Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

  • Rachel C. Brown (a1), Siew Ling Tey (a2), Andrew R. Gray (a3), Alexandra Chisholm (a1), Claire Smith (a1), Elizabeth Fleming (a1), Charlie Blakey (a1) and Winsome Parnell (a1)...

Abstract

Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6·9 % (n 240), 7·2 % (n 346) and 19·2 % (n 732), respectively (28·9 % (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2·8 g/d), nut butters (0·9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1·5 g/d) and total nuts (5·2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40·3, 12·9, 7·8 and 17·9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15–18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr R. C. Brown, fax +643 479 7958, email rachel.brown@otago.ac.nz

References

Hide All
1 Brufau, G, Boatella, J & Rafecas, M (2006) Nuts: source of energy and macronutrients. Br J Nutr 96, S24S28.
2 Ros, E & Mataix, J (2006) Fatty acid composition of nuts – implications for cardiovascular health. Br J Nutr 96, S29S35.
3 Salas-Salvado, J, Bullo, M, Perez-Heras, A, et al. (2006) Dietary fibre, nuts and cardiovascular diseases. Br J Nutr 96, S45S51.
4 Vinson, JA & Cai, Y (2012) Nuts, especially walnuts, have both antioxidant quantity and efficacy and exhibit significant potential health benefits. Food Funct 3, 134140.
5 Afshin, A, Micha, R, Khatibzadeh, S, et al. (2014) Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 278288.
6 Bolling, BW, Chen, CY, McKay, DL, et al. (2011) Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. Nutr Res Rev 24, 244275.
7 Luo, C, Zhang, Y, Ding, YS, et al. (2014) Nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 256269.
8 Ros, E (2010) Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients 2, 652682.
9 Zhou, DH, Yu, HB, He, F, et al. (2014) Nut consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease risk and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 270277.
10 Flores-Mateo, G, Rojas-Rueda, D, Basora, J, et al. (2013) Nut intake and adiposity: meta-analysis of clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 13461355.
11 Jackson, CL & Hu, FB (2014) Long-term associations of nut consumption with body weight and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 408S411S.
12 Mattes, RD & Dreher, ML (2010) Nuts and healthy body weight maintenance mechanisms. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19, 137141.
13 Tan, SY, Dhillon, J & Mattes, RD (2014) A review of the effects of nuts on appetite, food intake, metabolism, and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 412S422S.
14 Vadivel, V, Kunyanga, CN & Biesalski, HK (2012) Health benefits of nut consumption with special reference to body weight control. Nutrition 28, 10891097.
15 US Food and Drug Administration (2003) Qualified health claims: letter of enforcement discretion – nuts and coronary heart disease (Docket No. 02P-0505). http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/LabelingNutrition/ucm072926.htm.
16 Tey, S, Brown, R & Chisholm, A (2012) Nuts and heart health. In National Heart Foundation of New Zealand Evidence-based Position Statement on the Relationship of Nuts to Heart Health. Auckland: National Heart Foundation of New Zealand.
17 Aranceta, J, Rodrigo, CP, Naska, A, et al. (2006) Nut consumption in Spain and other countries. Br J Nutr 96, S3S11.
18 Jenab, M, Sabat, J, Slimani, N, et al. (2006) Consumption and portion sizes of tree nuts, peanuts and seeds in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries. Br J Nutr 96, S12S23.
19 King, JC, Blumberg, J, Ingwersen, L, et al. (2008) Tree nuts and peanuts as components of a healthy diet. J Nutr 138, S1736S1740.
20 O'Neil, CE, Keast, DR, Fulgoni, VL, et al. (2010) Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19, 142150.
21 O'Neil, CE, Keast, DR, Nicklas, TA, et al. (2011) Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004. J Am Coll Nutr 30, 502510.
22 O'Neil, CE, Keast, DR, Nicklas, TA, et al. (2012) Out-of-hand nut consumption is associated with improved nutrient intake and health risk markers in US children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Nutr Res 32, 185194.
23 Lino, M, Marcoe, K, Dinkins, JM, et al. (2000) The role of nuts in a healthy diet. Fam Econ Rev 14, 8082.
24 University of Otago and Ministry of Health (2011) Methodology Report for the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
25 Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM, et al. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 12401243.
26 Cole, TJ, Flegal, KM, Nicholls, D, et al. (2007) Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ 335, 194197.
27 Parnell, W, Wilson, N, Mann, J, et al. (2005) Overview of food security status in New Zealand as a predictor of nutritional outcomes. Proc Nutr Soc NZ 30, 144149.
28 Estruch, R, Ros, E, Salas-Salvado, J, et al. (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Eng J Med 368, 12791290.
29 Sabaté, J & Wien, M (2010) Nuts, blood lipids and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19, 131136.
30 Bullo, M, Lamuela-Raventos, R & Salas-Salvado, J (2011) Mediterranean diet and oxidation: nuts and olive oil as important sources of fat and antioxidants. Curr Top Med Chem 11, 17971810.
31 Chen, C-Y, Milbury, PE, Lapsley, K, et al. (2005) Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J Nutr 135, 13661373.
32 Pawlak, R, Colby, S & Herring, J (2009) Beliefs, benefits, barriers, attitude, intake and knowledge about peanuts and tree nuts among WIC participants in eastern North Carolina. Nutr Res Pract 3, 220225.
33 Bes-Rastrollo, M, Sabate, J, Gomez-Gracia, E, et al. (2007) Nut consumption and weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN Study. Obesity 15, 107116.
34 Fraser, GE, Bennett, HW, Jaceldo, KB, et al. (2002) Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 275283.
35 Alper, CM & Mattes, RD (2002) Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 11291137.
36 Sabate, J, Cordero-MacIntyre, Z, Siapco, G, et al. (2005) Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain? Br J Nutr 94, 859864.
37 Hollis, J & Mattes, R (2007) Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans. Br J Nutr 98, 651656.
38 Tey, SL, Brown, R, Gray, A, et al. (2011) Nuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weight. J Nutr Metab 2011, 357350.
39 Novotny, JA, Gebauer, SK & Baer, DJ (2012) Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 296301.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed