Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Assessment of Anger-Related Cognitions of People with Intellectual Disabilities

  • Charlotte Richardson (a1), Stewart Killeen (a1), Andrew Jahoda (a2), Rose Christopher (a3), John Rose (a3) and Paul Willner (a4)...

Abstract

Background: Interventions for anger represent the largest body of research on the adaptation of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for people with intellectual disabilities. The extent to which the effectiveness of these interventions reflects the behavioural or cognitive components of CBT is uncertain. This arises in part because there are few measures of anger-related cognitions. Method: The Profile of Anger-related Cognitions (PAC) is built around interpersonal scenarios that the participant identifies as personally anger-provoking, and was designed as an extension of the Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS). A conversational presentational style is used to approach ratings of anger experienced in those situations and of four relevant cognitive dimensions: attribution of hostile intent, unfairness, victimhood, and helplessness. The PAC, and other measures, including the PACS, was administered to (i) people with ID identified as having problems with anger control (n = 12) and (ii) university students (n = 23); its psychometric properties were investigated and content analyses were conducted of participants’ verbal responses. In a third study, clinicians (n = 6) were surveyed for their impression of using the PAC in the assessment of clients referred for help with anger problems. Results: The PAC had good consistency and test-retest reliability, and the total score on the four cognitive dimensions correlated significantly with anger ratings but not with impersonal measures of anger disposition. The predominant cognitions reported were perceptions of unfairness and helplessness. People with ID and university students were in most respects very similar in both the psychometric analyses and the content analyses of their verbal responses. The PAC had high acceptability both to people with ID and to clinicians. Conclusions: The PAC may be a useful instrument for both clinical and research purposes. Personal relevance and the conversational mode of administration are particular strengths.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Paul Willner, Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK. E-mail: p.willner@swansea.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Atkins, M. J. (1984). Practitioner as researcher: some techniques for analyzing semi-structured data in small-scale research. British Journal of Educational Studies, 32, 251261.
Basquill, M. F., Nezu, C. M., Nezu, A. M., Klein, T. L. and MacLean, W. E. Jr. (2004). Aggression-related hostility bias and social problem-solving deficits in adult males with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109, 255263.
Batson, S. C., Kennedy, C. L., Nord, L.-A., Stocks, E. L., Fleming, D.'Y.A., Marzette, C. M., et al. (2007) Anger at unfairness: Is it moral outrage? European Journal of Social Psychology 37, 12721285.
Benson, B. A. and Brooks, W. T. (2008). Aggressive challenging behaviour and intellectual disability. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 21, 454458.
Berkowitz, L. and Harmon-Jones, E. (2004). Towards an understanding of the determinants of anger. Emotion, 42, 107130.
Burford, B. and Jahoda, A. (2012). Do video reviews of therapy sessions help people with mild intellectual disabilities describe their perceptions of cognitive behaviour therapy? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56, 179190.
Buss, A. H. and Durkee, A. (1957). An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 343349.
Chamberlain, J. and Haaga, D. A. (1999). Convergent validity of cognitive assessment methods. Behavior Modification, 23, 294315.
Chinn, S. (1991). Repeatability and method comparison. Thorax, 46, 454456.
Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 3746.
Crick, N. I. and Doidge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 9931002.
Cuthill, F. M., Espie, C. A. and Cooper, S.-A. (2003). Development and psychometric properties of the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 347353.
Dagnan, D., Chadwick, P. and Proudlove, J. (2000). Toward an assessment of suitability of people with mental retardation for cognitive therapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 627636.
David, D., Schnur, J. and Belliou, A. (2002). Another search for the “hot” cognitions: appraisal, irrational beliefs, attributions, and their relation to emotion. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 20, 93131.
Davison, G. C., Vogel, R. S. and Coffman, S. G. (1997). Think-aloud approaches to cognitive assessment and the articulated thoughts in simulated situations paradigm. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 950958.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1999). Cognitive-behavioral conceptualization and treatment of anger. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 295309.
Department of Health (2011). Talking therapies: a four-year plan of action. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213765/dh_123985.pdf
Didden, R., Duker, P. and Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviours in individuals who have mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101, 387399.
Eckhardt, C. I. and Dye, M. L. (2000). The cognitive characteristics of martially violent men: theory and evidence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 139158.
Eckhardt, C. I., Barbour, K. A. and Davison, G. C. (1998). Articulated thoughts of maritally violent and nonviolent men during anger arousal. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 259269.
Equality Act (2010). Office for Public Sector Information, London. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents/enacted
Gibbs, J. C., Barriga, A. Q. and Potter, B. D. (2001). How I Think Questionnaire Manual. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Griffith, G. M., Hutchinson, L. and Hastings, R. P. (2013). “I'm not a patient, I'm a person”- the experiences of individuals with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20, 469488.
Hagiliassis, N., Gulbenkoglu, H., Di Marco, M., Young, S. and Hudson, A. (2005). The Anger Management Project: a group intervention for anger in people with physical and multiple disabilities. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 30, 8696.
Hamelin, J., Travis, R. and Sturmey, P. (2013). Anger management and intellectual disabilities: a systematic review. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 6, 6070.
Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Imke, J. J., Vonk, I. J. J., Sawyer, A. T. and Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36, 427440.
Hunter, C., Nadany, S. and Cragg, R. (2010). The Birmingham provocation hierarchy: for adults with mild to borderline learning disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 10, 365–186.
Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (2009). Learning Disabilities: positive practice guide. http://www.iapt.nhs.uk/silo/files/learning-disabilities-positive-practice-guide.pdf.
Jahoda, A., Trower, P., Pert, C. and Finn, D. (2001). Contingent reinforcement or defending the self? A review of evolving models of aggression in people with mild learning disabilities. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 305321.
Jahoda, A., Pert, C., Zquire, J. and Trower, P. (2002). Facing stress and conflict: a comparison of the predicted responses and self-concepts of aggressive and non-aggressive people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42, 360–290
Jahoda, A., Pert, C. and Trower, P. (2006). Frequent aggression and attribution of hostile intent in people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: an empirical investigation. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42, 360369.
Jahoda, A., Willner, P., Rose, J., Stenfert Kroese, B., Lammie, C., Shead, J., et al. (2013). Development of a scale to measure fidelity to manualized group-based cognitive behavioural interventions for people with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 42104221.
Jones, J. and Trower, P. (2004). Irrational and evaluative beliefs in individuals with anger disorders. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 22, 320.
Joyce, T., Globe, A. and Mooney, C. (2006). Assessment of the component skills for cognitive therapy in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disability, 19, 1723.
Kendall, P. C. (1984). Behavioral assessment and methodology. Annual Review of Behavior Therapy, 9, 3994.
Larkin, P., Jahoda, A., MacMahon, K. and Pert, C. (2011). Interpersonal sources of conflict in young people with and without mild to moderate intellectual disabilities at transition from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25, 2938.
Larkin, P., Jahoda, A. and MacMahon, K. (2013). The social information processing model as a framework for explaining frequent aggression in adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: a systematic review of the evidence. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26, 447465.
Lindsay, W. R. (2006). That wee laddie cannae tell his thoughts fae his actions: a reply to Sturmey. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19, 119120.
Lindsay, W. R., Jahoda, A. and Willner, P. (2013). Techniques in psychological therapy for people with intellectual disabilities II: adaptation of treatment techniques. In Taylor, J. L., Lindsay, W. R., Hastings, R. and Hatton, C. (Eds.), Psychological Therapies for People with Intellectual Disabilities (pp.101116). Chichester: Wiley.
Martin, R. C. and Dahlen, E. R. (2004). Irrational beliefs and the experience and expression of anger. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 22, 320.
Martin, R. C. and Dahlen, E. R. (2007). The angry cognitions scale: a new inventory for assessing cognitions in anger. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 25, 155173.
Matson, J. L., Bamburg, J. W., Mayville, E. A., Pinkston, J., Bielecki, J., Kuhn, D., et al. (2000). Psychopharmacology and mental retardation: a 10 year review (1990–1999). Research in Developmental Disability, 21, 263296.
Mindham, J. and Espie, C. A. (2003). Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID): development and psychometric properties of a new measure for use with people with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 2230.
Nicoll, M., Beail, N. and Saxon, D. (2013). Cognitive behavioural treatments for anger in adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26, 4762.
Novaco, R. (2003). The Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory Manual. Western Los Angeles, CA: Psychological Services.
Novaco, R. W. and Taylor, J. L. (2004). Assessment of anger and aggression in male offenders with developmental disabilities. Psychological Assessment, 14, 4250.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory (2nd ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Oathamshaw, S. C. and Haddock, G. (2006). Do people with intellectual disabilities and psychosis have the cognitive skills required to undertake cognitive behavioural therapy? Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disability, 19, 3546.
Rose, J., Willner, P., Shead, J., Jahoda, A., Gillespie, D., Townson, J., et al. (2013). Different factors influence self-reports and third-party reports of anger by adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26, 410419.
Roth, A., Fonagy, P., Parry, G., Target, M. and Woods, R. (2006). What Works for Whom? A critical review of psychotherapy research (2nd ed.) New York: Guilford Press.
Spielberger, C. D. (1999). Staxi-2: Stait-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2; Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Sturmey, P. (2006). On some recent claims for the efficacy of cognitive therapy for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19, 109117.
Tafrate, R. C., Kassinove, H. and Dundin, L. (2002). Anger episodes in high- and low-trait-anger community adults. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 15751590.
Taylor, J. L. and Novaco, R. W. (2005). Anger Treatment for People with Developmental Disabilities. Chichester: Wiley.
Taylor, J. L., Novaco, R. W., Gillmer, B. T., Robertson, A. and Thorne, I. (2005). Individual cognitive-behavioural anger treatment for people with mild-borderline intellectual disabilities and histories of aggression: a controlled trial. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 367382.
Taylor, J. L., Novaco, R. W., Guinan, C. and Street, N. (2004). Development of an imaginal provocation test to evaluate treatment for anger problems in people with intellectual disabilities. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 233246.
Velten, E (1968). A laboratory task for induction of mood states. Behavioural Research and Therapy, 6, 473482.
Vereenooghe, L. and Langdon, P. E. (2013). Psychological therapies for people with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 40854102.
Vereenooghe, L., Reynolds, S., Gega, L. and Langdon, P. E. (2015). Can a computerised training paradigm assist people with intellectual disabilities to learn cognitive mediation skills? A randomized experiment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 71, 1019.
Willner, P. and Lindsay, W. R. (in press). Cognitive behaviour therapy. In Singh, N. (Ed.), Clinical Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.
Willner, P. and Tomlinson, S. (2007). Generalization of anger-coping skills from day-service to residential settings. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20, 553562.
Willner, P., Brace, N. and Phillips, J. (2005). Assessment of anger coping skills in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 329339.
Willner, P., Rose, J., Jahoda, A., Stenfert Kroese, B., Felce, D., Cohen, D., et al. (2013). Outcomes of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural anger management intervention for people with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 19.
Zanov, M. V. and Davison, G. C. (2010). A conceptual and empirical review of 25 years of cognitive assessment using the articulate thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) think-aloud paradigm. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 282291.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Assessment of Anger-Related Cognitions of People with Intellectual Disabilities

  • Charlotte Richardson (a1), Stewart Killeen (a1), Andrew Jahoda (a2), Rose Christopher (a3), John Rose (a3) and Paul Willner (a4)...
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *