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The potential distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis: considering phenology and irrigation patterns

  • M. De Villiers (a1), V. Hattingh (a2), D.J. Kriticos (a3) (a4), S. Brunel (a5), J.-F. Vayssières (a6) (a7), A. Sinzogan (a8), M.K. Billah (a9), S.A. Mohamed (a10), M. Mwatawala (a11), H. Abdelgader (a12), F.E.E. Salah (a13) and M. De Meyer (a14)...


A species in the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex was detected in Kenya during 2003 and classified as Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White. Having spread rapidly throughout Africa, it threatens agriculture due to crop damage and loss of market access. In a recent revision of the B. dorsalis complex, B. invadens was incorporated into the species B. dorsalis. The potential distribution of B. dorsalis has been previously modelled. However, previous models were based on presence data and did not incorporate information on the seasonal phenology of B. dorsalis, nor on the possible influence that irrigation may have on its distribution. Methyl eugenol-baited traps were used to collect B. dorsalis in Africa. Seasonal phenology data, measured as fly abundance throughout the year, was related to each location's climate to infer climatic growth response parameters. These functions were used along with African distribution records and development studies to fit the niche model for B. dorsalis, using independent global distribution records outside Africa for model validation. Areas at greatest risk of invasion by B. dorsalis are South and Central America, Mexico, southernmost USA, parts of the Mediterranean coast, parts of Southern and Eastern Australia and New Zealand's North Island. Under irrigation, most of Africa and Australia appear climatically suitable.


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