Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of thermo-photoperiod on induction and termination of hibernation in Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)

  • M. K. Dhillon (a1), F. Hasan (a1), A. K. Tanwar (a1) and A. S. Bhadauriya (a1)

Abstract

Determination of critical threshold for induction and termination of diapause (hibernation) are important for better understanding the bio-ecology and population dynamics of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under varying climatic conditions. We studied initiation and termination of hibernation under five temperature and photoperiod regimes viz., 27°C + 12L:12D, 22°C + 11.5L:12.5D, 18°C + 11L:13D, 14°C + 10.5L:13.5D and 10°C + 10L:14D under fixed and ramping treatments, and the observations were recorded on various phenological and developmental characteristics at weekly intervals. Present studies revealed that the induction of hibernation in C. partellus larvae takes from 46 to 56 days depending upon temperature and photoperiod conditions. Induction of hibernation varied from 7.9 to 18.3% across treatment conditions, indicating that not all C. partellus larvae undergo diapause under prevailing environmental conditions. Weight, length and head capsule width of diapausing larvae were found significantly lower than the non-diapausing larvae. The non-diapausing C. partellus larvae required a thermal threshold of 1068 degree-days under ambient conditions, while in case of hibernating larvae it varied significantly across treatment conditions. Diapausing larvae underwent up to five supernumerary moults, wherein highest percentage of diapausing larvae (35.7%) exhibited two supernumerary moults. The developmental time of diapausing larvae varied from 94.9 to 160.4 days across treatments. A population loss of 17.2–28.3% was recorded in C. partellus due to hibernation, which has implications for population buildup of post-hibernation first brood and management strategies.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence Phone/Fax: +91-11-25842482 Email: mukeshdhillon@rediffmail.com

References

Hide All
Andrewartha, H.G. (1952) Diapause in relation to the ecology of insects. Biological Reviews 27, 50107.
Arbab, A. (2014) Spatial distribution and minimum sample size for overwintering larvae of the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) in paddy fields. Neotropical Entomologists 43, 415420.
Beck, S.D. (1980) Insect Photoperiodism. 2nd ed. New York, Academic Press.
Chippendale, G.M. & Reddy, A.S. (1973) Temperature and photoperiod regulation of diapause of the southwestern corn borer Diatraea grandiosella . Journal of Insect Physiology 19, 13971408.
Chippendale, G.M. & Yin, C.M. (1973) Endocrine activity retained in diapause insect larvae. Nature 246, 511513.
Dejen, A., Getu, E., Azerefegne, F. & Ayalew, A. (2014) Distribution and impact of Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Northeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Entomology and Nematology 6, 113.
Dhaliwal, G.S., Jindal, V. & Mohindru, B. (2015) Crop losses due to insect pests: global and Indian scenario. Indian Journal of Entomology 77(2), 165168.
Dhillon, M.K. & Sharma, H.C. (2007) Effect of storage temperature and duration on viability of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 97, 5559.
Ellers, J. & van Alphen, J.J.M. (2002) A trade-off between diapause duration and fitness in female parasitoids. Ecological Entomology 27, 279284.
Fischer, K., Klockmann, M. & Reim, E. (2014) Strong negative effects of simulated heat waves in a tropical butterfly. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 28922898.
Gadenne, C., Dufour, M.C., Rossignol, F., Blcard, J.M. & Franck, C. (1997) Occurrence of non-stationary larval moults during diapause in the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 43, 425431.
Gu, D.J. & Yin, J.K. (1984) Preliminary study on the termination of larval diapause in paddy borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). Journal of South China Agricultural University 4, 6573.
Hodek, I. (2012) Adult diapause in Coleoptera. Psyche 2012, 110.
Irwin, J.T. & Lee, R.E. (2000) Mild winter temperature reduces survival and potential fecundity of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 46, 655661.
Jalali, S.K. & Singh, S.P. (2006) Biological control of Chilo partellus using egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis and Bacillus thuringiensis . Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 40, 184189.
Jiang, X.F., Cao, W.J., Zhang, L. & Luo, L.Z. (2010) Beet webworm (Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) migration in China: evidence from genetic markers. Environmental Entomology 39, 232242.
Kadono-Okuda, K., Kajiura, Z. & Yamashita, O. (1986) Induction of perfect superlarvae by the application of juvenile hormone analogue to starved larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori . Journal of Insect Physiology 32, 10651073.
Kfir, R. (1991) Effect of diapause on development and reproduction of the stem borers Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 84, 16771680.
Kfir, R. (1993) Diapause termination in Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory. Annals of Entomological Society of America 86, 273277.
Kfir, R., Overholt, W.A., Khan, Z.R. & Polaszek, A. (2002) Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa. Annual Review of Entomology 47, 701731.
Khadioli, N., Tonnang, Z.E.H., Muchugu, E., Ong'amo, G., Achia, T., Kipchirchir, I., Krosche, J. & Le Ru, B. (2014) Effect of temperature on the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa under warmer temperatures through the development of life-table parameters. Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 809822.
Kikukawa, S. & Chippendale, G. (1983) Seasonal adaptations of populations of the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella, from tropical and temperate regions. Journal of Insect Physiology 29, 561567.
Koidsumi, K. & Makino, K. (1958) Intake of food during hibernation of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 2, 135138.
Kostal, V., Sula, J. & Simek, P. (1998) Physiology of drought tolerance and cold hardiness of the Mediterranean tiger moth Cymbalophora pudica during summer diapause. Journal of Insect Physiology 44, 165173.
Lehmann, P., Lyytinen, A., Piiroinen, S. & Lindström, L. (2015) Latitudinal differences in diapause related photoperiodic responses of European Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Evolutionary Ecology 29, 269282.
Masaki, S. (2002) Ecophysiological consequences of variability in diapause intensity. European Journal of Entomology 99, 143154.
Mathez, F.C. (1972) Chilo partellus Swinh., C. orichalcociliellus Strand (Lep., Crambidae) and Sesamia calamistis Hmps. (Lep., Noctuidae) on maize in the Coast Province, Kenya. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse 45, 267289.
Neal, J.W., Chittams, J.L. & Bentz, J. (1997) Spring emergence by larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae): a hedge against high-risk conditions. Annals of Entomological Society of America 90, 596603.
Nijhout, H.F. (1975) A threshold size for metamorphosis in the tobacco horn worm, Manducu sexta . Biological Bulletin 149, 214225.
Ofomata, V.C., Overholt, W.A. & Egwuatu, R.I. (1999) Diapause termination of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Chilo orichalcociliellus Strand (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Insect Science and its Applications 19, 187191.
Pipa, R.L. (1976) Supernumerary instars produced by chilled wax moth larvae: endocrine mechanisms. Journal of Insect Physiology 22, 16411647.
Qiang, C.K., Du, Y.Z., Qin, Y.H., Yu, L.Y., Zhou, B.Y., Feng, W.J. & Wang, S.S. (2012) Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): roles of glycerol, amino acids, low-molecular weight carbohydrates and antioxidant enzymes. African Journal of Biotechnology 66, 1303013039.
Roe, R.M., Hammond, A.M., Douglas, E.E. & Philogene, B.J.R. (1984) Photoperiodically induced delayed metamorphosis in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Annals of Entomological Society of America 71, 312318.
Scheltes, P. (1978) The condition of the host plant during aestivation diapause of the stalk borers Chilo partellus and Chilo orichalcociliella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Kenya. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 24, 479488.
Sharma, H.C., Taneja, S.L., Leuschner, K. & Nwanze, K.F. (1992) Techniques to screen sorghum for resistance to insect pests. Information Bulletin No. 32, 48 pp. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Sinclair, B.J., Vernon, P., Klok, C.J. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Insects at low temperatures: an ecological perspective. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18, 257262.
Singtripop, T., Wanichacheewa, S., Tsuzuki, S. & Sakurai, S. (1999) Larval growth and diapause in a tropical moth Omphisa fuscidentalis Hampson. Zoological Science 16, 725733.
Sotherlind, L. & Nylin, S. (2011) Genetics of diapause in the comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album . Physiological Entomology 36, 813.
Tamiru, A., Getu, E., Jembere, B. & Bruce, T. (2012) Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development and fecundity of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 102, 915.
Tanaka, Y. & Takeda, S. (1993) Ultranumerary larval ecdyses of the silkworm, Bombyx mori induced by ecdysone. Nature 80, 131132.
Tauber, M.J., Tauber, C.A. & Masaki, S. (1986) Seasonal Adaptations of Insects. New York, Oxford University Press.
Usua, E.J. (1973) Induction of diapause in the maize stem borer, Busseola fusca . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 16, 322328.
Wilson, L.T. & Barnett, W.W. (1983) Degree-days: an aid in crop and pest management. California Agriculture (USA) 37, 47.
Wipking, W. (2000) Survival in space and time: flexibility and variability guarantee reproductive success in the burnet moth Zygaena trifolii . Mitteilungen-der-Deutschen-Gesellschaft-fur-allgemeine-und-angewandte-Entomologie 12, 595598.
Wu, K.J. (2002) A consideration about dormancy in relation to diapause in insects. Entomological Knowledge 39, 154160.
Xiao, H.J., Mou, F.C., Zhu, X.F. & Xue, F.S. (2010) Diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Journal of Insect Physiology 56, 15581564.
Yin, C.M. & Chippendale, G.M. (1973) Juvenile hormone regulation of the larval diapause of the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella . Journal of Insect Physiology 19, 24032420.
Yin, C.M. & Chippendale, G.M. (1976) Hormonal control of larval diapause and metamorphism of the southwestern corn borer Diatraea grandiosella . Journal of Experimental Biology 64, 303310.
Youcum, G.D., Rinehart, J.P. & Larson, M.L. (2011) Monitoring diapause development in the Colorado potat beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, under field conditions using molecular biomarkers. Journal of Insect Physiology 57, 645652.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed