Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) from Saudi Arabia

  • A. M. Amin (a1) and J. Hemingway (a2)

Abstract

High levels (>1000-fold) of resistance to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin were detected in Culex quinquefasciatus Say from Saudi Arabia. Biochemical enzyme and metabolic studies indicated that there is evidence for a metabolic basis to both the organochlorine and pyrethroid resistances. Electrophysiological studies indicated that there is no kdr-type mechanism conferring resistance to the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin neurophysiologically, although there is evidence of cross-resistance between DDT and the pyrethroids by bioassays. There was a change in the oxidase system in both the DDT- and permethrin-selected strains and an increase in glutathione transferase activity in the DDT-selected line. Metabolic studies indicated that both oxidases and glutathione transferases are involved with DDT resistance as DDA and DDE were the predominant metabolites after a 5-h in-vitro incubation period. Permethrin resistance is likely to involve an increase in oxidative degradation, but further metabolic studies are needed to confirm this.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*To whom all correspondence should be sent.

References

Hide All
Amin, A. M. & Peiris, H. T. (in press). Detection and selection of organophosphate and carbamate resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus from Saudi Arabia.—Med. Vet. Entomol.
Chadwick, P. R., Invest, J. F. & Bowron, M. J. (1977). An example of cross-resistance to pyrethroids in DDT-resistant Aedes aegypti.—Pestic. Sci. 8, 618624.
Farnham, A. W. (1977). Genetics of resistance of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to pyrethroids. I. Knockdown resistance.—Pestic. Sci. 8, 631636.
Hemingway, J., Boddington, R. G., Harris, J. & Dunbar, S. J. (1989). Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Rico.—Bull. ent. Res. 79, 123130.
Kulkarni, A. P. & Hodgson, E. (1976). Spectral interactions of insecticide synergists with microsomal cytochrome P-450 from insecticide-resistant and susceptible house flies.—Pestic. Biochem. & Physiol. 6, 183191.
Priester, T. M. & Georghiou, G. P. (1978). Induction of high resistance to permethrin in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.—J. econ. Ent. 71, 197200.
Priester, T. M. & Georghiou, G. P. (1980a). Cross-resistance spectrum in pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus.—Pestic. Sci. 11, 617624.
Priester, T. M. & Georghiou, G. P. (1980b). Penetration of permethrin and knockdown in larvae of pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible strains of the southern house mosquito.—J. econ. Ent. 73, 165167.
Rathor, H. R. & Wood, R. J. (1981). In-vivo and in-vitro studies on DDT uptake and metabolism in susceptible and resistant strains of the mosquito Aedes aegypti L.—Pestic. Sci. 12, 255264.
Rongsriyam, Y. & Busvine, J. R. (1975). Cross-resistance in DDT-resistant strains of various mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae).—Bull. ent. Res. 65, 459471.
Salgado, V. L., Irving, S. N. & Miller, T. A. (1983). Depolarization of motor nerve terminals by pyrethroids in susceptible and kdr-resistant house flies.—Pestic. Biolchem. & Physiol. 20, 100114.
Sawicki, R. M. (1985). Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in arthropods.—pp. 143192in Hutson, D. H. & Roberts, T. R. (Eds). Insecticides.—Chichester, England, Wiley.
WHO (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION) (1986). Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to pesticides. Tenth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control.—Tech. Rep. Ser. Wld Hlth Org. no. 737, 87 pp.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) from Saudi Arabia

  • A. M. Amin (a1) and J. Hemingway (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.