J. N. participated in the study analysis, interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript and provided statistical expertise. K. M. participated in the study analysis and interpretation of data. H. I., Y. W., C. D., H. T., A. Y., S. K., A. K., T. K., Y. W., Y. I. and A. T. participated in the study concept and design, acquisition of data and interpretation of data, and critical revision of the manuscript. The authors thank all staff members involved in the present study for their valuable help in conducting the baseline survey and follow-up. The JACC Study group investigators are: Dr Akiko Tamakoshi (present chairperson of the study group), Aichi Medical University School of Medicine; Dr Mitsuru Mori, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine; Dr Yutaka Motohashi, Akita University School of Medicine; Dr Ichiro Tsuji, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine; Dr Yosikazu Nakamura, Jichi Medical School; Dr Hiroyasu Iso, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine; Dr Haruo Mikami, Chiba Cancer Center; Dr Yutaka Inaba, Juntendo University School of Medicine; Dr Yoshiharu Hoshiyama, University of Human Arts and Sciences; Dr Hiroshi Suzuki, Niigata University School of Medicine; Dr Hiroyuki Shimizu, Gifu University School of Medicine; Dr Hideaki Toyoshima, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine; Dr Kenji Wakai, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute; Dr Shinkan Tokudome, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences; Dr Yoshinori Ito, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences; Dr Shuji Hashimoto, Fujita Health University School of Medicine; Dr Shogo Kikuchi, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine; Dr Akio Koizumi, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University; Dr Takashi Kawamura, Kyoto University Center for Student Health; Dr Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Science; Dr Tsuneharu Miki, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine; Dr Chigusa Date, Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University; Dr Kiyomi Sakata, Wakayama Medical University; Dr Takayuki Nose, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine; Dr Norihiko Hayakawa, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University; Dr Takesumi Yoshimura, Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences; Dr Akira Shibata, Kurume University School of Medicine; Dr Naoyuki Okamoto, Kanagawa Cancer Center; Dr Hideo Shio, Moriyama Municipal Hospital; Dr Yoshiyuki Ohno, Asahi Rosai Hospital; Dr Tomoyuki Kitagawa, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research; Dr Toshio Kuroki, Gifu University; Dr Kazuo Tajima, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute. The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study was supported by grants-in-aid for scientific research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan Monbusho (61010076, 62010074, 63010074, 1010068, 2151065, 3151064, 4151063, 5151069, 6279102, 11181101, 17015022 and 18074011). None of the authors had any conflicts of interest.
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