Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The development, use and application of the gas production technique at Cornell University, USA

  • A. N. Pell (a1), R. E. Pitt (a2), P. H. Doane (a1) and P. Schofield (a1)

Abstract

Systems to measure gas production to study digestion kinetics have been developed at several locations. The system developed at Cornell University and the rationale behind its evolution are described with an emphasis on whether venting after each observation is necessary and on choice of sensors. Different non-linear-models used to fit gas production data are discussed with an emphasis on the dual-pool logistic model. The third section of the paper includes a theoretical discussion on how gas data can be integrated with data on passage to predict ruminal digestibility. The final section addresses the practical applications of these gas data and ways in which they can be used in models like the Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system. Also included are evaluations of ensiled and freeze-dried samples from the same source as an indication of how gas systems can be used to evaluate the soluble fractions of forages.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Beuvink, J. M. W. and Spoelstra, S. F. 1992. Interactions between substrate, fermentation end-products, buffering systems and gas production upon fermentation of different carbohydrates by mixed rumen microorganisms in vitro. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 37:505509.
Beuvink, J. M. W., Spoelstra, S. F. and Hogendorp, R. J. 1992. An automated method for measuring time-course of gas production of feedstuffs incubated with buffered rumen fluid. Netherlands journal of Agricultural Science 40:401407.
Blümmel, M. and Bullerdieck, P. 1997. The need to complement in vitro gas production measurements with residue determinations from in sacco degradabilities to improve the prediction of voluntary intake of hays. Animal Science 64: 7175.
Cappio-Borlino, A., Pulina, G., Cannas, A. and Serra, A. 1993. Adattamento di curve della degradabilità ruminale di alimenti ad un modello matematico non-lineare [Fitting of curves of ruminal degradation of feeds to a non-linear mathematical model.] Proceedings of the 10th national meeting of the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale, 31 May - 3June, 1993.
Cone, J. W., Gelder, A. H. van, , Visscher, G. J. W. and Oudshoorn, L. 1996. Influence of rumen fluid and substrate concentration on fermentation kinetics measured with a fully automated time related gas production apparatus. Animal Feed Science and Technology 61:113128.
Dewhurst, R. J., Hepper, D. and Webster, A. J. F. 1995. Comparison of in sacco and in vitro techniques for estimating the rate and extent of rumen fermentation of a range of dietary ingredients. Animal Feed Science and Technology 51:211229.
Doane, P. H., Pell, A. N. and Schofield, P. 1997a. The effect of preservation method on the neutral detergent soluble fraction of forages. Journal of Animal Science 75:11401148.
Doane, P. H., Pell, A. N. and Schofield, P. 1998. Ensiling effects on the ethanol fractionation of forages using gas production. Journal of Animal Science 76: 888895.
Doane, P. H., Schofield, P. and Pell, A. N. 1997b. Neutral detergent fiber disappearance, and gas and volatile fatty acid production during the in vitro fermentation of six forages. Journal of Animal Science 74: 33423352.
Fox, D. G., Sniffen, C. J., O'Connor, J. D., Russell, J. B. and Van Soest, P. J. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: III. Cattle diets and diet adequacy. Journal of Animal Science 70: 35783596.
Giner-Chavez, B. 1996. Condensed tannins in tropical forages. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University.
Goering, H. K. and Van Soest, P. J. 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications), Agricultural handbook no. 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC.
Groot, J. C. J., Cone, J. W., Williams, B. A., Debersaques, F. M. A. and Lantinga, E. A. 1996. Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 64: 7789.
Haefele, D., Zimmermann, C, and Bedore, N. 1997. Prediction of in vitro fermentation kinetics by NIRS. Annual conference of the NIRS Forage and Testing Consortium, Madison, WI, 19-20 February, 1997.
Hungate, R. E., Fletcher, D. W., Dougherty, R. W. and Barrentine, B. F. 1955. Microbial activity in the bovine rumen: its measurement and relation to bloat. Applied Microbiology 3:161173.
McBee, R. H. 1953. Manometric method for the evaluation of microbial activity in the rumen with application to utilization of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Applied Microbiology 1:106110.
Marten, G. C. and Barnes, R. F. 1980. Prediction of energy digestibility of forages with in vitro rumen fermentation and fungal enzyme systems. In Standardization of analytical methodology for feeds(ed. Pigden, W. C., Balch, C. C. and Graham, M.), pp. 6171. International Development Research Center, Ottawa.
Mehrez, A. Z. and Ørskov, E. R. 1977. A study of the artificial fibre bag technique for determining the digestibility of feeds in the rumen. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 88:645650.
Menke, K. H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. and Schneider, W. 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedingstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 93:217222.
Menke, K. H. and Steingass, H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development 28: 755.
National Research Council 1996. Nutrient requirements for beefcattle, seventh edition. National Academy Press.
Nocek, J. E. 1988. In situ and other methods to estimate ruminal protein and energy digestibility: a review. Journal of Dairy Science 71:20512069.
Pell, A. N. and Schofield, P. 1993. Computerized monitoring of gas production to measure forage digestion in vitro . Journal of Dairy Science 76:10631073.
Pell, A. N., Schofield, P. and Stone, W. C. 1993. Rates of digestion measured in vitro with computers. Proceedings of the Cornell nutrition conference for feed manufacturers, pp. 7481.
Perrier, R., Michalet-Doreau, B., Bauchart, D. and Doreau, M. 1992. Assessment of an in-situ technique to estimate the degradation of lipids in the rumen. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 59:449455.
Russell, J. B., O'Connor, J. D., Fox, D. G., Van Soest, P. J. and Sniffen, C. J. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. I. Ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Science 70: 35513561.
Sayre, K. D. and Van Soest, P. J. 1972. Comparison of types of fermentation vessels for an in vitro artificial rumen procedure. Journal of Dairy Science 55:14961498.
Schofield, P. and Pell, A. N. 1995a. Validity of using accumulated gas pressure readings to measure forage digestion in vitro: a comparison involving three forages. Journal of Dairy Science 78:22302238.
Schofield, P. and Pell, A. N. 1995b. Measurement and kinetic analysis of the neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrate fraction of legumes and grasses. Journal of Animal Science 73: 34553463.
Schofield, P., Pitt, R. E. and Pell, A. N. 1994. Kinetics of fiber digestion from in vitro gas production. Journal of Animal Science 72:29802991.
Shibata, F., Ogimoto, K. and Furusaka, C. 1961. Studies in rumen fermentation. II. Studies in in vitro gas formation in rumen. Japanese Journal of Zootechnical Science 32:159163.
Smet, A. M. de, , Boever, J. L. de, , Brabander, D. L. de, , Vanacker, J. M. and Boucqué, C. V. 1995. Investigation of dry matter degradation and acidotic effect of some feedstuffs by means of in sacco and in vitro incubations. Animal Feed Science and Technology 51:297315.
Sniffen, C. J., O'Connor, J. D., Van Soest, P. J., Fox, D. G., and Russell, J. B. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science 70:35623577.
Stefanon, B., Pell, A. N. and Schofield, P. 1996. Effect of maturity on digestion kinetics of water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions of alfalfa and brome hay. Journal of Animal Science 74:11041115.
Theodorou, M. K., Williams, B. A., Dhanoa, M. S., McAllan, A. B. and France, J. 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 48:185197.
Tilley, J. M. A. and Terry, R. A. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society 18:104111.
Van Kessel, J. and Russell, J. B. 1996. The effect of amino nitrogen on the energetics of ruminal bacteria and its impact on energy spilling. Journal of Dairy Science 79: 12371243.
Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant, second edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Van Soest, P. J. and Allen, M. S. 1993. Limitations of prediction systems for digestibility and ration balancing. In Silage production from seed to animal. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service publication no. 67, Ithaca, NY.
Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74:35833597.
Varel, V. H. and Kreikemeier, K. K. 1995. Technical note: comparison of in vitro methods and in situ digestibility methods. Journal of Animal Science 73:578582.
Wolin, M. J. 1960. A theoretical rumen fermentation balance. Journal of Dairy Science 43:14521459.

The development, use and application of the gas production technique at Cornell University, USA

  • A. N. Pell (a1), R. E. Pitt (a2), P. H. Doane (a1) and P. Schofield (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed