Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Early-season predation on aphids by winter-active spiders in apple orchards revealed by diagnostic PCR

  • C. Boreau de Roincé (a1) (a2) (a3), C. Lavigne (a2), J.-F. Mandrin (a1), C. Rollard (a4) and W.O.C. Symondson (a3)...

Abstract

Aphids are major pests in apple orchards, debilitating the crop and spreading disease. We investigated whether early-season predation by canopy spiders may be effectively controlling aphid numbers in three organic orchards. For this purpose, we monitored the aphid population dynamics from the winter eggs to colony stages and compared this to spider abundances and rates of predation on aphids detected by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction. For the latter, we applied existing general aphid primers. We found that spiders ate colony fundatrices and that aphid numbers were negatively related to spider abundance. Spiders were the main active predators within the orchards when the first colony fundatrices were present, indicating their importance in the early control of aphid populations.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence Fax: +44 (0)29 208 74116 E-mail: Symondson@cardiff.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Agustí, N., Shayler, S.P., Harwood, J.D., Vaughan, I.P., Sunderland, K.D. & Symondson, W.O.C. (2003) Collembola as alternative prey sustaining spiders in arable ecosystems: prey detection within predators using molecular markers. Molecular Ecology 12, 34673475.
Birkhofer, K., Gavish-Regev, E., Endlweber, K., Lubin, Y.D., von Berg, K., Wise, D.H. & Scheu, S. (2008) Cursorial spiders retard initial aphid population growth at low densities in winter wheat. Bulletin of Entomological Research 98, 249255.
Blommers, L.H.M., Helsen, H.H.M. & Vaal, F. (2004) Life history data of the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea (Pass.) (Homopt., Aphididae) on plantain and as migrant to apple. Journal of Pest Science 77, 155163.
Bonnemaison, L. (1959) Le puceron cendré du pommier (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.) Morphologie et biologie – Méthodes de lutte. Annales INRA, Série C Epiphyties III, 257322.
Brown, M.W. (2004) Role of aphid predator guild in controlling spirea aphid populations on apple in West Virginia, USA. Biological Control 29, 189198.
Brown, M.W. (2011) Importance of early arrival of adult Harmonia axyridis for control of Aphis spiraecola on apple. Biocontrol 56, 6569.
Carroll, D.P. & Hoyt, S.C. (1984) Natural enemies and their effect on apple aphid, Aphis pomi Degeer (Homoptera, Aphididae), colonies on young apple trees in central Washington. Environmental Entomology 13, 469481.
Chang, G.C. & Kareiva, P. (1999) The case for indigenous generalists in biological control. pp. 103115in Hawkins, B. & Cornell, H. (Eds) Theoretical Approaches to Biological Control. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Chen, Y., Giles, K.L., Payton, M.E. & Greenstone, M.H. (2000) Identifying key cereal aphid predators by molecular gut analysis. Molecular Ecology 9, 18871898.
Chiverton, P.A. (1986) Predator density manipulation and its effects on populations of Rhopalosiphum padi (Hom, Aphididae) in spring barley. Annals of Applied Biology 109, 4960.
Deberardinis, E., Baronio, P. & Baumgartner, J. (1994) The effect of aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass, Hom, Aphididae) feeding on apple fruit growth. Ecological Modelling 72, 115127.
Dib, H., Simon, S., Sauphanor, B. & Capowiez, Y. (2010) The role of natural enemies on the population dynamics of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in organic apple orchards in south-eastern France. Biological Control 55, 97109.
Finke, D.L. & Snyder, W.E. (2010) Conserving the benefits of predator biodiversity. Biological Conservation 143, 22602269.
Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3, 294299.
Fréchette, B., Cormier, D., Chouinard, G., Vanoosthuyse, F. & Lucas, E. (2008) Apple aphid, Aphis spp. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and predator populations in an apple orchard at the non-bearing stage: The impact of ground cover and cultivar. European Journal of Entomology 105, 521529.
Graf, B., Baumgärtner, J. & Delucchi, V. (1985) Life table statistics of three apple aphids, Dysaphis plantaginea, Rhopalosiphum insertum, and Aphis pomi (Homoptera, Aphididae), at constant temperatures. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 99, 285294.
Greenstone, M.H. (1999) Spider predation: How and why we study it. Journal of Arachnology 27, 333342.
Hart, A.J., Bale, J.S. & Fenlon, J.S. (1997) Developmental threshold, day-degree requirements and voltinism of the aphid predator Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae). Annals of Applied Biology 130, 427437.
Harwood, J.D. & Obrycki, J.J. (2005) Quantifying aphid predation rates of generalist predators in the field. European Journal of Entomology 102, 335350.
Helsen, M., Vaal, F. & Blommers, L. (1998) Phenology of the common earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) in an apple orchard. International Journal of Pest Management 44, 7579.
Hodge, M.A. (1999) The implications of intraguild predation for the role of spiders in biological control. Journal of Arachnology 27, 351362.
King, R.A., Read, D.S., Traugott, M. & Symondson, W.O.C. (2008) Molecular analysis of predation: a review of best practice for DNA-based approaches. Molecular Ecology 17, 947963.
Korenko, S. & Pekar, S. (2010) Is there intraguild predation between winter-active spiders (Araneae) on apple tree bark? Biological Control 54, 206212.
Korenko, S., Pekar, S. & Honek, A. (2010) Predation activity of two winter-active spiders (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Philodromidae). Journal of Thermal Biology 35, 112116.
Kuusk, A.K., Cassel-Lundhagen, A., Kvarnheden, A. & Ekbom, B. (2008) Tracking aphid predation by lycosid spiders in spring-sown cereals using PCR-based gut-content analysis. Basic and Applied Ecology 9, 718725.
Marc, P. & Canard, A. (1997) Maintaining spider biodiversity in agroecosystems as a tool in pest control. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 62, 229235.
Marc, P., Canard, A. & Ysnel, F. (1999) Spiders (Araneae) useful for pest limitation and bioindication. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 74, 229273.
Miliczky, E.R., Horton, D.R. & Calkins, C.O. (2008) Observations on phenology and overwintering of spiders associated with apple and pear orchards in south-central Washington. Journal of Arachnology 36, 565573.
Minarro, M., Hemptinne, J.L. & Dapena, E. (2005) Colonization of apple orchards by predators of Dysaphis plantaginea: sequential arrival, response to prey abundance and consequences for biological control. Biocontrol 50, 403414.
Mizell, R.F. & Schiffhauer, D.E. (1987) Trunk traps and overwintering predators in pecan orchards: survey of species and emergence times. Florida Entomologist 70, 238244.
Morse, J.G. & Croft, B.A. (1987) Biological control of Aphis pomi Hom, Aphididae of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Dip, Cecidomyiidae: a predator-prey model. Entomophaga 32, 339356.
Mueller, T.F., Blommers, L.H.M. & Mols, P.J.M. (1988) Earwig (Forficula auricularia) predation on the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 47, 145152.
Murdoch, W.W., Chesson, J. & Chesson, P.L. (1985) Biological control in theory and practice. American Naturalist 125, 344366.
Obrycki, J.J. & Tauber, M.J. (1981) Phenology of three coccinellid species thermal requirements for development. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 74, 3136.
Pekar, S. & Kocourek, F. (2004) Spiders (Araneae) in the biological and integrated pest management of apple in the Czech Republic. Journal of Applied Entomology 128, 561566.
Qubbaj, T., Reineke, A. & Zebitz, C.P.W. (2005) Molecular interactions between rosy apple aphids, Dysaphis plantaginea, and resistant and susceptible cultivars of its primary host Malus domestica. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 115, 145152.
R Development Core Team (2011) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available online at http://www.R-project.org (accessed 20 September 2012).
Riechert, S.E. & Lockley, T. (1984) Spiders as biological control agents. Annual Review of Entomology 29, 299320.
Simon, S., Bouvier, J.C., Debras, J.F. & Sauphanor, B. (2009) Biodiversity and pest management in orchard systems. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 30, 139152.
Symondson, W.O.C. (2002) Molecular identification of prey in predator diets. Molecular Ecology 11, 627641.
Symondson, W.O.C., Sunderland, K.D. & Greenstone, M.H. (2002) Can generalist predators be effective biocontrol agents? Annual Review of Entomology 47, 561594.
Wise, D.H. (2006) Cannibalism, food limitation, intraspecific competition and the regulation of spider populations. Annual Review of Entomology 51, 441465.
Wyss, E., Niggli, U. & Nentwig, W. (1995) The impacts of spiders on aphid populations in a strip-managed apple orchard. Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie 119, 473478.
Wyss, E., Villiger, M., Hemptinne, J.L. & Muller-Scharer, H. (1999) Effects of augmentative releases of eggs and larvae of the ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata, on the abundance of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea, in organic apple orchards. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 90, 167173.

Keywords

Early-season predation on aphids by winter-active spiders in apple orchards revealed by diagnostic PCR

  • C. Boreau de Roincé (a1) (a2) (a3), C. Lavigne (a2), J.-F. Mandrin (a1), C. Rollard (a4) and W.O.C. Symondson (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed