Health and Social Care Information Centre (Lifestyles Statistics) (2013) Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England. London: The Health and Social Care Information Centre.
Reilly, J (2006) Obesity in childhood and adolescence: evidence based clinical and public health perspectives. Postgrad Med J
Frank, BH (2008) Obesity Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Cutler, D, Glaeser, E & Shapiro, J (2003) Why Have Americans Become More Obese?. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Huang, TTK & McCrory, MA (2005) Dairy intake, obesity, and metabolic health in children and adolescents: knowledge and gaps. Nutr Rev
Rennie, KL, Johnson, L & Jebb, SA (2005) Behavioural determinants of obesity. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab
Nicklas, TA, Yang, S-J, Baranowski, T, et al. (2003) Eating patterns and obesity in children: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Prev Med
Nielsen, S & Popkin, BM (2003) Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977–1998. JAMA
Steenhuis, IH, Leeuwis, FH & Vermeer, WM (2010) Small, medium, large or supersize: trends in food portion sizes in The Netherlands. Public Health Nutr
Church, S (2008) Trends in Portion Sizes in the UK – A Preliminary Review of Published Information. London: Food Standards Agency.
Benson, C (2009) Increasing portion size in Britain. Soc Biol Hum Aff
Lioret, S, Volatier, J, Lafay, L, et al. (2007) Is food portion size a risk factor of childhood overweight?
Eur J Clin Nutr
Bandini, LG, Vu, D, Must, A, et al. (1999) Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense food consumption among obese and non-obese adolescents. Obes Res
Rodríguez, G & Moreno, LA (2006) Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
Westerterp-Plantenga, M (2001) Analysis of energy density of food in relation to energy intake regulation in human subjects. Br J Nutr
Ello-Martin, JA, Ledikwe, JH & Rolls, BJ (2005) The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr
82, Suppl. 1, 236S–241S.
Kral, TVE & Rolls, BJ (2004) Energy density and portion size: their independent and combined effects on energy intake. Physiol Behav
Rolls, BJ, Morris, EL & Roe, LS (2002) Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr
Ledikwe, JH, Ello-Martin, JA & Rolls, BJ (2005) Portion sizes and the obesity epidemic. J Nutr
Kerr, MA, Rennie, KL, McCaffrey, TA, et al. (2009) Snacking patterns among adolescents: a comparison of type, frequency and portion size between Britain in 1997 and Northern Ireland in 2005. Br J Nutr
Forshee, RA, Anderson, PA & Storey, ML (2008) Sugar-sweetened beverages and body mass index in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr
Gibson, S & Neate, D (2007) Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity. Int J Food Sci Nutr
Wrieden, W, Gregor, A & Barton, K (2008) Have food portion sizes increased in the UK over the last 20 years?
Proc Nutr Soc
UK Data Service Discover (2012) National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008–2011. Funded by the Department of Health (DH) in England and the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA)
Foster, E, Matthews, JN, Lloyd, J, et al. (2008) Children's estimates of food portion size: the development and evaluation of three portion size assessment tools for use with children. Br J Nutr
Foster, E, Adamson, AJ, Anderson, AS, et al. (2009) Estimation of portion size in children's dietary assessment: lessons learnt. Eur J Clin Nutr
63, Suppl. 1, S45–S49.
Food Standards Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Food, 6th ed.
Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Wrieden, WL, Longbottom, PJ, Adamson, AJ, et al. (2008) Estimation of typical food portion sizes for children of different ages in Great Britain. Br J Nutr
Rolls, BJ, Drewnowski, A & Ledikwe, JH (2005) Changing the energy density of the diet as a strategy for weight management. J Am Diet Assoc
Cole, TJ, Freeman, JV & Preece, MA (1995) Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child
Schofield, WN (1985) Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr
39, Suppl. 1, 5–41.
Torun, B, Davies, P, Livingstone, M, et al. (1996) Energy requirements and dietary energy recommendations for children and adolescents 1 to 18 years old. Eur J Clin Nutr
Berkey, CS, Rockett, HR, Field, AE, et al. (2000) Activity, dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls. Pediatrics
Rangan, AM, Flood, VM & Gill, TP (2011) Misreporting of energy intake in the 2007 Australian Children's Survey: identification, characteristics and impact of misreporters. Nutrients
Hillier, FC (2010) .
Elliott, S, Truby, H, Lee, A, et al. (2011) Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of Australian children. Nutr J
Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) (2012) Dietary Reference Values for Energy. London: The Stationery Office.
Gillis, L, Kennedy, L, Gillis, A, et al. (2002) Relationship between juvenile obesity, dietary energy and fat intake and physical activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Maffeis, C, Provera, S, Filippi, L, et al. (2000) Distribution of food intake as a risk factor for childhood obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Magarey, A, Daniels, L, Boulton, T, et al. (2001) Does fat intake predict adiposity in healthy children and adolescents aged 2–15 y? A longitudinal analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr
Alexy, U, Sichert-Hellert, W, Kersting, M, et al. (2004) Pattern of long-term fat intake and BMI during childhood and adolescence – results of the DONALD Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Alexy, U, Sichert-Hellert, W & Kersting, M (2002) Fifteen-year time trends in energy and macronutrient intake in German children and adolescents: results of the DONALD study. Br J Nutr
Young, LR & Nestle, M (2002) The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health
Albertson, AM, Anderson, GH, Crockett, SJ, et al. (2003) Ready-to-eat cereal consumption: its relationship with BMI and nutrient intake of children aged 4 to 12 years. J Am Diet Assoc
Albertson, A, Goebel, M, Kolberg, L, et al. (2001) Breakfast and ready-to-eat cereal consumption habits of adult women in the US population and the relationship with energy intake and body mass index. Obes Res
9, Suppl. 3, 183S.
Livingstone, MBE, Robson, PJ & Wallace, JMW (2004) Issues in dietary intake assessment of children and adolescents. Br J Nutr
92, Suppl. 2, S213–S222.
Bachman, CM, Baranowski, T & Nicklas, TA (2006) Is there an association between sweetened beverages and adiposity?
Malik, VS, Schulze, MB & Hu, FB (2006) Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr
Pereira, MA (2006) The possible role of sugar-sweetened beverages in obesity etiology: a review of the evidence. Int J Obes
Harris, JE, Gleason, PM, Sheean, PM, et al. (2009) An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals. J Am Diet Assoc
Berkey, CS, Rockett, HR, Field, AE, et al. (2004) Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obes Res
Gillis, LJ & Bar-Or, O (2003) Food away from home, sugar-sweetened drink consumption and juvenile obesity. J Am Coll Nutr
Troiano, RP, Briefel, RR, Carroll, MD, et al. (2000) Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Clin Nutr
72, Suppl. 5, 1343S–1353S.
Mrdjenovic, G & Levitsky, DA (2003) Nutritional and energetic consequences of sweetened drink consumption in 6- to 13-year-old children. J Pediatr
Ludwig, DS, Peterson, KE & Gortmaker, SL (2001) Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet
Phillips, SM, Bandini, LG, Naumova, EN, et al. (2004) Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res
Welsh, JA, Cogswell, ME, Rogers, S, et al. (2005) Overweight among low-income preschool children associated with the consumption of sweet drinks: Missouri, 1999–2002. Pediatrics
Glickman, D, Parker, L, Sim, L, et al. (2012) Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Pan, A & Hu, FB (2011) Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
DiMeglio, DP & Mattes, RD (2000) Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Berkey, C, Rockett, HH, Willett, WC, et al. (2005) Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
Zemel, M (2003) Role of dietary calcium and dairy products in modulating adiposity. Lipids
Livingstone, M & Robson, P (2000) Measurement of dietary intake in children. Proc Nutr Soc
Livingstone, MB, Prentice, AM, Coward, WA, et al. (1992) Validation of estimates of energy intake by weighed dietary record and diet history in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr
Lafay, L, Mennen, L, Basdevant, A, et al. (2000) Does energy intake underreporting involve all kinds of food or only specific food items? Results from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Santé (FLVS) study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Rennie, KL, Jebb, SA, Wright, A, et al. (2007) Secular trends in under-reporting in young people. Br J Nutr
Goodwin, RA, BrulÉ, D, Junkins, EA, et al. (2001) Development of a food and activity record and a portion-size model booklet for use by 6- to 17-year olds: a review of focus-group testing. J Am Diet Assoc
Boushey, C, Kerr, D, Wright, J, et al. (2009) Use of technology in children's dietary assessment. Eur J Clin Nutr