macgregor n.d., c. 12 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 4 of No. 36 of 13 May 1842 (P in C).

126 Lal to Macgregor 10 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 4 of No. 36 of 13 May 1842.

127 Lal to Macgregor 27 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 83 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842; Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence, 27 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, Agra Letter, 14 May 1842.

128 Lal to Macgregor 25 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 31 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

129 Lal to Macgregor 17 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 5 of No. 36 of 13 May 1842 (P in C).

130 Letter to Mīrzā Āghā Jān, governor of the Gigīānīs, 17 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 11 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

131 Lal to Macgregor 27 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 31 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

132 Fatḥ Jang to Macgregor Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 29 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

133 Amīnullāh to Gigīānī maliks; ESL, 86, No. 7 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

134 Lal to Macgregor 27 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 83 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

135 Lal to Macgregor 25 Apr. 1842, and 27 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 31 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

136 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lal to Macgregor 2 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 23 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842; Conolly to Macgregor 8 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 141 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842; Fatḥ Jang to Pollock 11 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 28 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842; Mīrzā Āghā Jān to Macgregor n.d., May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 23 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

137 Letter wrongly dated 31 Apr. 1842 (really 2 May 1842), ESL, 86, No. 23 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

138 Fatḥ Jang to Pollock May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 28 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

139 Lal to Macgregor 5 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 24 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842. Curiously enough he had with him a few Kohistānīs with Mīr Āftāb and Mīr Sayyid Khān, descendants of Mīr Wais (ibid.).

140 Macgregor to Mackeson 3 Dec. 1841, ESL, 81, No. 62B of No. 109 of 22 Dec. 1841.

141 Macgregor to Mackeson 13 Dec. 1841, ESL, 82, No. 9 of No. 9 of 22 Jan. 1842.

142 Macgregor to Mackeson 12 Jan. 1842, ESL, 83, No. 55 of No. 16 of 19 Feb. 1842; Mackeson to Clerk 30 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 20 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

143 Akbar to Tūrabāz Khān, ESL, 83, Agra Letter, 19 Feb. 1842; cf. also Akbar to Āyat al-Dīn, ibid.

144 Mackeson to Pollock 14 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 21 of No. 3 of 21 Mar. 1842.

145 Kabul and Peshawar Intelligence to 31 Mar. 1842 (under 20 Mar.), ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842; Kabul and Peshawar Intelligence to 8 Apr. 1842 (under 8 Apr.), ESL, 85, No. 4, Agra Letter, 23 Apr. 1842. Shujā' claimed that Akbar only appealed to religion because he could not afford to pay his troops; Shujā' to Auckland n.d., ESL, 85, No. 27 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842; Shujā' to Macgregor reed. 7 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 24 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842. Akbar did raise funds by plundering caravans on the pretext that they were carrying British goods; Kabul and Peshawar Intelligence to 31 Mar. 1842 (under 17 Mar.), ESL, 86, No. 30 of No. 14 of 17 May 1842.

146 Sayyid 'Abd al-Raḥmān to Clerk reed. 23 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 30 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842; Macgregor to Pollock 12 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 3 of No. 1 of 21 Apr. 1842.

147 Mackeson to Pollock n.d., enc. in Pollock to Maddock 16 Mar. 1842, ESL, 84, Agra Letter, 25 Mar. 1842; Pollock to Maddock 21 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, Agra Letter, 23 Apr. 1842; Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence to 31 Mar. 1842 (under 17 Mar.), ESL, 85, No. 4, Agra Letter, 23 Apr. 1842.

148 Macgregor to Pollock 29 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 15 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842.

149 Sale to Ponsonby 7 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 42 of No. 15 of 8 June, 1842; Macgregor to Pollock 7 Apr. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 7 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842.

150 Pottinger to Macgregor 23 Jan. 1842, ESL, 83, Agra Letter, 17 Feb. 1842.

151 Pottinger to Pollock 20 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 13 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842; Pollock t o Maddock 28 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, Agra Letter, 14 May 1842.

152 See letters in ESL, 87, No. 61 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

153 Pollock to Pottinger 26 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 13 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

154 Pottinger to Pollock 3 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 18 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842; unsealed memo, by Akbar to Pollock brought by Mackenzie 8 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 49 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

155 Pollock to Pottinger 10 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 49 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

166 Pottinger to Pollock 10 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 36 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

157 Lal to Macgregor 9 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 28 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

158 Lal to Macgregor 13 May 1842 (No. 2), ESL, 86, No. 36 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842. Fatḥ Jang dates these negotiations on 12 May but otherwise confirms Lal's version; Patḥ Jang to Macgregor 13 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 41 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

159 Lal to Macgregor 18 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 52 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842. See also Akbar, to Gigīānī, maliks 16 05 1842, ESL, 86, No. 52 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842; Conolly to Macgregor 18 May 1842, ESL, 88, No. 7 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

160 Fatḥ Jang to Pollock 12 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 62 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

161 Lal to Macgregor 2 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 18 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

162 Lal, Memo., 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842. See also Lal to Shakespear 5 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 23 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

163 Lal to Macgregor 5 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 24 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

164 Lal to Macgregor 22 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 141 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

165 Lal to Macgregor 23 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 6 of No. 22 of 8 June 1842.

166 Lal to Macgregor 22 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 141 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

167 Fatḥ Jang to Pollock n.d., c. end May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 21 of No. 22 of 18 July 1842.

168 Lal to Macgregor 25 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 16 of No. 22 of 18 July 1842.

169 Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence to 23 May 1842 (under 21–3 May), ESL, 86, Agra Letter, 9 June 1842.

170 Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence to 23 May 1842 (under 18 May), ESL, 86, Agra Letter, 9 June 1842.

171 Lal to Macgregor 26 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 12 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

172 Lal to Macgregor 28 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 13 of No. 22 of 8 Jul y 1842.

173 Lal to Macgregor 30 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 15 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842; Lal to Macgregor 2 June 1842, ibid., No. 18.

174 Conolly to Macgregor 8 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 54 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

175 Lal to Shakespear 6 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 25 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

176 Lal to Shakespear 9 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 30 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

177 Lal to Shakespear 10 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 35 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842; Lal to Shakespear 13 June 1842, ibid., No. 42; Lal to Shakespear 30 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 21 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Conolly to Shakespear 1 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 28 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

178 Lal to Shakespear 9 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 30 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842; Lal to Shake-spear 13 June 1842, ibid., No. 42; Lal to Macgregor 17 Jun e 1842, ESL, 88, No. 3 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

179 Lal to Shakespear 14 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 47 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

180 Lal to Shakespear 14 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 47 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842; Lal to Macgregor 15 June 1842, ibid., No. 56. Mīr Hājjī's position is a little doubtful. On 18 Jun e Conolly referred to rumours tha t he had been bribed, but he still maintained the appearance of a mediator; Conolly to Macgregor 23 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 20 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Kaye, III, 453.

181 Lal to Macgregor 20 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 20 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

182 Lal to Macgregor 21 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 6 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

183 Lal to Shakespear 22 June 1842 (2 letters), ESL, 88, NOs. 7 and 8 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lal to Shakespear 24 June 1842, ibid., No. 12.

184 Lal to Shakespear 19 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 50 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

185 Letter dated 26 July 1842, Kaye, III, 453–5.

186 Lal to Shakespear 29 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 24 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Conolly to Pollock n.d., c. June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 48 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842. The Peshawar Intelligence misdates this on 17 June; Peshawar Intelligence, 15 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 88C of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

187 Letter dated 2 Aug. 1842, ESL, 89, No. 25 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842.

188 See Lal to Shakespear 28 June 1842, ESL, 88, No. 19 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842. Akbar was also helped by certain Bārakzai relations especially Sulṭān Jān, Nawwāb Jabbār Khān, and 'Abd al-Ghiās.

189 Pottinger to Pollock 10 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 36 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

190 e.g. Lawrence, 188.

191 Lal to Shakespear 31 July 1842, ESL, 89, No. 13 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842.

192 Pottinger to Shakespear Nov. 1842, ESL, 90, No. 3 of No. 62 of 20 Dec. 1842.

193 Lal to Shakespear 17 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 49 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lal to Shakespear 19 July 1842, ibid., No. 50.

194 Lal to Shakespear 4 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 28 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Ḥaida r 'Alī to Lal n.d., ESL, 88, No. 56 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

195 Lal to Shakespear 19 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 51 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lal to Shakespear 31 July 1842, ESL, 89, No. 13 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842.

196 Lal to Shakespear 26 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 59 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Peshawar and Kabul Intelligence, 26 Aug. 1842, ESL, 89, No. 98 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842; Peshawar Intelligence, 3 Sept. 1842, ESL, 89, No. 46 of No. 49 of 19 Oct. 1842.

197 Lal to Shakespear 6 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 29 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lal to Shakespear 8 July 1842, ibid.; Lal to Shakespear 9 July 1842, ibid.; Lal to Shakespear 11 July 1842, ibid., No. 39; Conolly to Shakespear 6 July 1842, ibid., No. 28.

198 Mīr 'Alī Murād Khānī to Pollock 2 Aug. 1842, ESL, 89, No. 25 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842.

199 Lal to Shakespear 8 Aug. 1842, ESL, 89, No. 28 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842.

200 Fatḥ Jang to Pollock 21 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 56 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

201 Pollock to Maddock 14 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 36 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

202 Memo, of conversation of Troup, Pottinger, and Akbar, ESL, 89, No. 19 of 17 Sept. 1842; Lal to Shakespear 29 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 61 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Lawrence, 204–10; Fatḥ Jang to Pollock 30 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 62 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

203 Chiefs to Pollock, ESL, 88, No. 62 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

204 Pollock to Fatḥ Jang 3 Aug. 1842, ESL, 88, No. 62 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

205 Pollock to Maddock 13 Oct. 1842, ESL, 90, No. 14 of No. 52 of 19 Nov. 1842; Pollock to Maddock 24 Oct. 1842, ibid., No. 30.

206 Khān Shīrīn and Ghulām Muḥammad Khān Popalzai to Pollock 7 Oct. 1842, ESL, 90, No. 30 of No. 52 of 19 Nov. 1842.

207 Pollock to Maddock 25 Oct. 1842, ESL, 90, No. 32 of No. 52 of 19 Nov. 1842.

208 Rawlinson to McNeill (pte.) 11 Dec. 1841, BM Add. MS 43238, fol. 329.

209 Rawlinson, journal, 27 Jan. 1842.

210 ibid., 25 May 1842. See also Stacy, L. R., Narrative of services in Beloochistan and Afghanistan, London, 1848, 152–62.

211 ibid., 5 Jan. 1842.

212 Rawlinson to Nott (draft) 7 Jan. 1842, Rawlinson MSS (hereafter RM); quoted Kaye, III, 135.

213 Rawlinson to Colvin (pte.) 24 Dec. 1841, ESL, 84, No. 66 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

214 Rawlinson to Maddock 6 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 32 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842. Apart from Rawlinson's private journal this long despatch is the principal record of the disturbances in the Qandahar area.

215 Rawlinson, journal, 27 Dec. 1841. I n Rawlinson's despatch of 6 Mar. and inStocqueler, J. H., Life of Nott, 2 vols., London, 1854, I, 395—7, the date appears as 26 December.

216 Rawlinson to Hammersley (pte.) 9 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 6 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

217 Rawlinson, journal, 29 Dec. 1841.

218 ibid., 8 Jan. 1842.

219 Rawlinson to Nott 7 Jan. 1842, RM.

220 Rawlinson, journal, 7 Jan. 1842.

221 Rawlinson to Hammersley (pte.) 4 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 66 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

222 Rawlinson, journal, 12 Jan. 1842.

223 ibid., 11 Jan. 1842.

224 ibid., 12 Aug. 1842.

225 e.g. Rawlinson, journal, 7 Feb. 1842.

226 ibid., 20 Jan. 1842.

227 ibid., 4 Feb. 1842.

228 ibid., 26 Jan. 1842.

229 ibid., 3 Feb. 1842.

230 ibid., 13 Feb. 1842.

231 ibid., 9 Feb. 1842, 10 Feb. 1842, 28 Feb. 1842.

232 ibid., 1 Feb. 1842.

233 ibid., 21 Jan. 1842.

234 ibid., 20 Feb. 1842, 22 Feb. 1842.

235 ibid., 19 Mar. 1842.

236 Rawlinson to Outram 15 Feb. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 81 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842. A week later Rawlinson put the numbers at 9,000; Rawlinson to Haddock 6 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 32 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842.

237 Rawlinson, journal, 24 Feb. 1842.

238 ESL, 90, News Letter No. 20 of 1 Mar. 1842.

239 Kaye, III, 145–7.

210 Rawlinson, journal, 10 Feb. 1842, 11 Feb. 1842.

241 ibid., 14 Mar. 1842.

242 ibid., 1 Apr. 1842, 5 Apr. 1842.

243 ibid., 10 Apr. 1842, 11 Apr. 1842.

244 ibid., 5 May 1842, 9 May 1842.

245 ibid., 1 May 1842.

246 ibid., 26 Mar. 1842.

247 Rawlinson to Hammersloy (pte.) 17 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 22 of No. 10 of 17 May 1842.

248 Rawlinson to Hammersley (pte.) 18 Apr. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 22 of No. 10 of 17 May 1842.

249 Rawlinson to Outram (pte.) 11 Apr. 1842, Public Record Office 30/12/62.

250 Rawlinson, journal, 10 May 1842.

251 Rawlinson to Hammersley (pte.) 10 May 1842, ESL, 86, No. 133 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842.

252 Nott to Pollock 30 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 41 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842; Kaye, III, 313–16; Bawlinson to Shakespear 31 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 41 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

253 Rawlinson, journal, 6 June 1842.

254 ibid., 16 June 1842.

255 ibid., 19 June 1842.

256 ibid., 20 June 1842; Lal to Shakespear 17 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 49 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

257 Rawlinson, journal, 22 Aug. 1842.

258 ibid., 17 Aug. 1842.

259 ibid., 8 Sept. 1842.

260 Outram to Durand 8 Apr. 1842, ESL, 88, No. 49 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

261 Outram to Maddock 20 Aug. 1842, ESL, 89, No. 105 of No. 38 of 17 Sept. 1842. See alsoStacy, , op. cit., 148.

262 Outram to Elliot 5 July 1842, ESL, 88, No. 102 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

263 Outram to Colvin (pte.) 2 Feb. 1842, ESL, 86, No. 116 of No. 15 of 8 June 1842 (a copy of this letter in Public Record Office 30/12/62 is date d 1 Feb. 1842); Outram to Colvin (pte.) 6 Feb. 1842, ibid.; Outram to Maddock 8 May 1842, ibid.

264 Kaye, III, 161.

265 Palmer to the English at Kabul 22 Feb. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 29 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842; Palmer to C. O. Jalālābād 1 Mar. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 3 of No. 1 of 20 Apr. 1842.

266 Kaye, III, n. 164; Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry at Qandahar, ESL, 88, No. 74 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842; Leech to Nott 19 Mar. 1842, EM; Rawlinson, journal, 25 May 1842.

267 Rawlinson, journal, 26 Aug.-15 Sept. 1842.

268 Rawlinson to Hammersley (pte.) 4 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 66 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

269 Rawlinson to Shakespear 31 May 1842, ESL, 87, No. 41 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842; Rawlinson, journal, 25 May 1842.

270 Letter from Qandahar 16 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 85 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842;Stocqueler, , Nott, I, 430.

271 Rawlinson, journal, 29 Jan. 1842.

278 ibid., 5 Apr. 1842.

273 Rawlinson to Hammersle y (pte.) 31 Dec. 1841, ESL, 84, No. 64 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

274 Rawlinson to Hammersley (pte.) 9 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 67 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

275 Letter from Qandahar 16 Jan. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 85 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842;Stocqueler, , Nott, I, 430.

276 Muḥammad 'Aẓīm, Atā Muḥammad, Mīrzā Aḥmad to Salū Khān Achakzaī, ESL, 84, No. 70 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

277 Rawlinson, journal, 8 Jan. 1842.

278 ibid., 14 Jan. 1842; see also 18 Feb. 1842, 19 Feb. 1842.

278 Stocqueler, , Nott, I, 433–5.

280 Stocqueler, , Nott, I, 417–18. See also the very sophisticated private letter from Mīrzā Aḥmad to Rawlinson, which is summarized in Rawlinson, journal, 19 Feb. 1842.

281 In his correspondence with Rawlinson, Safdar Jang habitually referred to the rebellion as ‘this Dooranee confederacy’ or ‘this Candahar confederacy’, although there are two references to the rebels as Afghans. (See correspondence of Safdar Jang, Mīr 'Abd al-Ḥusain Khān, and Rawlinson in RM.)

282 See the list of pro-British groups and individuals in Rawlinson to Nott 1 June 1842, ESL, 87, No. 76 of No. 22 of 8 July 1842.

283 Rawlinson, journal, 23 Feb. 1842.

281 ibid., 24 Mar. 1842.

285 Rawlinson to Outram (pte.) 3 May 1842, Public Record Office 30/12/62.

286 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 5 Aug. 1840; see also 1 Aug. 1840 and 6 Aug. 1840, RM.

287 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 5 Feb. 1841, RM.

288 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 24 Feb. 1841, RM.

289 e.g. Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 3 Dec. 1840, RM.

290 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 11 July 1840, RM.

291 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 16 Apr. 1841, RM.

292 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 1 June 1841, RM.

293 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 2 July 1841, RM.

294 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 4 July 1841; see also 5 July 1841 and 7 July 1841, RM.

295 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 19 July 1841, 21 July 1841, RM.

296 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 14 July 1841, RM.

297 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 15 July 1841, RM.

298 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 24 July 1841, RM.

299 Maddock to Macnaghten 30 Mar. 1840, ESL, 68, No. 22 of No. 29 of 14 Apr. 1840; Colvin to Macnaghten (pte.) 30 Mar. 1840, BM Add. MS 37698, fol. 105.

300 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 3 Feb. 1841, RM.

301 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 18 Sept. 1840, 21 Sept. 1840, 10 Oct. 1840, 27 Oct. 1840, RM.

302 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 29 Dec. 1840, RM.

303 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 16 Dec. 1840, RM.

304 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 29 Dec. 1840, RM.

305 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 16 Dec. 1840, RM.

308 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 4 May 1841, RM.

307 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 13 Dec. 1841, RM.

308 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 28 Feb. 1841, RM.

309 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 13 Jan. 1841, RM.

310 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 5 Feb. 1841, RM.

311 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 23 Jan. 1841, RM.

312 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 28 Feb. 1841, 9 May 1841, 15 July 1841, RM.

313 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 24 June 1841, 25 June 1841, 19 July 1841, RM.

314 Macnaghten to Rawlinson (pte.) 28 May 1841, RM.

315 Haughton, J. C., Char-ee-kar, London, 1879, 23. See also Pottinger to Maddock 1 Feb. 1842, ESL, 88, No. 47A of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

316 Shujā' to Auckland 25 Feb. 1842, ESL, 85, No. 27 of No. 3 of 21 Apr. 1842.

317 Mackeson to Pollock 11 Feb. 1842, ESL, 84, No. 6 of No. 25 of 22 Mar. 1842.

318 Letter dated 11 Jun e 1842, ESL, 88, No. 73 of No. 32 of 17 Aug. 1842.

319 e.g. letter in Stocqueler, , Nott, I, 366–9.

320 Rawlinson, journal, 1 Sept. 1842. See also Stacy, , op. cit., 196.

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