1Marshall, M, Lewis, S, Lockwood, A, Drake, R, Jones, P, Croudace, T. Association between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in cohorts of first-episode patients: a systematic review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 975–83.
2Perkins, DO, Gu, H, Boteva, K, Lieberman, JA. Relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: a critical review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 1785–804.
3Harrison, G. Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15- and 25-year international follow-up study. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178: 506–17.
4Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Program Policy Framework for Early Intervention in Psychosis. Government of Ontario, 2004.
5Anderson, KK, Fuhrer, R, Malla, AK. The pathways to mental health care of first-episode psychosis patients: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2010; 40: 1585–97.
6Goldberg, D, Huxley, P. Models for mental illness. In Common Mental Disorders: A Bio-Social Model: 1–52. Tavistock Routledge, 1992.
7Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, Jin, R, Merikangas, KR, Walters, EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 593–602.
8Wang, PS, Angermeyer, M, Borges, G, Bruffaerts, R, Tat Chiu, W, DE Girolamo, G, et al. Delay and failure in treatment seeking after first onset of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry 2007; 6: 177–85.
9Anderson, KK, Fuhrer, R, Schmitz, N, Malla, AK. Determinants of negative pathways to care and their impact on service disengagement in first-episode psychosis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013; 48: 125–36.
10Flora, N, Anderson, KK, Ferrari, M, Tuck, A, Archie, S, Kidd, S, et al. Comparative analysis of pathways to early intervention services and duration of untreated psychosis in two Canadian cities. Early Interv Psychiatry 2017; 11: 517–21.
11Anderson, KK, Flora, N, Ferrari, M, Tuck, A, Archie, S, Kidd, S, et al. Pathways to first-episode care for psychosis in African-, Caribbean-, and European-origin groups in Ontario. Can J Psychiatry 2015; 60: 223–31.
12Archie, S, Akhtar-Danesh, N, Norman, R, Malla, A, Roy, P, Zipursky, RB. Ethnic diversity and pathways to care for a first episode of psychosis in Ontario. Schizophr Bull 2010; 36: 688–701.
13Anderson, KK, Fuhrer, R, Malla, AK. ‘There are too many steps before you get to where you need to be’: help-seeking by patients with first-episode psychosis. J Ment Heal 2013; 22: 384–95.
14Anderson, KK, Kurdyak, P. Factors associated with timely physician follow-up after a first diagnosis of psychotic disorder. Can J Psychiatry 2017; 62: 268–77.
15Anderson, KK, Fuhrer, R, Wynant, W, Abrahamowicz, M, Buckeridge, DL, Malla, A. Patterns of health services use prior to a first diagnosis of psychosis: the importance of primary care. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013; 48: 1389–98.
16Anderson, KK, Norman, R, MacDougall, AG, Edwards, J, Palaniyappan, L, Lau, C, et al. Disparities in access to early psychosis intervention services: comparison of service users and nonusers in health administrative data. Can J Psychiatry 2018; 63: 395–403.
17El-Adl, M, Burke, J, Little, K. First-episode psychosis: primary care experience and implications for service development. Psychiatr Bull 2009; 33: 165–8.
18Renwick, L, Gavin, B, McGlade, N, Lacey, P, Goggins, R, Jackson, D, et al. Early intervention service for psychosis: views from primary care. Early Interv Psychiatry 2008; 2: 285–90.
19Simon, AE, Lauber, C, Ludewig, K, Braun-Scharm, H, Umbricht, DS. General practitioners and schizophrenia: results from a Swiss survey. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 187: 274–81.
20Simon, AE, Lester, H, Tait, L, Stip, E, Roy, P, Conrad, G, et al. The International Study on General Practitioners and Early Psychosis (IGPS). Schizophr Res 2009; 108: 182–90.
21Giannopoulos, P, Carroll, A, Ebmeier, KP. Improving the detection and treatment of schizophrenia. Practitioner 2014; 258(2): 11–6.
22Nørgaard, H, Søndergaard Pedersen, H, Fenger-Grøn, M, Mors, O, Nordentoft, M, Vestergaard, M, et al. Increased use of primary care during 6 years of prodromal schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2016; 134: 225–33.
23Yung, AR, McGorry, PD. The prodromal phase of first-episode psychosis: past and current conceptualizations. Schizophr Bull 1996; 22: 353–70.
24Lester, H, Tritter, JQ, Sorohan, H. Patients’ and health professionals’ views on primary care for people with serious mental illness: focus group study. BMJ 2005; 330: 1122.
25Verdoux, H, Cougnard, A, Grolleau, S, Besson, R, Delcroix, F. How do general practitioners manage subjects with early schizophrenia and collaborate with mental health professionals? A postal survey in south-western France. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2005; 40: 892–8.
26Gavin, B, Cullen, W, O'Donoghue, B, Ascencio-Lane, JC, Bury, G, O'Callaghan, E. First episode schizophrenia in general practice: a national survey. Ir J Psychol Med 2006; 23: 6–9.
27Anderson, KK, Norman, R, MacDougall, A, Edwards, J, Palaniyappan, L, Lau, C, et al. Effectiveness of early psychosis intervention: comparison of service users and nonusers in population-based health administrative data. Am J Psychiatry 2018; 175: 443–52.
28Shiers, D, Lester, H. Early intervention for first episode psychosis. BMJ 2004; 328: 1451–2.
29Reynolds, N, Wuyts, P, Badger, S, Fusar-Poli, P, McGuire, P, Valmaggia, L. The impact of delivering GP training on the clinical high risk and first-episode psychosis on referrals and pathways to care. Early Interv Psychiatry 2015; 9: 459–66.
30Power, P, Iacoponi, E, Reynolds, N, Fisher, H, Russell, M, Garety, P, et al. The Lambeth Early Onset Crisis Assessment Team Study: general practitioner education and access to an early detection team in first-episode psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 191: 3–10.
31Lester, H, Birchwood, M, Freemantle, N, Michail, M, Tait, L. REDIRECT: cluster randomised controlled trial of GP training in first-episode psychosis. Br J Gen Pract 2009; 59: e183–90.
32Lloyd-Evans, B, Crosby, M, Stockton, S, Pilling, S, Hobbs, L, Hinton, M, et al. Initiatives to shorten duration of untreated psychosis: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 198: 256–63.
33Perez, J, Jin, H, Russo, DA, Stochl, J, Painter, M, Shelley, G, et al. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tailored intensive liaison between primary and secondary care to identify individuals at risk of a first psychotic illness (the LEGs study): a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Psychiatry 2015; 2(11): 984–93.
34Creswell, JW, Plano Clark, VL. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Sage Publications, 2007.
35Kurdyak, P, Lin, E, Green, D, Vigod, S. Validation of a population-based algorithm to detect chronic psychotic illness. Can J Psychiatry 2015; 60: 362–8.
36Shah, BR, Hux, JE, Laupacis, A, Zinman, B, Cauch-Dudek, K, Booth, GL. Administrative data algorithms can describe ambulatory physician utilization. Health Serv Res 2007; 42: 1783–96.
37Bradford, DW, Kim, MM, Braxton, LE, Marx, CE, Butterfield, M, Elbogen, EB. Access to medical care among persons with psychotic and major affective disorders. Psychiatr Serv 2008; 59: 847–52.
38Mitchell, T. Machine Learning. McGraw Hill, 1997.
39Yung, AR, Nelson, B, Stanford, C, Simmons, MB, Cosgrave, EM, Killackey, E, et al. Validation of ‘prodromal’ criteria to detect individuals at ultra high risk of psychosis: 2 year follow-up. Schizophr Res 2008; 105: 10–7.
40Zhao, H, Wee-Chung Liew, A, Wang, DZ, Yan, H. Biclustering analysis for pattern discovery: current techniques, comparative studies and applications. Curr Bioinform 2012; 7: 43–55(13).
41Sandelowski, M. Focus on research methods whatever happened to qualitative description? Res Nurs Health 2000; 23: 246–55.
42Sullivan-Bolyai, S, Bova, C, Harper, D. Developing and refining interventions in persons with health disparities: the use of qualitative description. Nurs Outlook 2010; 53: 127–33.
43Patton, MQ. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, 2nd edn: 145–98. Sage Publications, 1990.
44Miller, WL, Crabtree, BF. Depth interviewing. In Doing Qualitative Research, 2nd edn (eds Crabtree, BF, Miller, WL): 89–107. Sage Publications, 1999.
45Sturges, JE, Hanrahan, KJ. Comparing telephone and face-to-face qualitative interviewing: a research note. Qual Res 2004; 4: 107–18.
46Hsieh, H-F, Shannon, SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res 2005; 15: 1277–88.
47Morse, JM. The significance of saturation. Qual Health Res 1995; 5: 147–9.
48Vasiliadis, H-M, Lesage, A, Adair, C, Boyer, R. Service use for mental health reasons: cross-provincial differences in rates, determinants, and equity of access. Can J Psychiatry 2005; 50: 614–9.
49Kurdyak, P, Stukel, TA, Goldbloom, D, Kopp, A, Zagorski, BM, Mulsant, BH. Universal coverage without universal access : a study of psychiatrist supply and practice patterns in Ontario. Open Med 2014; 8: e81–93.
50Boydell, KM, Gladstone, BM, Volpe, T. Understanding help seeking delay in the prodrome to first episode psychosis: a secondary analysis of the perspectives of young people. Psychiatr Rehabil J 2006; 30: 54–60.