Studies on the impact of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting (RDIF) on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) components among healthy Muslims observing Ramadan month have yielded contradictory results. This comprehensive meta-analysis aimed to obtain a more stable estimate of the effect size of fasting during Ramadan on the MetS components, examine variability among studies, assess the generalisability of reported results and perform subgroup analyses for associated factors. We searched the CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, ProQuest Medical, PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science databases for relevant studies published from 1950 to March 2019. The MetS components analysed were: waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma/serum glucose (FG), TAG, and HDL-cholesterol. We identified eighty-five studies (4326 participants in total) that were conducted in twenty-three countries between 1982 and 2019. RDIF-induced effect sizes for the MetS components were: small reductions in WC (no. of studies K = 24, N 1557, Hedges’ g = −0·312, 95 % CI −0·387, −0·236), SBP (K = 22, N 1172, Hedges’ g = −0·239, 95 % CI −0·372, −0·106), FG (K = 51, N 2318, Hedges’ g = −0·101, 95 % CI −0·260, 0·004) and TAG (K = 63, N 2862, Hedges’ g = −0·088, 95 % CI −0·171, −0·004) and a small increase in HDL-cholesterol (K = 57, N 2771, Hedges’ g = 0·150, 95 % CI 0·064, 0·236). We concluded that among healthy people, RDIF shows small improvement in the five MetS components: WC, SBP, TAG, FG and HDL.