Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Review of: Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer?

  • J. L. Hopper (a1)

Abstract

Citation of original article:

K. Kerlikowske, J. Shepherd, J. Creasman, J. A. Tice, E. Ziv, S. R. Cummings. Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2005; 97(7): 368–74.

Abstract of the original article

Background: Mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD) are markers of cumulative exposure to estrogen. Previous studies have suggested that women with high mammographic breast density or high BMD are at increased risk of breast cancer. We determined whether mammographic breast density and BMD of the hip and spine are correlated and independently associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study (N = 15 254) and a nested case-control study (of 208 women with breast cancer and 436 control subjects) among women aged 28 years or older who had a screening mammography examination and hip BMD measurement within 2 years. Breast density for 3105 of the women was classified using the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, and percentage mammographic breast density among the case patients and control subjects was quantified with a computer-based threshold method. Spearman rank partial correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to examine correlations between BI-RADS breast density and BMD and between percentage mammographic breast density and BMD, respectively, in women without breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of breast cancer with percentage mammographic breast density and BMD. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Neither BI-RADS breast density nor percentage breast density was correlated with hip or spine BMD (correlation coefficient = −.02 and −.01 for BI-RADS, respectively, and −2.06 and .01 for percentage breast density, respectively). Neither hip BMD nor spine BMD had a statistically significant relationship with breast cancer risk. Women with breast density in the highest sextile had an approximately threefold increased risk of breast cancer compared with women in the lowest sextile (odds ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.4–5.4); adjusting for hip or spine BMD did not change the association between breast density and breast cancer risk. Conclusion: Breast density is strongly associated with increased risk of breast cancer, even after taking into account reproductive and hormonal risk factors, whereas BMD, although a possible marker of lifetime exposure to estrogen, is not. Thus, a component of breast density that is independent of estrogen-mediated effects may contribute to breast cancer risk.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Review of: Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Review of: Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Review of: Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Prof. John L. Hopper, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, The University of Melbourne, 723 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. E-mail: j.hopper@unimelb.edu.au

References

Hide All

References

Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J, Creasman JA, et al. Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 368374.
Boyd NF, Rommens J, Voigt K, et al. Mammographic density as an intermediate and heritable phenotype for breast cancer. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6: 798808.
Johnell O, Kanis JA, Oden A, et al. Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures. J Bone Miner Res 2005; 20: 11851194.
Laya MB, Gallagher JC, Schreiman JS, et al. Effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on mammographic density and parenchymal pattern. Radiology 1995; 196: 433437.
Vachon CM, Sellers TA, Vierkant RA, et al. Case-control study of increased mammographic density response to hormone replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2002; 11: 13821388.
Greendale GA, Reboussin BA, Slone S, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and change in mammographic density. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 3037.
Cuzick J, Warwick J, Pinney E, et al. Tamoxifen and breast density in women at increased risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 621628.
Boyd NF, Lockwood GA, Byng JW, et al. Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1998; 7: 11131144.
Wark JD. Osteoporotic fractures; background and prevention strategies. Maturitas 1996; 23: 193207.
Cauley JA, Lucas FL, Kuller LH, et al. Bone mineral density and risk of breast cancer in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Study of Osteoporotoic Fractures Research Group. JAMA 1996; 276: 14041408.
Dite GS, Wark JD, Giles GG, et al. Is there overlap between the genetic determinants of mammographic density and bone mineral density? Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2005; 14: 22662268.
Dite GS. Genetic Epidemiology of Breast Density and Breast Cancer.PhD Thesis, The University of Melbourne,2004.
Stone J, Dite GS, Gunasekara A, et al. The heritability of mammographically dense and non-dense breast tissue. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev (under review).
Boyd NF, Dite GS, Stone J, et al. Heritability of mammographic density, a risk factor for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 886894.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed