Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): searching for sustainable control strategies

  • J. Jaramillo (a1) (a2), C. Borgemeister (a2) and P. Baker (a3)

Abstract

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious pest of the world's most valuable tropical export crop. Since the last review on this insect was published six years ago, many new studies have contributed to an improved insight into the biology and ecology of the beetle, and have indicated new avenues for integrated and biological control. The latest developments in research, both laboratory and field, on the pest, its natural enemies and their implications for integrated control of H. hampei are summarized, with a particular focus on the situation in The Americas. Lately, the global coffee industry has changed radically; it has suffered a long cycle of lowest-ever world market prices caused by overproduction and technological change. At the same time, the advent of sustainable certification schemes has had a major impact on the industry. The role of integrated pest management and biological control of H. hampei in an era of changes in the coffee industry is discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Fax: +254 20 8561690 E-mail: dg@icipe.org

References

Hide All
Abraham, Y.J., Moore, D. & Godwin, G. (1990) Rearing and aspects of biology of Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 80, 121128.
Allard, G.B. & Moore, D. (1989) Heterorhabditis sp. nematodes as control agents for coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Scolytidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 54, 4548.
Alonzo, P.F. (1984) El problema de la broca (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr).) (Col: Scolytidae) y la caficultura. Aspectos relacionados con importancia Daño, identificación, biología, ecología y control 242 pp. IICA – PROMECAFE
Andreev, D., Breilid, D., Kirkendall, L., Brun, L.O. & Ffrench-Constant, R.H. (1998) Lack of nucleotide variability in a beetle pest with extreme inbreeding. Insect Molecular Biology 7, 197200.
Aristizabal, L.F., Salazar, H.M. & Mejia, C.G. (2002) Changes in the adoption of the components of coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) integrated management, through participative methodologies. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 28, 153160.
Aristizabal, L.F., Salazar, H.M., Mejia, C.G. & Bustillo, A.E. (2004) Introducción y evaluación de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) en fincas de pequeños caficultores a través de investigación participativa. Revista Colombiana de Entomología 30, 219224.
Armbrecht, I., Rivera, L. & Perfecto, I. (2005) Reduced diversity and complexity in the leaf-litter ant assemblage of Colombian coffee plantations. Conservation Biology 19, 897907.
Baker, P.S. (1999) The coffee berry borer in Colombia; final report of the DFID-Cenicafé-CABI Bioscience IPM for coffee project (CNTR 93/1536A). 154 pp. Chinchiná (Colombia), DFID-CENICAFE.
Baker, P.S., Ley, C., Balbuena, R. & Barrera, J.F. (1992) Factors affecting he emergence of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from coffee berries. Bulletin of Entomological Research 82, 145150.
Baker, P.S., Jackson, J.A.F. & Murphy, S.T. (2002) Natural enemies, natural allies. Project completion report of the integrated management of coffee berry borer project, CFC/ICO/02 (19982002.). The commodities press. CABI commodities, Egham UK and Cenicafé, Chinchiná, Colombia.
Barrera, J.F., Gomez, J., Infante, F., Castillo, A. & de la Rosa, W. (1989) Biologique de Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) en laboratoire. I. Cycle biologique, capacité d'oviposition et émergence du fruit du caféier. Café Cacao Thé 33, 101108.
Barrera, J.F., Baker, P.S., Valenzuela, J.E. & Schwarz, A. (1990) Introduccion de dos especies de parasitoides Africanos a Mexico para el control biologico de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Folia Entomologica Mexicana 79, 245247.
Batchelor, T.P., Hardy, I.C.W. & Pérez-Lachaud, G. (2005) Insect gladiators II: competitive interactions within and between bethylid parasitoid species of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Biological Control 32, 194202.
Batchelor, T.P., Hardy, I.C.W. & Barrera, J.F. (2006) Interactions among bethylid parasitoid species attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Biological Control 36, 106118.
Benavides, P., Vega, F.E., Romero-Severson, J., Bustillo, A.E. & Stuart, J.J. (2005) Biodiversity and biogeography of an important inbred pest of coffee, coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98, 359366.
Bergamin, J. (1943) Contribuicao ao conhecimento da biología da broca do café (Hypothenemus hampei). Ferrari. 1867 (Col: Ipidae). Arquivos do Instituto Biológico 14, 3172.
Bergamin, J. (1946) A broca do café no Brasil. Boletim da Superintendencia dos Servicos do Café 33, 2122.
Borbón-Martinez, M.O. (1989) Bioecologie d'un ravageur des baies de caféier. Hypothenemus hampei Ferr. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) et de ses parasitoides au Togo. PhD thesis, Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, France.
Brun, L.O. & Suckling, D.M. (1992) Field selection for endosulfan resistance in coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 85, 325334.
Brun, L.O., Marcillaud, C., Gaudichon, V. & Suckling, D.M. (1989) Endosulfan resistance in Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in New Caledonia. Journal of Economic Entomology 82, 13111316.
Brun, L.O., Stuart, J., Gaudichon, V., Aronstein, K. & Ffrench-Constant, R.H. (1995) Functional haplodiploidy: a mechanism for the spread of insecticide resistance in an important international insect pest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92, 98619865.
Bustillo, A.E., Cardenas, R., Villalba, D., Benavides, P., Orozco, J. & Posada, F.J. (1998) Manejo integrado de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) en Colombia 134 pp. Chinchiná, Colombia Cenicafé
Bustillo, A.E., Cardenas, R. & Posada, F.J. (2002) Natural enemies and competitors of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in Colombia. Neotropical Entomology 31, 635639.
Carrión, G. & Bonet, A. (2004) Mycobiota associated with the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and its galleries in fruit. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97, 492499.
Castillo, A., Infante, F., Barrera, J.F., Carta, L. & Vega, F.E. (2002) First field report of a nematode (Tylenchida: Sphaerularioidea) attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Americas. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 79, 199202.
Castillo, A., Infante, F., Lopez, G., Trujillo, J., Kirkendall, L.R. & Vega, F.E. (2004a) Laboratory parasitism by Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) upon non-target bark beetles associated with coffee plantations. Florida Entomologist 87, 274277.
Castillo, A., Infante, F., Vera-Graziano, J. & Trujillo, J. (2004b) Host-discrimination by Phymastichus coffea, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer. BioControl 49, 655663.
Castro, L., Benavides, P. & Bustillo, A.E. (1998) Dispersion y mortalidad de Hypothenemus hampei, durnte la recoleccion y beneficio del café. Manejo Integrado de Plagas 50, 1928.
Damon, A. (2000) A review of the biology and control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 90, 453465.
De Alvim, P.T. (1960) Moisture stress as a requirement for flowering of coffee. Science 132, 3423
Rosa, de la, Segura, W., Barrera, H.R. & Williams, J.F.T. (2000) Laboratory evaluation of the impact of entomopathogenic fungi on Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer. Environmental Entomology 29, 126131.
Dufour, B.P., Gonzalez, M.O. & Frérot, B. (1999) Mass trapping of coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferr. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) under field conditions: first results. pp. 480491. in Proceedings, Dix-huitieme Colloque Scientifique International sur le Café, Helsinki, 2–8 August 1999. Helsinki, Finland.
Dufour, B.P., Picasso, C. & Gonzalez, M.O. (2001) Development of a large capacity trap for controlling the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferr. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in El Salvador. pp. 112. in Proceedings, 19- eme Colloque Scientifique International sur le Café, Trieste, 14–18. May 2001. Trieste, Italy.
Dufour, B.P., Gonzalez, M.O., Mauricio, J.J., Chavez, B.A. & Ramirez, R. (2004) Validation of coffee berry borer trapping with Brocap® trap. pp. 12431247. in Proceedings, 20-eme Colloque Scientifique International sur le Café, Bangalore, 11–15. October 2004. Bangalore, India.
Farrell, B.D., Sequeira, A.S., O'Meara, B.C., Normark, B.B., Chung, J.H. & Jordal, B.H. (2001) The evolution of agriculture in beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae). Evolution 55, 20112027.
Feldhege, M.R. (1992) Rearing techniques and aspects of biology of Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) a recently described endoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Café Cacao Thé 36, 4554.
Fischerworring, B. & Rosskamp, R. (2001) Guía a la caficultura ecológica 3rd 153 Eschborn, Germany Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).
Giovannucci, D. & Koekoek, K.J. (2003) The state of sustainable coffee: a study of twelve major markets 199 London and Winnipeg International Coffee Organization and International Institute of Sustainable Development.
Gongora, C. (2005) Avances en conocimiento y mejoramiento del hongo entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana para el control de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei. pp. 2732. in Congreso de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología 32July 27–29., 2005Ibague, Colombia.
Gongora, C.E., Posada, F.J. & Bustillo, A.E. (2001) Detección molecular de un gen de resistencia al insecticida endosulfan en una población de broca Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) en Colombia. pp. 4748. in Congreso de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología 28August 8–10, 2001Pereira, Colombia.
Infante, F., Murphy, S.T., Barrera, J.F., Gómez, J.W. & Damon, A. (1994) Cría de Phymastichus coffea parasitoide de la broca del café y algunas notas sobre su historia de vida. Southwestern Entomologist 19, 313315.
Infante, F., Mumford, J. & Garcia-Ballinas, A. (2003) Predation by native arthropods on the African parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in coffee plantations of Mexico. Florida Entomologist 86, 8688.
Infante, F., Mumford, J. & Baker, P. (2005) Life history studies of Prorops nasuta, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer. BioControl 50, 259270.
JaramilloJ,. J,., Bustillo, A.E., Montoya, E.C. & Borgemeister, C. (2005) Biological control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) by Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Colombia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95, 467472.
Jaramillo, J., Borgemeister, C. & Setamou, M. (2006) Field superparasitism by Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoid of the adult coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata.
Lara, J.C., López, J.C. & Bustillo, A.E. (2004) Effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on populations of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in berries on the soil. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 30, 179185.
LaSalle, J. (1990) A new genus and species of Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitic on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 80, 17.
LaSalle, J. (1995) A new species of Phymastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitic on adult Xyleborus perforans (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on macadamia trees in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 32, 95101.
Le Pelley, R.H. (1968) Pests of coffee. 590 pp. London, Longmans Green and Co.
Lindgren, B.S. (1983) A múltiple funnel trap for scolytid beetles (Coleoptera). Canadian Entomologist 115, 299302.
López, V.C. & Moore, D. (1998) Developing methods for testing host specificity of Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Tetrastichinae) a potential biological control agent of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Colombia. Biocontrol Science and Technology 8, 397411.
López, V.C., Baker, P., Cock, J.W. & Orozco, J. (1997) Dossier on Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Tetrastichinae) a potential biological control agent for Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Colombia 23 Ascot, UK, Chinchiná, Colombia CABI, IIBC, Cenicafé.
Lauziere, I., Pérez-Lachaud, G. & Brodeur, J. (1999) Influence of host density on the reproductive strategy of Cephalonomia stephanoderis, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 92, 2128.
Mathieu, F., Brun, L.O., Marchillaud, C. & Frérot, B. (1997) Trapping of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferr. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) within a mesh-enclosed environment: interaction of olfactory and visual stimuli. Journal of Applied Entomology 121, 181186.
Mejia, J.W. & Lopez, D.F. (2002) Study of the necessity for integrated management of the coffee berry borer in the department of Antioquia. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 28, 167173.
Mejia, J.W., Bustillo, A.E., Orozco, J. & Chaves, B.C. (2000) Effect of four insecticides and Beauveria bassiana on Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parastoid of the coffee berry borer. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 26, 117123.
Mendoza-Mora, J.R. (1991) Resposta da broca do café Hypothenemus hampei a estimulos visuais e semioquimicos. MSc thesis, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Brasil.
Molina, J.P. & Lopez, J.C. (2002) Desplazamiento y parasitismo de entomonematodos hacia frutos infestados con la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 28, 145151.
Morales-Ramos, J.A., Rojas, M.G., Sittertz-Bhatkar, H. & Saldaña, G. (2000) Symbiotic relationship between Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Fusarium solani (Moniliales: Tuberculariaceae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93, 541547.
Murphy, S.T. & Moore, D. (1990) Biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): previous programmes and possibilities for the future. Biocontrol News and Information 11, 107117.
Murphy, S.T., Day, R., Orozco, J. & Kucel, P. (2001) Investigations into the use of Heterospilus coffeicola for the biological control of the coffee berry borer in Latin America and Africa. 13 pp. Unpublished report for the period November 2000–July 2001, CABI Commodities, Ascot, UK.
Orozco, H.J. (1997) Ciclo de vida del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). pp. 4546. in Congreso de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología, 24, PereiraJuly 16–18, 1997Pereira, Colombia.
Orozco, H.J. (2001) Producción de parasitoides para el control de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). pp. 101109. in Simposio la cría de insectos como una industria rentable. Congreso de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología 28, Pereira8–10 August, 2001Pereira, Colombia.
Orozco, H.J. (2002) Guía para la producción del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea para el control de la broca del café 19 Chinchina, Colombia CENICAFE-CFC-CABI Commodities-ICO
Ortiz, A., Ortiz, A., Vega, F.E. & Posada, F. (2004) Volatile composition of coffee berries at different stages of ripeness and their possible attraction to the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, 59145918.
Paine, T.D., Raffa, K.F. & Harrington, T.C. (1997) Interactions among scolytid bark beetles, their associated fungi, and live host conifers. Annual Review of Entomology 42, 179206.
Pérez, J., Infante, F., Vega, F.E., Holguin, F., Macias, J., Valle, J., Nieto, G., Peterson, S.W., Kurtzman, C.P. & O'Donnell, K. (2003) Mycobiota associated with the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico. Mycological Research 107, 879887.
Pérez, J., Infante, F. & Vega, F.E. (2005) Does the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) have mutualistic fungi. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98, 483490.
Pérez-Lachaud, G. (1998) A new bethylid attacking the coffee berry borer in Chiapas (Mexico) and some notes on its biology. Southwestern Entomologist 23, 287288.
Pérez-Lachaud, G. & Hardy, I.C.W. (1999) Reproductive biology of Cephalonomia hyalinipennis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) a native parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Chiapas, Mexico. Biological Control 14, 152158.
Pérez-Lachaud, G. & Hardy, I.C.W. (2001) Alternative hosts for bethylid parasitoids of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Biological Control 22, 265277.
Pérez-Lachaud, G., Hardy, I.C.W. & Lachaud, J.P. (2002) Insect gladiators: competitive interactions between three species of bethylid wasps attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Biological Control 25, 231238.
Pérez-Lachaud, G., Batchelor, T.P. & Hardy, I.C.W. (2004) Wasp eat wasp: facultative hyperparasitism and intra-guild predation by bethylid wasps. Biological Control 30, 149155.
Peterson, S.W., Pérez, J., Vega, F.E. & Infante, F. (2003) Penicillium brocae a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico. Mycologia 95, 141147.
Poinar, G., Vega, F.E., Castillo, A., Chaves, I.E. & Infante, F. (2004) Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae), a parasite of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Curculionidae). Jounal of Parasitology 90, 1160–1110.
Portilla, M. (1999a) Desarrollo y evaluacion de una dieta artificial para la cria de Hypothenemus hampei. Revista CENICAFE 50, 2438.
Portilla, M. (1999b) Mass rearing technique for Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) developed using Cenibroca artificial diet. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 25, 5766.
Posada, F. (1998) Production, formulation and application of Beauveria bassiana for control of Hypothenemus hampei in Colombia. PhD thesis, University of London.
Posada, F.J., Osorio, E. & Velazquez, E.T. (2002) Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity in the coffee berry borer using the leaf spraying method. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 28, 139144.
Rodriguez, M.L. & Góngora, C.E. (2005) Transformación de Beauveria bassiana cepa Bb9205 con los genes pr1A, pr1J y ste1 de Metarhizium anisopliae y evaluación de su patogenicidad sobre la broca del café. Revista Colombiana de Entomología 31, 5158.
Rojas, M.G., Morales-Ramos, J.A. & Harrington, T. (1999) Association between the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Fusarium solani (Moniliales: Tuberculariaceae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92, 98100.
Ruiz, C.R. (1995) Efecto de la fenología del fruto de café sobre los parámetros de la tabla de vida de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). BSc thesis, University of Caldas, Colombia.
Sabelis, M.W., Nagelkerke, C.J. & Breeuwer, J.A.J. (2002) Sex ratio control in arrhenotokous and pseudo-arrhenotokous mites Sex ratios: concepts and research methods 195 – 215 Hardy I.C.W. Cambridge Cambridge University Press
Salazar, H.M., Aristizabal, L.F. & Mejia, C.G. (2003) Investigacion participativa con caficultores en relacion con el manejo de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) en el proceso del beneficio. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 29, 5762.
Salazar, M.R., Arcila, J., Riaño, N. & Bustillo, A.E. (1993) Crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto de café y su relación con la broca. Avance Técnico No 194, Cenicafé, Chinchina, Colombia.
Shaw, S.R. (2004) Essay on the evolution of adult parasitism in the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society St. Petersburg 75, 8295.
Stouthamer, R., Hurst, G.D.D. & Breeuwer, J.A.J. (2002) Sex ratio distorters and their detection pp. 195215 in Hardy, I.C.W. (ed). Sex ratios: concepts and research methods. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Ticheler, J. (1961) Etude analytique de l'épidémiologie du scolyte des graines de café Stephanoderis hampei Ferr. en Cote d'Ivoire. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 61, 149.
Varangis, P., Giovannucci, D. & Lewin, B. (2003) Dealing with the coffee crisis in Central America: impacts and strategies. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2993, Washington, USA.
Vega, F.E. (2004) Coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). pp. 575576 in Capinera, J.L. (ed). Encyclopedia of entomology, Vol. 1 Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Vega, F.E., Mercadier, G., Damon, A. & Kirk, A. (1999) Natural enemies of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Togo and Cote d'Ivoire, and other insects associated with coffee beans. African Entomology 7, 243248.
Vega, F.E., Benavides, P., Stuart, J. & O'Neill, S. (2002) Wolbachia infection in the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95, 374378.
Vega, F.E., Rosenquist, E., Collins, W. (2003a) Global project needed to tackle coffee crisis. Nature 435, 343
Vega, F.E., Blackburn, M.B., Kurtzman, C.P. & Dowd, P.F. (2003b) Identification of a coffee berry borer associated yeast: does it break down caffeine. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 107, 1924.
Velez, M. (2000) Evaluacion de marquesinas para el control de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). BSc thesis, National University, Palmira, Colombia.
Velez, M., Bustillo, A.E. & Alvarez, J. (2002) Secador parabolico modificado para el control de la broca del café. Avance tecnico 306. CENICAFE, Chinchina, Colombia.
Vergara, J.D., Orozco, J., Bustillo, A.E., Cháves, B. (2001a) Biología de Phymastichus coffea en condiciones de campo. Revista Cenicafé 52, 97103.
Vergara, J.D., Orozco, H.J., Bustillo, A.E. & Chaves, B. (2001b) Dispersión de Phymastichus coffea en un lote de café infestado de Hypothenemus hampei. Revista Cenicafé 52, 104110.
Villacorta, A. (1985) Dieta meridica para criacao de successivas geracoes de Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 14, 315319.
Villacorta, A. & Barrera, J. (1996) Mass rearing using a meridic diet, of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) 7 Tapachula, Mexico ECOSUR
Waterson, D.F. & Norris, K.R. (1989) Biological control: Pacific prospects. Supplement 1 56 – 75 Canberra, Australia Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research
Werren, J.H. (1997) Biology of Wolbachia. Annual Review of Entomology 42, 587609.

Keywords

Coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): searching for sustainable control strategies

  • J. Jaramillo (a1) (a2), C. Borgemeister (a2) and P. Baker (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed