Skip to main content Accessibility help

Phoridae (Diptera) as pests of cultivated oyster mushrooms (Agaricales: Pleurotaceae) in India

  • Kuldip Johal (a1) and R. H. L. Disney (a2)


In India the cultivated oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer is attacked by the larvae of two species of Phoridae, Megaselia pleurota Disney sp. n. and M. scalaris (Loew). The new species is described. Biological data and damage symptoms are reported for both species. Serious economic damage is also caused by a bacterium associated with M. scalaris. The identities of the two Megaselia species, previously reported attacking this fungus, are called into question.


Corresponding author

c/o Dr M.S. Johal, Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India.


Hide All
Becker, T. (1908) Dipteren der Kanarischen Inseln. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Berlin 4, 1180.
Benner, D.B. & Ostermeyer, E.C. (1980) Some observations on the life history of the fly Megaselia scalaris Loew (Phoridae) with special reference to the eclosion pattern. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences 55, 103105.
Beyer, E. (1959) Neue Phoridengattungen und-Arten aus Angola (Phoridae, Diptera) Publicacoes Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola (Museu do Dundo Estudos Diversos xvii) 45, 5376.
Beyer, E.M. (1965) Phoridae (Diptera Brachycera) Exploration du Parc National Albert Mission G.F. de Wittee (1933–1935) 99, 1211.
Beyer, E.M. (1967) Diptera Phoridae. Insects of Micronesia 13, 329–36.
Borgmeier, T. (1961) Weitere Beitrage zur Kenntnis der neotropischen Phoriden, nebst Beschreibung einiger Dohrniphora-Arten aus der indo-australischen Region (Diptera. Phoridae). Studia Entomologica, Petropólis 4, 1112.
Borgmeier, T. (1967) Studies on Indo-Australian phorid flies, based mainly on material of the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the United States National Museum Part II. Studia Entomologica, Petropólis 10, 81276.
Brown, B.V. & Marshall, S.A. (1984) Phorid flies (Diptera. Phoridae) associated with mushrooms in southern Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 115, 77–8.
Brues, C.T. (1909) Some new Phoridae from the Philippines. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 17, 56.
Brunetti, E. (1912) VII Description of Aphiochaeta ferruginea, a hitherto undescribed species of Phoridae that causes myiasis in man. Record of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 7, 8386.
Buxton, P.A. (1961) British Diptera associated with fungi. III. Flies of all families reared from about 150 species of fungi. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 96, 6194.
Chandler, P. (1978) Associations with plants, fungi. In Stubbs, A. & Chandler, P.(Eds) A dipterist's handbook. Amateur Entomologist 15, 199211.
Chang, S.T. (1991) Recent trends in world production of cultivated edible mushrooms. Mushroom Journal 503, 1518.
Clift, A.D. (1979) The identity, economic importance and control of insect pests of mushrooms in New South Wales, Australia. Mushroom Science 10, 367383.
Clift, A.D. & Larsson, S.F. (1987) Phoretic dispersal of Brennandia lambi (Kcrzal) (Acari: Tarsonemida. Pygmephoridae) by mushroom flies (Diptera Sciaridae and Phoridae) in New South Wales, Australia. Experimental & Applied Acarology 3, 1120.
Colyer, C.N. (1954) A new species of Megaselia (Dipt., Phoridae) from Britain; notes on fungicolous Phoridae. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 89, 108112.
Dias Maciera, O.J., Chaud-Netto, J. & Zanon, A.M. (1983) Oviposition rate and relative viability of descendants from couples of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera. Phoridae) reared in different experimental conditions. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 43, 223228.
Disney, R.H.L. (1989) Two new species of Megaselia (Dipt, Phoridae) reared from termite-mound fungus in Nigeria. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 125, 4548.
Disney, R.H.L. (1991) The aquatic Phoridae (Diptera). Entomologica Scandinavica 22, 171191.
Disney, R.H.L. (1993) The identities of phorid species infesting cultivated mushrooms. Mushroom Journal 525, 24.
Disney, R.H.L. (1994) A new species and new records of Phoridae (Diptera) from New Zealand Giornale Italiano di Entomologia 6.
Disney, R.H.L. & Evans, R.E. (1979) Further records of Phoridae (Dipt.) reared from fungi. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 114 (1978), 166.
El-Miniawi, S.F. & Moustafa, M.A. (1965) On the biology of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d'Egypte 49, 8191.
Enderlein, G. (1929) Entomologica Canaria iv. Wiener entomologische Zeitung 46, 95109.
Furukawa, E. & Kaneko, K. (1981) Studies of phorid flies (Phoridae, Diptera) in Japan. Part IV. Scanning electron microscopic observations of eggs of two Megaselia. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 32, 7881.
Greenberg, B. (1991) Flies as forensic indicators. Journal of Medical Entomology 28, 565577.
Hussey, N.W. (1961) Identification of Phoridae (Diptera) attacking cultivated mushrooms in Britain. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (13) 3, 599603.
Hussey, N.W., Read, W.H. & Hesling, J.J. (1969) The pests of protected cultivation: biology and control of glasshouse and mushroom pests. 404 pp London, Arnold.
Johal, K. & Kaushal, S.C. (1991) A new report of cecid (Cecidomylidae: Lestremiinae) as a pest of Pleurotus spp. pp. 233234in Nair, M.C. (Ed.) Proceedings of the National Symposium on Mushrooms Kerala Agricultural University, India
Johal, K. & Kaushal, S.C. (in press) New report of Alphitobius laevigatus (Fabricius) as a pest of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) Mushroom Research.
Johal, K.K., Kaushal, S.C. & Mann, J.J. (1992) A new species of Cyllodes (Coleoptera. Cucujoidea: Nitidulidae) infesting Pleurotus sajor-caju in India. Mushroom Research 1, 9598.
Kaneko, K., Furukawa, E. & Kusui, Y. (1978) Studies on phorid flies (Phoridae, Diptera) in Japan. Part III. New record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), collected from Japan. Journal of the Aichi Medical University Association 6, 261265.
Kneidel, K.A. (1985) Patchiness, aggregation, and the coexistence of competitors for ephemeral resources. Ecological Entomology 10, 441448.
Lever, R.J.A.W. (1944) Maggots in imported boot polish. Agricultural Journal, Department of Agriculture, Fiji 15, 15.
Liu, D. & Greenberg, B. (1989) Immature stages of some flies of forensic importance Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82, 8093.
Loew, H. (1866) Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria septima. Berliner entomolgische Zeitschrift 10, 154.
Malloch, J.R. (1912) The insects of the dipterous family Phoridae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 43, 411529.
McCrae, A.W.R. (1967) Infestation of emulsion paint by the fly Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Dipt, Phoridae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 102. 241243.
Meijere, J.C.H. de (1911) Studien ueber suedostasiatische Diptera. vi. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 54, 258432.
Prawirodisastro, M. & Benjamin, D.M. (1979) Laboratory study of the biology and ecology of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera, Phoridae). Journal of Medical Entomology 16, 317320.
Robinson, W.H. (1975) Megaselia (M.) scalaris (Diptera: Phondae) associated with laboratory cockroach colonies Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 77, 384390.
Sandhu, G.S. & Bhattal, D.S. (1989) Chemical control of phorid fly Megaselia sandhui Disney and its effect on the yield of white button mushroom. Mushroom Journal for the Tropics 9, 115120.
Schmitz, H. (1915) Drei neue Phonden aus Afrika. Jaarboek Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg (1914), 105111.
Schmitz, H. (1929) Revision der Phoriden. 211 pp. Berlin, F. Duemmlers.
Semenza, L. (1953) Aphiochaeta xanthina Speiser. Contributo alla conoscenza morfologia e del ciclo biologica. Rendiconti dell'Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere 86, 320330.
Somchoudhury, A.K., Das, T.K., Sarkar, R.K. & Mukherjee, A.B. (1988) Life history of three Dipteran flies infesting edible mushroo Pleurotus sajor-caju. Environment & Ecology 6, 463464.
Speiser, P. (1908) Dipteren aus Deutschlands afrikanischen Kolonien. Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift 52 (1907), 127149.
Trumble, J.T. & Pienkowski, R.L. (1979) Development and survival of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) at selected temperatures and photoperiods. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 81, 207210.
Tumrasvin, W.S., Sucharit, S. & Vutikes, S. (1977) Studies on the life history of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 8, 7476.
Yakovlev, E.B. (1986) Nasekomye-mitsebionty yuzhoi Karelii (ekologofaunisticheskii spisok) Mycetobiontic Insects of South Karelia (the ecological faunistic list). pp 83123in Yakovlev, E.B. & Uzenbaev, S.D.(Eds) Fauna i ekologiya Chlenistonogikh Karelu. Fauna and Ecology of the Arthropods of Karelia. Petrozavodsk, Karelbskii Fihal AN SSSR.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Phoridae (Diptera) as pests of cultivated oyster mushrooms (Agaricales: Pleurotaceae) in India

  • Kuldip Johal (a1) and R. H. L. Disney (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.