Effects of the antiparasitic drug eprinomectin were studied on the dung beetles, Onthophagus lenzii Harold and the rare species, Copris ochus Motschulsky by pour-on administrations (500 µg kg−1) in Japan. Eprinomectin was detected in cattle dung from 1 to 7 or 14 days after treatment, with a peak at 1 day after treatment in two experiments. In O. lenzii, adult survivals and numbers of brood balls constructed were significantly reduced in dung from eprinomectin-treated cattle at 1 and 3 days post-treatment in experiment 1, and adult emergence rates were extremely reduced in dung at 1, 3, and 7 days post-treatment. In C. ochus, adult survivals were significantly reduced in dung at 3 days post-treatment (experiment 1), and equivalent levels to the control were restored in dung at 7 and 14 days post-treatment (experiment 2). Numbers of brood balls of C. ochus were nil in dung at 3 days (experiment 1), and significantly reduced in dung at 7 days (experiment 2) post-treatment compared with control. Adult emergence rates of C. ochus were 100 and 71.6% in dung from control cattle in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. However, no oviposition was observed in dung at 3 days post-treatment, and all offspring died at egg or the first instar larval stage in dung from 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Feeding activities of O. lenzii and C. ochus were significantly inhibited in dung from treated cattle at 1–3 days and 3 days post-treatment, respectively, returning to levels of the control at 7 days post-treatment.