Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Drift and Noun Plural Reduplication in Afroasiatic

  • Robert R. Ratcliffe (a1)

Extract

Noun plurals showing partial reduplication appear sporadically in a wide variety of Afroasiatic languages, particularly in the Chadic, Cushitic, and Semitic groups. In past treatments it has generally been assumed that these examples are remnants of a widespread proto-Afroasiatic process of plural formation by reduplication. The following paper argues on empirical and theoretical grounds that it is more likely that reduplication as such was not a means of plural formation in proto-Afroasiatic and that a reduplicated plural only occurred as a morpho-phonologically conditioned variant of the prosodically extended stem (or ‘nternal-a’) plural. This paper seeks to demonstrate that in those languages where reduplication does occur as a major means of plural formation it is more easily interpreted as an innovation rather than as a conservative retention.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Bliese, Loren F. 1981. A generative grammar of Afar. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Brocklemann, Carl. 1908/1913. Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der semitischen Sprachen. (2 vols.) Berlin: Reuther and Reichard.
Chaker, Salem. 1983. Un parler berber d'Algérie. Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence Service du Publication.
Collinder, Bjorn. 1960. Comparative grammar of the Uralic languages. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Cortade, Jean-Marie. 1969. Essai de grammaire Touareg (Dialecte de l'Ahaggar). Paris: Arts et métiers graphiques.
Corriente, Frederico. 1971. Problematica de la pluralidad in semitca, el plural fracto. Madrid: Institute B.A. Montano.
Dahl, Otto Christian. 1973. Proto-Austronesian. Scandinavian Institute Monograph Series.
Diakonoff, Igor M. 1965. Semito-Hamitic Languages. Moscow: Nauka.
Diakonoff, Igor M. 1988. Afrasian Languages. Moscow: Nauka.
Firth, J. R. 1948. ‘Sounds and prosodies’, Transactions of the Philological Society, 127152. Reprinted in Palmer, Frank R. (ed.), Prosodic analysis, 1970. London: Oxford University Press.
Greenberg, Joseph H. 1955. ‘Internal a-plurals in Afroasiatic’, in Lukas, Johannes (ed.), Afrikanistische Studien Diedrich Westermann zum 80. Gerburtstag gewidmet. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Hanoteau, Adolphe. 1906. Essai de grammaire Kabyle. Amsterdam.
Hayward, R. J. 1979. ‘Bayso revisited: some preliminary observations—II’, BSOAS, xlii, 1: 101132.
Hayward, R. J. 1984. The Arbore language: a first investigation. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
Johnstone, T. M. 1981. Jibbali Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jungraithmayr, Hermann. 1970. Die Ron Sprachen: Tschadohamitische Studien in Nordnigerien. Gluckstadt: J. J. Augustin.
Kraft, Charles H. and Kirk-Greene, A. H. M.. 1973. Hausa. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Lakoff, Robin. 1972. ‘Another look at drift’, in Stockwell, Robert and Macaulay, Ronald (ed.), Linguistic change and generative theory. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
Leben, William R. 1977. ‘Parsing Hausa plurals’, in Newman, Paul and Newman, Roxana Ma (ed.), Papers in Chadic linguistics, 89105. Leiden: Afrika-Studiecentrum.
Leslau, Wolf. 1991. Comparative dictionary of Geՙez. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz.
Lukas, Johannes. 1937/1938. ‘Der hamitische Gehalt der tschadohamitischen Sprachen’, Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen, 28: 286299.
Lukas, Renate. 1968. ‘Das Nomen in Bade (Nordnigerien)’, Afrika und Übersee, 51: 91116, 198–224.
Meinhof, Carl. 1912. Die Sprachen der Hamiten. Hamburg: L. Frederieschen.
McCarthy, John. 1981. ‘A prosodic theory of non-concatenative morphology’, Linguistic Inquiry, 12: 373418.
McCarthy, John. 1983. ‘A prosodic account of Arabic broken plurals’, in Dihoff, I. (ed.), Current Trends in African Linguistics, I. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
McCarthy, John. 1993. ‘Template form in prosodic morphology’, in Stvan, L. Smith et al. (ed.), Papers from the third Annual Formal Linguistics Society of Midamerica Conference, 187218. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Linguistics Club.
McCarthy, John and Prince, Alan. 1990a. ‘Foot and word in prosodic morphology: the Arabic broken plurals’, Natural Language and Linguisitic Theory, 8: 209283.
McCarthy, John and Prince, Alan. 1990b. ‘Prosodic morphology and templatic morphology’, in Eid, Mushira and McCarthy, John (ed.), Perspectives on Arabic linguistics II. Papers from the second Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, 154. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Nakano, Akio. 1970. ‘Text of Gzira dialect of Neo-Aramaic’, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 3: 166203.
Nakano, Akio. 1973. Conversational texts in Eastern Neo-Aramaic (Gzira Dialect). Tokyo: ILCAA.
Newman, Paul. 1972. ‘Syllable weight as a phonological variable: the nature and function of the contrast between “Heavy” and “Light” syllables’, Studies in African Linguistics, 3/3: 301323.
Newman, Paul. 1984. ‘Methodological pitfalls in Chadic-Afroasiatic comparisons’, in Bynon, James (ed.), Current progress in Afroasiatic linguistics: papers of the third International Hamito-Semitic Congress, 161166. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Newman, Paul. 1990. Nominal and verbal plurality in Chadic. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Palmer, Frank R. 1955. ‘The “broken plurals” of Tigrinya’, BSOAS, xvii, 3, 548565. Reprinted in Palmer, (ed.), Prosodic Analysis, 1970. London: Oxford University Press.
Palmer, Frank R. 1956. ‘“Openness” in Tigre: a problem of prosodic statement’, BSOAS, xviii, 3, 561577. Reprinted in Palmer, (ed.), Prosodic Analysis, 1970. London: Oxford University Press.
Palmer, Frank R. 1959. ‘The noun in Bilin’, BSOAS, xxi, 2: 376391.
Palmer, Frank R. 1962. Morphology of the Tigre noun. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Parsons, F. W. 1975. ‘Hausa and Chadic’, in James, and Bynon, Theodora (ed.), Hamito-Semitica, 421458. The Hague: Mouton.
Pencheon, Thomas G. 1973. Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir. Los Angeles: Undena Publications.
Petracek, Karel. 1960/1961/1962. ‘Die innere Flexion in den Semitischen Sprachen’, Archiv Orientalni, 28: 547606; 29: 513–45; 30: 361–408.
Prasse, Carl G. 1973. Manuel de grammaire touarègue (Tahaggart). (3 vols.) Copenhagen.
Ratcliffe, Robert R. 1992. ‘The broken plural problem in Arabic, Semitic, and Afroasiatic: a solution based on the diachronic apphcation of prosodic analysis’. Unpublished Yale University Dissertation.
Raz, Shlomo. 1983. Tigre grammar and texts. Malibu: Undena Publications.
Reinisch, Leo. 1882/1887. Die Bilin-Sprache in Nordost Afrika. (2 vols.) Vol. I, Vienna: Carl Gerold's Sohn. Vol. n, Vienna: Alfred Holder.
Rosenthal, Franz. 1983. A grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz.
Sapir, Edward. 1921. Language. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Soden, Wolfram von. 1952. Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik. Rome: Pontificum Institutum Biblicum.
Zaborski, Andrezej. 1986. The morphology of the nominal plural in the Cushitic languages. Vienna:Afro-Pub.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed