The authors thank Tzu Han Chuck Chen and Byung Jun Song for their exceptional technical assistance.
Aspects of the present study have been presented at Experimental Biology, San Diego, CA, 21–25 April 2012.
The present study was supported by the Canada Research Chair Endowment of the Federal Government of Canada and the Almond Board of California, Modesto, CA, USA. None of the funding organisations or sponsors played any role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.
C. W. C. K., R. P. B. and D. J. A. J. had full access to all the data in the study and were responsible for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. C. W. C. K. and D. J. A. J. obtained funding. C. W. C. K., R. P. B., K. G. L. and D. J. A. J. were responsible for study concept and design. S. N., C. W. C. K., R. P. B., B. B., A.-M. G. and D. J. A. J. were responsible for the acquisition and analysis of data. S. N., C. W. C. K., A.-M. G., R. P. B., K. G. L., L. S. A. A., J. L. S. and D. J. A. J. were responsible for the interpretation of data. S. N., C. W. C. K. and R. P. B. drafted the manuscript. S. N., C. W. C. K., A.-M. G., R. P. B., B. B., K. G. L., L. S. A. A. and J. L. S. provided administrative, technical and material support. C. W. C. K., R. P. B., B. B. and D. J. A. J. supervised the study. All authors critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content and approved the manuscript submitted for publication.
D. J. A. J. has served on the Scientific Advisory Board of Unilever, Sanitarium Company, California Strawberry Commission, Loblaw Supermarket, Herbal Life International, Nutritional Fundamental for Health, Pacific Health Laboratories, Metagenics, Bayer Consumer Care, Orafti, Dean Foods, Kellogg's, Quaker Oats, Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola, NuVal Griffin Hospital, Abbott, Pulse Canada, Saskatchewan Pulse Growers and Canola Council of Canada; is receiving honoraria for scientific advice from the Almond Board of California, International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research and Education Foundation, Barilla, Unilever Canada, Solae, Oldways, Kellogg's, Quaker Oats, Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola, NuVal Griffin Hospital, Abbott, Canola Council of Canada, Dean Foods, California Strawberry Commission, Hain Celestial and Alpro Foundation; is on the speakers panel of the Almond Board of California; is receiving research grants from Loblaw Brands Limited, Unilever, Barilla, Almond Board of California, Solae, Hain Celestial, Sanitarium Company, Orafti, International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation, and Peanut Institute and receiving travel support to meetings from the Almond Board of California, Unilever, Alpro Foundation, and International Tree Nut Council, Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Canada Foundation for Innovation, Ontario Research Fund. D. J. A. J. is receiving salary support as a Canada Research Chair from the federal government of Canada. His wife is a director of Glycemic Index Laboratories, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. C. W. C. K. has received research grants, travel funding, consultant fees and honoraria from and has served on the Scientific Advisory Board of Abbott Laboratories, Advanced Food Materials Network, Agrifoods and Agriculture Canada, Almond Board of California, American Peanut Council, American Pistachio Growers, Barilla, California Strawberry Commission, Energy Control Council, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Canola Council of Canada, The Coca-Cola Company (investigator initiated, unrestricted), Danone, General Mills, Hain Celestial, International Tree Nut Council, Kellogg's, Kraft, Loblaw Brands Limited, Nutrition Foundation of Italy, Oldways, Orafti, Paramount Farms, Peanut Institute, Pepsi-Co, Pulse Canada, Saskatchewan Pulse Growers, Solae, Sun-Maid, Tate & Lyle, and Unilever. J. L. S. has received research support from the CIHR, Energy Control Council, The Coca-Cola Company (investigator initiated, unrestricted grant), Pulse Canada, and International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation. He has received travel funding, speaker fees and/or honoraria from the American Heart Association, American College of Physicians, American Society for Nutrition (ASN), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA), Canadian Nutrition Society, Calorie Control Council, Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America, ILSI Brazil, Abbott Laboratories, Pulse Canada, University of South Carolina, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Oldways Preservation Trust, Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI), Corn Refiners Association, World Sugar Research Association, Dr Pepper Snapple Group and The Coca-Cola Company. He has consulting arrangements with Winston & Strawn LLP and Tate and Lyle. He is on the Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee for Nutrition Therapy of both the CDA and EASD, as well as on the ASN writing panel for a scientific statement on the metabolic and nutritional effects of fructose, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup. He is an unpaid scientific advisor for the ILSI North America, Food, Nutrition, and Safety Program. His wife is an employee of Unilever Canada. K. G. L. is an employee of the Almond Board of California. No other potential conflicts of interest relevant to the study exist.
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