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Trade, knowledge and networks: the activities of the Society of Apothecaries and its members in London, c.1670–c.1800

  • ANNA SIMMONS (a1)

Abstract

This article explores the activities of the Society of Apothecaries and its members following the foundation of a laboratory for manufacturing chemical medicines in 1672. In response to political pressures, the guild created an institutional framework for production which in time served its members both functionally and financially and established a physical site within which the endorsement of practical knowledge could take place. Demand from state and institutional customers for drugs produced under corporate oversight affirmed and supported the society's trading role, with chemical and pharmaceutical knowledge utilized to fulfil collective and individual goals. The society benefited from the mercantile interests, political connections and practical expertise of its members, with contributions to its trading activities part of a much wider participation in London's medical, scientific and commercial milieu. Yet, as apothecaries became increasingly engaged in the practice of medicine rather than the preparation and sale of drugs, the society struggled to reconcile the changing priorities of those it represented, and tensions emerged between its corporate and commercial activities.

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Footnotes

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I am very grateful to the anonymous referees and to Rebekah Higgitt and Jim Bennett for their comments and suggestions, which greatly improved this paper. I am particularly indebted to Joe Cain and the UCL Department of Science and Technology Studies for continuing to support me as an honorary research associate. The Society of Apothecaries has been most generous in giving permission to use and cite its archives, and Janet Payne, archive officer, has been particularly helpful with my research.

Footnotes

References

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1 Whittet, T.D., ‘Pepperers, spicers and grocers: forerunners of the apothecaries’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (1968) 61, pp. 801806; Nightingale, Pamela, A Medieval Mercantile Community: The Grocers’ Company and the Politics and Trade of London, 1000–1485, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995, pp. 5859, 549.

2 Hunting, Penelope, A History of the Society of Apothecaries, London: Society of Apothecaries, 1998, pp. 2930, 265–266.

3 Ford, John M.T., Gaining a Charter 1610–1625: How the Society of Apothecaries Achieved Independence, London: Society of Apothecaries, 2017; Wall, Cecil, A History of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London, vol. 1: 1617–1815 (comp. Cameron, H.C., ed. Underwood, E.A.), London: Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. 822.

4 Although ‘society’ is mentioned in the charter, for much of the seventeenth century the name ‘company’ is used in official records, with the use of ‘society’ not occurring again until 1684. This term was gradually adopted thereafter. Wall, op. cit. (3), pp. 18, 19. In line with histories of the institution, I will use ‘society’ in this article unless quoting from a source. See also footnote 14 in the introduction to this issue.

5 Court of Assistants Minute Books, 1617–1926 (subsequently CM), 16 December 1617, Apothecaries’ Hall Archive (subsequently AHA), MS 8200/1–18. All dates given according to the post-1752 calendar.

6 The society initially met at the Painter-Stainers’ Hall. For the hall's history see Hunting, op. cit. (2), pp. 75–111.

7 Wall, op. cit. (3), pp. 23–57; Clark, George, A History of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 4 vols., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964, vol. 1, pp. 242, 265272.

8 Fowler, Clare J., Pharmacopoeia Londinensis 1618 and Its Descendants, London: Royal College of Physicians, 2018, pp. 4956.

9 Stewart, Larry, The Rise of Public Science: Rhetoric, Technology and Natural Philosophy in Newtonian Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

10 Patrick Wallis, ‘Medicines for London: the trade, regulation and lifecycle of London apothecaries c.1610–1670’, Oxford University DPhil thesis, 2002; Cook, Harold J., The Decline of the Old Medical Regime in Stuart London, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986.

11 Berlin, Michael, ‘Guilds in decline? London livery companies and the rise of a liberal economy’, in Epstein, S.R. and Prak, Maarten (eds.), Guilds, Innovation and the European Economy, 1400–1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 316341, 328–329.

12 Berlin, op. cit. (11), p. 329.

13 Debus, Allen, The Chemical Philosophy: Paracelsian Science and Medicine in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 2 vols., New York: Science History Publications, 1977.

14 I am very grateful to Peter Elmer for a pre-publication copy of his chapter on the Society of Chemical Physicians and Medical Reform in Restoration England, from Medicine and Politics in Early Modern England, Oxford University Press, forthcoming.

15 Ash, Eric H., ‘Expertise and the early modern state’, Osiris (2010) 25, pp. 124, 22.

16 Sundry Account and Memoranda Book, 1672–1695, 4 January 1672, AHA, MS 8204, B1/1/3 (subsequently Memoranda Book).

17 For France see Perkins, John, ‘Creating chemistry in provincial France before the revolution: the examples of Nancy and Metz. Part 2, Metz’, Ambix (2004) 51, pp. 4375, with communal manufacturing at 43–44. For Germany see Klein, Ursula, ‘Apothecary's shops, laboratories and chemical manufacture in eighteenth-century Germany’, in Roberts, Lissa, Schaffer, Simon and Dear, Peter (eds.), The Mindful Hand: Inquiry and Invention from the Late Renaissance to Early Industrialization, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007, pp. 247276.

18 For broader changes see Loudon, Irvine, Medical Care and the General Practitioner, 1750–1850, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986, pp. 152188.

19 Simmons, Anna, ‘Medicines, monopolies and mortars: the chemical laboratory and the pharmaceutical trade at the Society of Apothecaries in the eighteenth century’, Ambix (2006) 53, pp. 221236.

20 Quote taken from anon., The apothecary display'd or an answer to the apothecary's pamphlet called frauds detected in drugs …, London, 1748, p. 13. For status and social position see Burnby, Juanita, A Study of the English Apothecary from 1660 to 1760, London: Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 1983, pp. 92112.

21 Wallis, Patrick, ‘Exotic drugs and English medicine: England's drug trade, c.1550–c.1800’, Social History of Medicine (2012) 25, pp. 2046.

22 CM 22 May 1623.

23 Appleby, John H., ‘Ivan the Terrible to Peter the Great: British formative influence on Russia's medico-apothecary system’, Medical History (1983) 27, pp. 289304, 293–294.

24 CM 12 October 1641. For the chemical tests on lac sulphuris carried out at Apothecaries’ Hall in the 1630s see Wallis, Patrick and Wright, Catherine, ‘Evidence, artisan experience, and authority in early modern England’, in Smith, Pamela, Meyers, Amy and Cook, Harold (eds.), Ways of Making and Knowing: The Material Culture of Empirical Knowledge, 2nd edn, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017, pp. 138163, 150–155.

25 Cook, Harold J., ‘The Society of Chemical Physicians, the New Philosophy and the Restoration court’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine (1987) 61, pp. 6177; Rattansi, P.M., ‘The Helmontian–Galenist controversy in Restoration England’, Ambix (1964) 12, pp. 123, 16; Elmer, op. cit. (14).

26 Simmons, op. cit. (19), pp. 222–228.

27 Memoranda Book, 4 January 1672. For example, Nicholas Staphorst was not a member.

28 CM 18 December 1677.

29 Sun Insurance Office Ltd, Fire Policy 64344, 19 July 1734, Box 34, AHA; plan of ‘back front’ of Apothecaries’ Hall, MS 8269, M6, AHA.

30 Memoranda Book, 4 January 1672; CM 14 January 1673; quote from CM 9 May 1702.

31 Wall, op. cit. (3), pp. 76–90.

32 Hunting, op. cit. (2), pp. 41–43, 267.

33 Memoranda Book, 29 January 1672.

34 CM 9 October 1673; Minter, Sue, The Apothecaries’ Garden: A History of the Chelsea Physic Garden, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2000.

35 Memoranda Book, 6 October 1681.

36 Delbourgo, James, Collecting the World: The Life and Curiosity of Hans Sloane, London: Allen Lane, 2017, pp. 910; Whittet, T.D., Clerks, Bedels and Chemical Operators of the Society of Apothecaries, London: Berrico Publicity Co. Ltd, 1977, pp. 5758.

37 For example, Francis Condy, Stephen Griffin, Francis Moore and Henry Hennell. Whittet, op. cit. (36), pp. 59, 63, 67–70.

38 Memoranda Book, 4 January, 30 November 1672.

39 CM 18 November 1683.

40 Staphorst, Nicholas, Officina Chymica Londinensis, London, 1685. A version was printed by Schultze in Hamburg in 1686. Staphorst also published Metallorum et Mineralium Praepartiones [London, 1685], a list of metallic, mineral, vegetable and animal preparations, which is appended to some copies of the Officina.

41 Cook, op. cit. (10), p. 139.

42 Cook, op. cit. (10), pp. 233–239.

43 CM 10 March 1698.

44 Tanner, J.R. (ed.), Private Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers of Samuel Pepys, 1679–1703, vol. 1, London: G. Bell and Sons, 1926, pp. 118126.

45 CM 5 January 1703.

46 CM 1 July 1703; Paula K. Watson, ‘The Commission for Victualling the Navy, the Commission for Sick and Wounded Seamen and the Prisoners of War and the Commission for Transport, 1702–1714’, University of London PhD thesis, 1965, pp. 216–217.

47 CM 1 July, 13 July 1703. Articles of Agreement for the Setting Up and Governance of a Stock, to Provide the Royal Navy with Medicines …, 3 August 1703, AHA, MS 8213, Box 225.

48 Copy of Case Laid before Counsel by the General Committee of the Navy Stock, March 1767, AHA, Box 64, E7/3. Ninety-nine subscribed fifty pounds and thirteen subscribed forty pounds.

49 CM 13 July 1703; anon., The Names of the Present Subscribers to the Elaboratory January 1703, London: Society of Apothecaries, 1703, British Library.

50 Joint Laboratory Stock Articles, 1713, AHA, MS 8214, Box 225.

51 Whittet, op. cit. (36), pp. 10–13; Royal Society Journal Book (MS) 12 March 1724, p. 364, Royal Society Library and Archives.

52 Blagden, Cyprian, The Stationers’ Company: A History, 1403–1959, London: Allen and Unwin, 1960, pp. 92109, 178–205.

53 Cook, op. cit. (10), p. 246.

54 CM 1 July 1703; Keevil, J.J., Medicine and the Navy, 1200–1900, vol. 2: 1649–1714, Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone Ltd, 1958, pp. 272275; Thomas Corbett, Report on the Application of David Cauty … 23 June 1749, National Maritime Museum, Caird Library and Archives, ADM 354/141/114; CM 5 January 1760.

55 Cook, H., ‘Practical medicine and the British armed forces after the “Glorious Revolution”’, Medical History (1990) 34, pp. 126, 12–14.

56 For the mutually reinforcing relationship between the rise of the expert and the development of the early modern state see Ash, op. cit. (15), pp. 11–19, 24.

57 Sick and Wounded Board Out-Letters, vol. 1, folio 46, letter to Thomas Corbett, 13 October 1742, National Archives, ADM 98/1; Hunting, op. cit. (2), p. 181.

58 East India Company Court of Directors Minutes, B/47, 18 October 1704, p. 328, and B/82, 29 October 1766, pp. 238–239, British Library, India Office Records.

59 It was not until 1842 that the society jointly took over army supply. Neil Cantlie, A History of the Army Medical Department, vol. 1, London and Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1974, pp. 61, 449–450.

60 EIC Court of Directors Minutes, B/82, 29 October 1766, pp. 238–239.

61 CM 21 September, 17, 30 October 1721.

62 Greenwich Hospital, General Court and Directors Minutes, 29 June, 19 October 1717, National Archives, ADM 67/5; Hunting, op. cit. (2), p. 172; Navy Board In-Letters, Complaint against Apothecaries’ Hall, 5 June 1736, National Archives, ADM 106/878/16; Cauty Application, National Maritime Museum, Caird Library, ADM 354/141/114. Supply to Greenwich resumed at a later date.

63 Anon., The Origin, Progress, and Present State of the Various Establishments for Conducting Chemical Processes, and Other Medicinal Preparations, at Apothecaries’ Hall, London: R. Gilbert, 1823, pp. 89.

64 CM 21 March 1748. Financial data on profit levels in the stocks’ early years is patchy. In 1741 they stood at £3,614 (Navy) and £3,749 (Laboratory) but is unclear over how long this accrued. CM 13 January 1741.

65 Myers, Robin, The Stationers’ Company Archive: An Account of the Records, 1554–1984, Winchester: St Paul's Bibliographies, 1990, p. 5.

66 CM 17 March 1791; CM 14 March 1798. Share value was now £200.

67 Simmons, Anna, ‘Wholesale pharmaceutical manufacturing in London, c.1760–c.1840: sites, production and networks’, in Roberts, Lissa and Werrett, Simon (eds.), Compound Histories: Materials, Production, and Governance, 1760–1840, Leiden: Brill, 2017, pp. 289310. For the society see 296–297, 299–303.

68 Hunting, op. cit. (2), pp. 93–97.

69 For guild searches and collective decision making see Wallis and Wright, op. cit. (24).

70 For outside scrutiny see Physician General Hutton's comments quoted in Cook, op. cit. (55), p. 12.

71 Memoranda Book, 4 January 1672; anon., The Names of the Present Subscribers …, 1703.

72 Minute Book of the Committee of Managers and the Court of Proprietors of the Laboratory Stock, 1741–1751, 6 April 1748, AHA, MS 8220, B5/1/3 (subsequently Laboratory Stock Minute Book); Rough Minute Book of the Laboratory Stock Committee of Managers, vol. 3, 1765–1767, 27 December 1765, AHA, MS 8221, Box 92.

73 Laboratory Stock Rough Minute Book, 27 December 1765; Laboratory Stock Minute Book, 5 February 1746, 21 December 1747.

74 Laboratory Stock Minute Book, 1 October 1746, 3 March 1742, 4 August 1742.

75 CM 26 March 1767.

76 Anon., The Names of the Present Subscribers to the Elaboratory December 1712, London: Society of Apothecaries, 1712, British Library.

77 For the broader context see Cook, Harold J. and Walker, Timothy D., ‘Circulation of medicine in the early modern Atlantic world’, Social History of Medicine (2013) 26, pp. 337351.

78 Steele, I.K., Atlantic Merchant Apothecary: Letters of Joseph Cruttenden, 1710–1717, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977, p. 99.

79 Anon., The Names of the Present Subscribers … 1712; CM 17 October 1721.

80 CM 11 February 1692. Both ‘Lee’ and ‘Leigh’ and ‘Gelsthorp’ and ‘Gelsthorpe’ are used in the society's records.

81 CM 2 February 1699.

82 CM 9 January 1705, 3 January 1706.

83 Volume 43: 1 January–15 March 1697’, Redington, Joseph (ed.), Calendar of Treasury Papers, vol. 2: 1697–1702, London, 1871, pp. 118, item 74, at 16–17, British History Online, at www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-treasury-papers/vol2/pp1-18, accessed 24 January 2019

84 CM 18 May 1709; Ford, John, The Art of Apothecaries’ Hall, London: Society of Apothecaries, 2018, p. 27.

85 Anon., A Catalogue of the Several Members of the Society of Apothecaries living in and about the City of London this present 25th of March, 1713, London: Society of Apothecaries, 1713, British Library.

86 Anon., The Names of the Present Subscribers … 1712. Comparably dated lists of Navy Stock subscribers do not survive.

87 Cook, Harold J., ‘The Rose case reconsidered: physicians, apothecaries, and the law in Augustan England’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (1990) 45, pp. 527555.

88 Porter, Roy and Porter, Dorothy, ‘The rise of the English drugs industry: the role of Thomas Corbyn’, Medical History (1989) 33, pp. 277295.

89 CM 20 August 1741.

90 CM 14 March, 22 May 1745.

91 CM 13 October 1748.

92 CM 23 February 1749.

93 CM 15 June 1749, 22 February, 14 June 1753, 15 October 1794, 20 June, 12 August, 16 September 1803. For lecturing see Lawrence, Susan C., ‘Entrepreneurs and private enterprise: the development of medical lecturing in London, 1775–1820’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine (1988) 62, pp. 171192.

94 J.F.A. Göttling, ‘Einige Bermerkungen über Chemie und Pharmazie in England’, Almamanach oder Taschenbuch für Scheidekünstler und Apotheker, 1789, pp. 128–144, 129. With thanks to Ursula Klein for this reference. The policy would change again in the 1810s and 1820s. Simmons, Anna, ‘Stills, status, stocks and science: the laboratories at Apothecaries’ Hall in the nineteenth century’, Ambix (2014) 61, pp. 141161.

95 Data from Printed Membership Lists of the Society of Apothecaries, M3, AHA.

96 CM 21 August, 18 December 1746. Papers Relating to the Petition by the Society of Apothecaries to Parliament to Confirm and Strengthen the Charter of 1617, 1747, AHA, MS 8284, Box 223.

97 Berlin, op. cit. (11), p. 322.

98 Anon., Attempted legislation in 1748’, Chemist and Druggist (1926) 105, pp. 198200.

99 Copy of Co-partnership of Navy Stock, 1766, AHA, Box 64, E7/3; CM 26 March 1767.

100 CM 15 March 1774.

101 Memoranda Book, 6 March 1678.

102 The society, along with other guilds, had its charter revoked, but the effect of Charles II's purge of the assistants was minimal. See Wall, op. cit. (3), pp. 100–106.

103 Matthews, Leslie, The Royal Apothecaries, London: Wellcome Historical Medical Library, 1967, pp. 104107, 118–122, 175, 178–179; Connor, Henry, ‘By royal appointment: the Chase family of apothecaries’, Journal of Medical Biography (2018) 26, pp. 147155. James Chase's father John played a similarly influential role.

104 Minute Books of the Court and General Meeting of the Proprietors of the United Stock …, AHA, MS 8223, vol. 1, 1823–1838, Box 114, 1 January 1834; Nussey, John T.M., ‘Walker and Nussey: Royal Apothecaries, 1784–1860’, Medical History (1970) 14, pp. 8189.

105 Armytage, W.H.G., ‘The Royal Society and the Apothecaries, 1660–1722’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society (1954) 11, pp. 2237, 22.

106 Sloane's circle included the apothecaries and botanists Samuel Doody, James Petiver and Issac Rand; the chemical operator Nicholas Staphorst; and the clerk John Meres. Rand and James St Amand were apothecaries to some of Sloane's patients. For the collecting networks of James Petiver, see Delbourgo, James, ‘Listing people’, Isis (2012) 103, pp. 735742. For the Apothecaries and Sloane see Hunting, op. cit. (2), pp. 118–135, 281.

107 See also Winterbottom, Anna, Hybrid Knowledge in the Early East India Company World, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, pp. 112139.

108 Hall Trade Correspondence, James Cobb to Master, 5 October 1815, Sotherton Backler to East India Company, 10 October 1815, AHA, Box 64, E7/3. Further evidence of the relationship can be found in mid-nineteenth-century sources.

109 Crawford, D.G., A History of the Indian Medical Service, 1600–1913, vol. 1, London: Thacker, 1914, pp. 2223; CM 3 January 1706. For the title of ‘expert’ suggesting an adjudicatory role see Ash, op. cit. (15), p. 4.

110 Records of Visitations to Apothecaries Shops made by the Censors of the Royal College of Physicians, 1724–1856, Royal College of Physicians Archive (subsequently RCP Archive), MS 2151–2183.

111 See, for example, MS 2153, 1748–1754, First and Second Visitations, 21 January and 24 April 1751, RCP Archive, when twenty-five and forty-five shops were inspected.

112 Clark dates the ‘last disagreements with the apothecaries’ as covering 1742 to 1752. Clark, George, A History of the Royal College of Physicians of London, vol. 2, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966, pp. x, 497499.

113 Annals of the Royal College of Physicians, vol. 15, 1781–1789, 17 March 1788, p. 175, RCP Archive.

114 CM 12 March 1752.

115 Rough Court of Assistants Minutes, 22 June 1779, AHA, MS 8201/13, Box B/14.

116 Chaldecott, J.A., ‘Wedgwood's ceramic wares for chemical use, production and supply from 1779 to 1794’, Ambix (1981) 2, pp. 184205, 187. For the broader context see Golinski, Jan, Science as Public Culture: Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain, 1760–1820, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 236287.

117 Hall Trade Correspondence, Letter from the Office of the Committee of the Council of Trade, 11 May 1813, AHA, Box 64, E7/3.

118 Burnby, op. cit. (20).

119 Ford, op. cit. (84), pp. 24–25; Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Will of Peter Gelsthorp, Apothecary of London, 19 June 1719, PROB 11/569/139; Munk's Roll entry for Peter Gelsthorp Jnr, at http://munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk/Biography/Details/1732, accessed 24 January 2019; Annals of the Royal College of Physicians, 25 June 1697, RCP Archive.

120 EIC Court of Directors Minutes, B/47, 18 October 1704, p. 328.

121 CM 22 March, 25 June 1711, 14 October, 4 December 1712, 12 February, 1 April 1713.

122 CM 12 February 1713. For Dandridge see Cecil Wall Index, AHA. For Meres see Smith, Alan, ‘Steam and the City: the Committee of Proprietors of the Invention for Raising Water by Fire, 1715–1735’, Transactions of the Newcomen Society (1977) 49, pp. 520.

123 For example, payments from the apothecary Sir Thomas Harris to the society's clerk, Reginald Dennison. Hoare's Bank Archive, Harris Account, Ledger 72, folio 405 (29 October 1765) and Ledger 75, folio 410 (27 June 1767). For Hoare's see Temin, Peter and Joachim-Voth, Hans, ‘Hoare's bank in the eighteenth century’, in Cruz, Laura and Mokyr, Joel (eds.), The Birth of Modern Europe: Culture and Economy 1400–1800, Leiden: Brill, 2010, pp. 81108.

124 Ford, op. cit. (84), p. 25.

125 Burnby, op. cit. (20), p. 74; Bettany, G.T., revised Corley, T.A.B., ‘Chandler, John (1699/1700–1780)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, at https://doi-org.libproxy.ucl.ac.uk/10.1093/ref:odnb/5104, accessed 27 June 2018.

126 Election certificate for John Chandler, Royal Society Library and Archives, EC 1734/20; Chandler, John, A Discourse concerning the Small-pox occasioned by Dr Holland's Essay, London, 1728.

127 Chandler, John, A Treatise of the Disease called a Cold, London: A. Millar, 1761. For Chandler and Miller see Minter, op. cit. (34), pp. 26–27.

128 CM 17 December 1768, 25 June 1778, 27 December 1780.

129 John Chandler to Joshua Thomas, Navy Office, 31 May 1780, National Archives, ADM 106/1255/119.

130 CM 21 March 1777.

131 For Prowting see Ford, op. cit. (84), pp. 32, 36. For John Field see Cook, Dee, ‘Field, Henry (1755–1837)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, at https://doi-org.libproxy.ucl.ac.uk/10.1093/ref:odnb/9386, accessed 27 June 2018; and L.G. Matthews, ‘Lambeth's link with pharmacy’, Chemist and Druggist, 19 February 1977, p. 226.

132 Hunting, op. cit. (2), pp. 194–195; Stanesby Alchorne, Commonplace Book, 1755–1777, AHA, MS 8281, B1/U/2/I.

133 Election certificate for Josiah Colebrooke, Royal Society Library and Archives, EC/1754/25.

134 CM 18 March 1742, 15 June 1749, 22 February 1753, 17 December 1768; Allibone, T.E., The Royal Society and Its Dining Clubs, Oxford: Pergamon, 1976, pp. 910, 26–27.

135 Schaffer, Simon, ‘Watson, William (1715–87)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, at https://doi-org.libproxy.ucl.ac.uk/10.1093/ref:odnb/28874, accessed 27 June 2018.

136 Laboratory Stock Minute Book, 10 December 1744; CM 13 October 1748.

137 CM 10 December 1767, 22 December 1770, 20 June 1803, 20 June 1806; Bertucci, Paola, ‘Lane, Timothy (1734–1807)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, at https://doi-org.libproxy.ucl.ac.uk/10.1093/ref:odnb/67101, accessed 27 June 2018.

138 The rank-and-file membership merits further attention. For example, apothecaries were involved in the Spitalfields Mathematical Society; see Stewart, Larry and Weindling, Paul, ‘Philosophical threads: natural philosophy and public experiment among the weavers of Spitalfields’, BJHS (1995) 28, pp. 3762, 42, 44.

139 Holloway, S.W.F., ‘The Apothecaries’ Act, 1815: a reinterpretation’, Medical History (1966) 10, pp. 107129, 221–236; Simmons, op. cit. (94), p. 148.

140 Letter, C.L. Cadet to P.J. Pelletier, 9 May 1817, printed in the Journal de pharmacie et des sciences accessoires (July 1817) 3, pp. 321–327; and translated in Matthews, L.G., ‘Pharmacy and medicine in 19th century England’, Pharmaceutical Journal (28 December 1972) 209, pp. 594595, 595.

I am very grateful to the anonymous referees and to Rebekah Higgitt and Jim Bennett for their comments and suggestions, which greatly improved this paper. I am particularly indebted to Joe Cain and the UCL Department of Science and Technology Studies for continuing to support me as an honorary research associate. The Society of Apothecaries has been most generous in giving permission to use and cite its archives, and Janet Payne, archive officer, has been particularly helpful with my research.

Trade, knowledge and networks: the activities of the Society of Apothecaries and its members in London, c.1670–c.1800

  • ANNA SIMMONS (a1)

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