Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Monoclonal antibodies reveal the potential of the tetragnathid spider Pachygnatha degeeri (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) as an aphid predator

  • J.D. Harwood (a1), K.D. Sunderland (a2) and W.O.C. Symondson (a1)

Abstract

The drive towards a more sustainable and integrated approach to pest management has engendered a renewed interest in conservation biological control, the role of natural enemy communities and their interactions with prey. Monoclonal antibodies have provided significant advances in enhancing our knowledge of trophic interactions and can be employed to help quantify predation on target species. The tetragnathid spider Pachygnatha degeeri Sundevall was collected from fields of winter wheat in the UK and assayed by ELISA for aphid proteins. It was demonstrated that this spider did not simply consume greater quantities of aphids because it was bigger. In addition, P. degeeri contained significantly greater concentrations of aphid in their guts than other spiders, showing that aphids comprised a greater proportion of their diet. Although P. degeeri constituted only 6% of the spider population numerically, females and males respectively contained 16% and 37% of total aphid proteins within all spiders screened, significantly more than their density would predict. These spiders also preyed upon aphids at a disproportionately high rate in June, during the aphid establishment phase, theoretically the best time for limiting growth in the aphid population. Although less abundant than other generalist predators, the capability of these hunting spiders to consume large numbers of aphids highlights them as a more significant component of the predator complex than had previously been realized. Limitation of aphid numbers early in the year by generalist predators provides more time for the specialist aphid predators and parasitoids to move in.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, S-225 Agricultural Science Center North, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA. Fax:859-323-1120 E-mail: James.Harwood@uky.edu

References

Hide All
Agustí, N., Shayler, S.P., Harwood, J.D., Vaughan, I.P., Sunderland, K.D., Symondson, W.O.C. (2003) Collembola as alternative prey sustaining spiders in arable ecosystems: prey detection within predators using molecular markers. Molecular Ecology 12, 34673475
Alderweireldt, M. (1994) Day/night activity rhythms of spiders occurring in crop-rotated fields. European Journal of Soil Biology 30, 5561
Alderweireldt, M., De Keer, R. (1990) Field and laboratory observations on the life cycle of Pachygnatha degeeri Sundevall, 1830 and Pachygnatha clercki Sundevall, 1823 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae). Acta Zoologica Fennica 190, 3539
Araya, J.E., Chambron, S.E., Ratcliffe, R.H. (1996) Development and reproduction of two colour forms of English grain aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 25, 366369
Barth, F.G. (1982) Spiders and vibratory signals: sensory reception and behavioral significance. pp. 67122 in Witt, P.N.Rovner, J.S. (Eds) Spider communication. Mechanisms and ecological significance. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.
Bilde, T., Toft, S. (2001) The value of three cereal aphid species as a food for a generalist predator. Physiological Entomology 26, 5868
Calder, C.R., Harwood, J.D., Symondson, W.O.C. (2005) Detection of scavenged material in the guts of predators using monoclonal antibodies: a significant source of error in measurement of predation. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95, 5762
Chang, G.C., Kareiva, P. (1999) The case for indigenous generalists in biological control. pp. in Hawkins, B.A.Cornell, H.C. (Eds) 103115 Theoretical approaches to biological control. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Chiverton, P.A. (1986) Predator density manipulation and its effect on populations of Rhopalosiphum padi (Hom.: Aphididae) in spring barley. Annals of Applied Biology 109, 4960
DeBach, P., Rosen, D. (1991) Biological control by natural enemies, London, Cambridge University Press.
Gurr, G.M., Wratten, S.D., Barbosa, P. (2000) Success in conservation biological control of arthropods. pp. 105132 in Gurr, G.M.Wratten, S.D. (Eds) Biological control: measures of success. London, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Harwood, J.D., Phillips, S.W., Sunderland, K.D., Symondson, W.O.C. (2001a) Secondary predation: quantification of food chain errors in an aphid – spider – carabid system using monoclonal antibodies. Molecular Ecology 10, 20492057
Harwood, J.D., Sunderland, K.D., Symondson, W.O.C. (2001b) Living where the food is: web-location by linyphiid spiders in relation to prey availability in winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology 38, 8899
Harwood, J.D., Sunderland, K.D., Symondson, W.O.C. (2003) Web-location by linyphiid spiders: prey specific aggregation and foraging strategies. Journal of Animal Ecology 72, 745756
Harwood, J.D., Sunderland, K.D., Symondson, W.O.C. (2004) Prey selection by linyphiid spiders: molecular tracking of the effects of alternative prey on rates of aphid consumption in the field. Molecular Ecology 13, 35493560
Landis, D.A., Van der Werf, W. (1997) Early-season predation impacts the establishment of aphids and spread of beet yellows virus in sugar beet. Entomophaga 42, 499516
Losey, J.E., Denno, R.F. (1998) The escape response of pea aphids to foliar-foraging predators: factors affecting dropping behaviour. Ecological Entomology 23, 5361
Losey, J.E., Denno, R.F. (1999) Positive predator–predator interactions: enhanced predation effects and synergistic suppression of aphid populations. Ecology 79, 21432152
Madsen, M., Terkildsen, S., Toft, S. (2004) Microcosm studies on control of aphids by generalist arthropod predators: effects of alternative prey. BioControl 49, 483504
Marcussen, B.M., Axelsen, J.A., Toft, S. (1999) The value of two Collembola species as food for a cereal spider. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 92, 2936
Mayntz, D., Toft, S. (2001) Nutrient composition of the prey's diet affects growth and survivorship of a generalist predator. Oecologia 127, 207213
Murdoch, W.W., Chesson, J., Chesson, P.L. (1985) Biological control in theory and practice. American Naturalist 125, 344366
Nyffeler, M., Breene, R.G. (1990) Spiders associated with selected European hay meadows, and the effects of habitat disturbance, with the predation ecology of the crab spiders, Xysticus spp. (Araneae, Thomisidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 110, 149159
Nyffeler, M., Sunderland, K.D. (2003) Composition, abundance and pest control potential of spider communities in agroecosystems: a comparison on European and US studies. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 95, 579612
Oakley, J.N., Ellis, S.A., Walters, K.F.A., Watling, M. (1993) The effect of cereal aphid feeding on plant quality. Aspects of Applied Biology 36, 383390
Oswald, J.W., Houston, B.R. (1951) A new virus disease of cereals transmissible by aphids. Plant Disease Reporter 55, 471475
Oswald, J.W., Houston, B.R. (1953) The yellow dwarf virus of cereal crops. Phytopathology 43, 128136
Persons, M.H., Uetz, G.W. (1997) The effect of prey movement on attach behavior and patch residence decision rules of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 10, 737752
Persons, M.H., Uetz, G.W. (1998) Presampling sensory information and prey density consumption by wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae). Behavioural Ecology 9, 360366
Ratschker, U.M., Roth, M. (2000) Studies on ground dwelling spiders (Araneae) of agrarian habitat types in Northeast Germany: ecological and nature conservation aspects. Ekologia Bratislava 19, 213225
Samu, F., Vörös, G., Botos, E. (1996) Diversity and community structure of spiders of alfalfa fields and grassy field margins in South Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 31, 253266
Settle, W.H., Ariawan, H., Astuti, E.T., Cahyana, W., Hakim, A.L., Hindayana, D., Lestari, A.S., Sartanto, P. (1996) Managing tropical rice pests through conservation of generalist natural enemies and alternative prey. Ecology 77, 19751988
Sunderland, K.D., Topping, C.J. (1993) The spatial dynamics of linyphiid spiders in winter wheat. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 33, 639644
Sunderland, K.D., Chambers, R.J., Stacey, D.L., Crook, N.E. (1985) Invertebrate polyphagous predators and cereal aphids. Bulletin SROP/WPRS 8, 105114
Sunderland, K.D., Fraser, A.M., Dixon, A.F.G. (1986) Distribution of linyphiid spiders in relation to capture of prey in cereal fields. Pedobiologia 29, 367375
Sunderland, K.D., Crook, N.E., Stacey, D.L., Fuller, B.J. (1987) A study of feeding by the polyphagous predators on cereal aphids using ELISA and gut dissection. Journal of Applied Ecology 24, 907933
Sunderland, K.D., Axelsen, J.A., Dromph, K., Freier, B., Hemptinne, J.L., Holst, N.H., Mols, P.J.M., Petersen, M.K., Powell, W., Ruggle, P., Triltsch, H., Winder, L. (1997) Pest control by a community of natural enemies. Acta Jutlandica 72, 271326
Symondson, W.O.C. (2002) Molecular identification of prey in predator diets. Molecular Ecology 11, 627641
Symondson, W.O.C., Liddell, J.E. (1993) Differential antigen decay rates during digestion of molluscan prey by carabid predators. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 69, 277287
Symondson, W.O.C., Liddell, J.E. (1995) Decay rates for slug antigens within the carabid predator Pterostichus melanarius monitored with a monoclonal antibody. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 75, 245250
Symondson, W.O.C., Liddell, J.E. (1996) A species-specific monoclonal antibody system for detecting the remains of field slugs, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller) (Mollusca: Pulmonata), in carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 6, 9199
Symondson, W.O.C., Erickson, M.L., Liddell, J.E., Jayawardena, K.G.I. (1999) Amplified detection, using a monoclonal antibody, of an aphid-specific epitope exposed during digestion in the gut of a predator. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 29, 873882
Symondson, W.O.C., Erickson, M.L., Liddell, J.E., Langdon, C.J. (2000) Do earthworms help to sustain the slug predator Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) within crops? Investigations using a monoclonal antibody-based detection system. Molecular Ecology 9, 12791292
Symondson, W.O.C., Sunderland, K.D., Greenstone, M.H. (2002) Can generalist predators be effective biocontrol agents. Annual Review of Entomology 47, 561594
Toft, S. (1995) Value of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi as food for cereal spiders. Journal of Applied Ecology 32, 552560
Toft, S. (1997) Acquired food aversion of a wolf spider to three cereal aphids: intra- and interspecific effects. Entomophaga 42, 6369
Topping, C.J., Sunderland, K.D. (1992) Limitations to the use of pitfall traps in ecological studies exemplified by a study of spiders in a field of winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology 29, 485491
Topping, C.J., Sunderland, K.D. (1994) Methods for quantifying spider density and migration in cereal crops. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 9, 209213
Vickerman, G.P., Wratten, S.P. (1979) The biology and pest status of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Europe: a review. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69, 132
Winder, L., Hirst, D.J., Carter, N., Wratten, S.D., Sopp, P.I. (1994) Estimating predation of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae by polyphagous predators. Journal of Applied Ecology 31, 112
Winder, L., Alexander, C.J., Holland, J.M., Symondson, W.O.C., Perry, J., Woolley, C. (2005) Predatory activity and spatial pattern: the response of generalist carabids to their aphid prey. Journal of Animal Ecology 74 – In Press

Monoclonal antibodies reveal the potential of the tetragnathid spider Pachygnatha degeeri (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) as an aphid predator

  • J.D. Harwood (a1), K.D. Sunderland (a2) and W.O.C. Symondson (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed