Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Dumb animals and smart machines: the implications of modern milking systems for integrated management of dairy cows

  • T. T. Mottram (a1) and L. Masson (a1)

Abstract

The dairy industry has continued to innovate to meet the needs of the consumers' specification of milk at a low price, of good hygienic quality and with rising expectations of animal welfare. The introduction of robotic milking offers the opportunity for the cost effective deployment of novel sensors for a variety of milk analytes. Traditional methods of monitoring health changes in animals are based entirely on the human senses. However, in modern milking systems humans rarely have enough time to see the cows to observe for signs of ill health, the extreme case is that of robotic milking. Novel sensors will allow closed loop control systems where the early detection of deviations from optimal performance will enable the farm manager to make management decisions before damage to potential milk yields is irreversible. Where a biological model already exists, for example, in the prediction of ovulation with milk progesterone analysis, rapid progress is being made towards an automated prediction system. Integrated management systems for dairy cows will not only have the traditional goals of efficient milk production but can also be tuned to reduce polluting outputs of ammonia, phosphorus and methane. The main metabolic markers in milk to be monitored are urea, fat, ketones and protein. The detection of mastitis can be achieved by the development of sensor systems to detect enzyme markers of inflammatory response such as Nagase. Multi-disciplinary research is needed to develop integrated management systems drawing all the different elements of dairy cow management into a single system. The major cause of death in dairy cows is dystocia and monitoring systems are needed to ensure that parturition is better managed.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Andersson, L., Gustafsson, A.H. and Emanuelson, U. 1991. Effect of hyperketonaemia and feeding on fertility in dairy cows. Theriogenology 36: 521536
Andersson, L. and Lundstrom, K. 1984. Milk and blood ketone bodies, blood isopropanol and plasma glucose in dairy cows; methodological studies and diurnal variations. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 31: 340349
Anon, 1992, Council Directive 92/46/EEC, Health roles for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat treated milk and milk based products, Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 268, 132
Bennett, R.M. and Done, J.T. 1986. Control of the Bovine pestivirus syndrome in cattle: a case for social cost benefit analysis? Proceedings of the Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine, M.V. Thrushfield, Edinburgh.
Bramley, A.J. 1992. Mastitis and Machine Milking, Chapter 10 of Machine Milking and Lactation. Ed. Bramley, A.J., Dodd, F.H., Mein, G.A., and Bramley, J.A., pp 343372. Insight Books, Newbury, UK
Claycomb, R.W., Delwiche, M.J., Munro, CJ and Bondurant, R.H., 1995. Enzyme immunoassay biosensor for measurement of bovine progesterone during milking, ASAE Conference, 95, 3564, 25.
Cooper, K. and Parsons, D. J. 1999. An economic analysis of automatic milking using a simulation model. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 73: 311321
De Mol, R. M., Kroeze, G.H., Achten, J.M.F.H., Maatje, K. and Rossing, W. 1997. Results of a multivariate approach to automated oestrus and mastitis detection. Livestock Production Science 48: 219227
De Mol, R.M. and Ouweltjes, W. 2000. Detection model for mastitis in cows milked in an automatic milking system, in: Robotic Milking proceedings of the international symposium held in Lelystad, the Netherlands, 17-19 August 2000, pub. Wageningen Press, the Netherlands, pp 97107
Eckersall, P.D. Young, F.J. Mccomb, C., Hogarth, C.J., Safi, S., Weber, A., Mcdonald, T., Nolan, A.M., Fitzpatrick, J.L. 2001. Acute phase protein in serum and milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Veterinary Record, in press
Esslemont, R.J., Bailie, J.H. and Cooper, M.J. 1985. Fertility management in dairy cattle, Collins, London, UK
Gustafsson, A.H. 1993. Acetone and urea concentration in milk as indicators of the nutritional status and the composition of the diet of dairy cows. Dissertation. Report 222, Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala
Gustafsson, A.H. and Emanuelson, U. 1996. Milk acetone as an indicator of hyperketonaemia in dairy cows: the critical value revised. Animal Science 63: 183188
Harding, F. 1995. Compositional Quality. In Milk Quality. Ed. Harding, F., p87, Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow, UK
Hart, J.P. and Wring, S.A., 1997. Recent developments in the design and application of screen-printed electrochemical sensors for biomedical, environmental and industrial analyses, Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 16, 89103.
Heuer, C., Schukken, Y.H. and Dobbelaar, P. 1999. Postpartum body condition score and results for the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield and culling in commercial dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 82: 295304
Heuer, C., Van Straalen, W.M., Schukken, Y.H., Dirkzwager, A. and Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. 2000. Prediction of energy balance in a high yielding dairy herd in early lactation: model development and precision. Livestock Production Science 65: 91105
Hobbs, and Mottram, 2000. Significant contributions of dimethyl sulphide from livestock to the atmosphere, Atmospheric Environment, 34, 36493650.
Hogeveen, H. and Meijering, A. 2000. Robotic Milking, proceedings of the international symposium held in Lelystad, the Netherlands, 17-19 August 2000, pub. Wageningen Press, the Netherlands
Jenkins, D.M., Delwiche, M.J., Depeters, E.J. and Bondurant, R.H. 1999. Chemical assay of urea for automated sensing in milk. Journal of Dairy Science 82: 19992004
Jonker, J.S., Kohn, R.A. and Erdman, R.A. 1999. Milk urea nitrogen target concentrations for lactating dairy cows fed according to national research council recommendations. Journal of Dairy Science 82: 12611273
Kitchen, B.J. 1981. Review of the progress of Dairy Science: Bovine mastitis: milk compositional changes and related diagnostic tests. Journal of Dairy Research 48: 167188
Koelsch, R.K., Aneshansley, D.J. and Butler, W.R. 1994: Milk Progesterone Sensor for Application with Dairy Cattle. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 58, 115120.
Legin, A., Smirnova, A., Rudnitskaya, A., Lvova, L., Suglobova, E. and Vlasov, Y. 1999. Chemical sensor array for multicomponent analysis of biological liquids. Analytica Chimica Acta 385: 131135
Lind, O., Ipema, A.H., de Koning, C., Mottram, T.T. and Hermann, H.J. 2000. Automatic Milking, Bulletin of the IDF, 348, 314
Lui, D., Ge, K., Chen, K., Nie, L. and Yao, S. 1996. Sensitive specialization analysis of urea in human blood by surface acoustic wave urea sensor system. Microchemical Journal 53: 617
Marchant, J.A., Schofield, C.P. and White, R.P. 1999. Pig growth and conformation monitoring using image analysis. Animal Science 68: 141150.
Mottram, T.T. 1997. Automatic monitoring of the health and metabolic status of dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 48: 209217
Mottram, T.T. and Frost, A.R. 1997. Report on the state of the art of current and emerging methods of oestrus detection on UK dairy farms. Contract Report CR/775/97/1681. (Silsoe Research Institute for Milk Development Council)
Mottram, T.T., Hart, J. and Pemberton, R.M. 2000. Biosensing techniques for detecting abnormal and contaminated milk, In: Robotic Milking proceedings of the international symposium in Lelystad, The Netherlands, 17-19 August 2000, Eds: Hogeveen, H., Meijering, A., Wageningen Press, Wageningen, 108113
Mottram, T.T., Velasco-Garcia, M., Hart, J.P. and Pemberton, R.M. 2001. The optimum time of sampling during milking with a biosensor based system for Automatic Ovulation Prediction of dairy cows, proceedings of the ASAE International Meeting, Sacramento, 30th July-1st August 2001, in press
Mottram, T.T., Whay, H.R., Hobbs, P.J., Richards, P., Short, L. and Hartung, J. 1999. Automatic Cow Breath Sampling: an experiment to measure emissions of polluting compounds in the breath of unrestrained dairy cows, In: Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Livestock Production, Engineering and the Environment, 9-10 March 1999, Freising, Germany
Nix, J. 2000. Farm Management Pocketbook: Dairy Cows, pp 6574, Wye College, University of London, Ashford, UK
Oltner, R., Emanuelson, M. and Wiktorsson, H. 1985. Urea concentrations in milk in relation to milk yield, liveweight, lactation number and amount and composition of feed given to dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 12: 4757
Oltner, R. and Wiktorsson, H. 1983. Urea concentrations in milk and blood as influenced by feeding varying amounts of protein and energy to dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 10: 457467
Pehrson, B. 1996. Milk analysis as an indicator of the nutritional and disease status of dairy cows. In Recent Advanced in Animal Nutrition. Eds. Garnsworthy, P.C., Wiseman, J. and Haresign, W., pp733, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK
Pemberton, R.M., Hart, J.P. and Foulkes, J.A. 1998. Development of a sensitive, selective electrochemical immunoassay for progesterone in cow's milk based on a disposable screen-printed amperometric biosensor. Electrochimica Acta 43: 35673574
Pope, G.S. and Swinburne, J.K. 1980. Reviews of the progress of Dairy Science: Hormones in milk: their physiological significance and value as diagnostic aids. Journal of Dairy Research 47, 427449
Steen, A., Osteras, O. and Gronstol, H. 1996. Evaluation of additional acetone and urea analysis, and the fat-lactose-quotient in cow milk samples in the herd recording system in Norway. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 43: 181191
Tang, X. and Delwiche, M.J. 1998: On-line measurement of progesterone during milking for estrus detection. In: AgEng98. (Ed: Anon, .) CIGR, Oslo, 5960.
Tsenkova, R.N., Iordanov, K.I. and Shinde, J. 1992. Near-infrared spectroscopy for evaluating milk quality. Proceedings “Prospects for Automatic Milking” Wageningen, the Netherlands, EAAP Publication 65. pp 185192
Urech, E., Puhan, Z. and Schallibaum, M. 1999. Changes in milk protein fraction as affected by sub-clinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 82: 24022411
Webster, J. 1993. Understanding the Dairy Cow 2nd ed., pp189198. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK
Whitaker, D.A. 2000. Use and interpretation of metabolic profiles. In The Health of Dairy Cattle. Ed. Andrews, A.H., pp89 107, Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford, UK
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BSAP Occasional Publication
  • ISSN: 0263-967X
  • EISSN: 2053-5953
  • URL: /core/journals/bsap-occasional-publication
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed