Skip to main content Accessibility help

Models of conscious timing and the experimental evidence

  • Benjamin Libet (a1)


  • An abstract is not available for this content so a preview has been provided below. Please use the Get access link above for information on how to access this content.



Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Allport, A. (1988) What concept of consciousness? In: Consciousness in contemporary science, ed. Marcel, A. J. & Bisiach, E.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aDCD]
Armstrong, D. M. (1968) A materialist theory of the mind. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [NB, WGL]
Baars, B. J. (1983) Consciousness provides the nervous system with coherent, globally distributed information. In: Consciousness and self-regulation, vol. III, ed. Davidson, R., Schwartz, G. & Shapiro, D.. Plenum Press. [BJB]
Baars, B. J. (1988) A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [BJB, MV]
Barlow, H. B. & Levick, W. R. (1965) Mechanisms of pattern selectivity in retina. Journal of Physiology 178:477. [aDCD]
Bergson, H. (1910) Time and free will. Harper & Row. [MJF]
Bisiach, E. (1988) The haunted brain and consciousness. In: Consciousness in contemporary science, ed. Marcel, A. J. & Bisiach, E.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aDCD]
Block, N. (1978) Troubles with functionalism. In: Mind and cognition ed. Lycan, W.. Blackwell. [NB]
Block, N. (1991) Evidence against epiphenomenalism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4):670. [NB]
Block, N. (forthcoming) Does consciousness have a function? [NB]
Blumenthal, A. L. (1977) The process of cognition. Prentice-Hall. [MV]
Boring, E. G. (1950) A history of experimental psychology, 2nd ed.Appleton-Century-Croft. [MT]
Breitmeyer, B. G. (1984) Visual masking. Clarendon Press. [aDCD]
Breitmeyer, B. G. (1985) Problems with the psychophysics of intention. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:539–40. [aDCD]
Bridgeman, B. (1985) Free will and the functions of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(2):540. [aDCD]
Bridgeman, B. (1988) The biology of behavior and mind. John Wiley. [BB]
Bridgeman, B. (1990) Empirical work on conscious vs. unconscious processes. Report #54/1990, Research group on Mind and Brain, Zentrum fuer interdisciplinaer Forschung, University of Bielefeld, Germany. [BB]
Calvin, W. (1990) The cerebral symphony: Seashore reflections on the structure of consciousness. Bantam. [aDCD]
Campbell, R. (1989) Lipreading. In: Handbook of research on face processing, ed. Young, A. W. & Ellis, H. D.. North Holland. [AWY]
Castiello, U., Paulignan, Y. & Jeannerod, M. (1991) Temporal dissociation of motor responses and subjective awareness. A study in normal subjects. Brain 114. [MJ]
Cheesman, J. & Merikle, P. M. (1986) Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology 40:343–67. [EMR]
Churchland, P. S. (1981a) On the alleged backwards referral of experiences and its relevance to the mind-body problem. Philosophy of Science 48:165–81. [aDCD, NB, BL, ALR]
Churchland, P. S. (1981b) The timing of sensations: Reply to Libet. Philosophy of Science 48:492–97. [arDCD, NB]
Cooper, L. A. (1976) Demonstrations of a mental analog of an external rotation. Perception and Psychophysics 19:296302. [RNS]
Cooper, L. A. & Shepard, R. N. (1973) Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. In: Visual information processes, ed. Chase, W. G.. Academic Press. [RNS]
Corkin, S. (1984) Lasting consequences of bilateral medial temporal lobectomy: Clinical course and experimental findings. In: Seminars in Neurology 4:249–59. [ARD]
Crick, F. (1984) Function of the thalamic reticular complex: The searchlight hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 81:4586–90. [rDCD, ARD]
Crick, F. & Koch, C. (1990) Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness. In: Seminars in the neurosciences, 2:263–75, ed. A. R. Damasio. W. B. Saunders. [aDCD, NB, ARD]
Damasio, A. R. (1989a) Time-locked multiregional retroactivation: A systems level proposal for the neural substrates of recall and recognition. Cognition 33:2562. [aDCD, ARD]
Damasio, A. R. (1989b) The brain binds entities and events by multiregional activation from convergence zones. Neural Computation 1:123–32. [ARD]
Damasio, A. R. (1990) Synchronous activation in multiple cortical regions: A mechanism for recall. Seminars in the neurosciences (The “Neurobiology of Mind” issue) 2:287–96. [ARD]
Damasio, A. R., Tranel, D. & Damasio, H. (1989) Amnesia caused by herpes simplex encephalitis, infarctions in basal forebrain, Alzheimer's disease, and anoxia. In: Handbook of neuropsychology, ed. Boller, F. & Grafman, J., vol. 3, ed. L. Squire. Elsevier. [ARD]
Danto, A. (1985) Consciousness and motor control. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:540–41. [aDCD]
Deecke, L., Grozinger, B. & Kornhuber, H. H. (1976) Voluntary finger movement in man: Cerebral potentials and theory. Biological Cybernetics 23:99119. [BL]
De Haan, E. H. F., Young, A. & Newcombe, F. (1987) Face recognition without awareness. Cognitive Neuropsychology 4:385415. [MJF]
Dennett, D. C. (1976) Are dreams experiences? Philosophical Review 85:151–71. [rDCD]
Dennett, D. C. (1978) Skinner skinned. In: Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology, ed. Dennett, D. C.. Bradford Books. [aDCD]
Dennett, D. C. (1979) [review of K. R. Popper and J. C. Eccles 1977.] Journal of Philosophy 76:9197. [aDCD]
Dennett, D. C. (1982) How to study human consciousness empirically. Synthese 53:159–80. [aDCD]
Dennett, D. C. (1988) Quining Qualia. In: Consciousness in contemporary science, ed. Marcel, A. J. & Bisiach, E.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [NB]
Dennett, D. C. (1991a) Real patterns. Journal of Philosophy 87:2751. [rDCD]
Dennett, D. C. (1991b) Consciousness explained. Little Brown. [arDCD, NB]
Descartes, R. (1662) Traite de l'homme. Paris. [aDCD]
Descartes, R. (1662/1972) Treatise on man. Translated by Hall, T. S.. Harvard University Press. [MV]
Dietrich, E. (1985) Computer thought: Propositional attitudes and metaknowledge. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona. [JA]
Dimond, S. J. (1980) Neuropsychology: A textbook of systems and psychological functions of the human brain. Butterworths. [MV]
Dixon, N. F. (1971) Subliminal perception: The nature of a controversy. McGraw-Hill. [EMR]
Dixon, N. F. (1981) Preconscious processing. John Wiley. [EMR, MV]
Dixon, N. F. (1986) On private events arid brain events. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:2930. [aDCD]
Dorfman, A. (1988) Mascara. Viking. [aDCD]
Dorman, M. F., Cutting, J. E. & Raphael, L. J. (1975) Perception of temporal order in vowel sequences with and without formant transitions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 104:121–29. [RMW]
Dunn, J. D. & Kirsner, K. (1988) Discovering functionally independent mental processes: The principle of reversed association. Psychological Review 95:91101. [EMR]
Dunn, J. D. & Kirsner, K. (1989) Implicit memory: Task or process? In: Implicit memory: Theoretical issues, ed. Lewandowsky, S., Dunn, J. C. & Kirsner, K.. Erlbaum. [EMR]
Eccles, J. C. (1980) The human psyche. Springer. [MV]
Eccles, J. C. (1985) Mental summation: The timing of voluntary intentions by cortical activity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:542–43. [aDCD]
Edelman, G. (1989) The remembered present. Basic Books. [ARD]
Efron, R. (1967) The duration of the present. Proceedings of the New York Academy of Science 138:713–29. [aDCD]
Efron, R. (1973) Conservation of temporal information by perceptual systems. Perception and Psychophysics 14:518–30. [aDCD]
Englekamp, J. (1988) Modality-specific encoding and word class in verbal learning. In: Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues, vol. 1, ed. Gruneberg, M. M., Morris, P. E. & Sykes, R. N.. John Wiley. [MR]
Erdelyi, M. H. (1985) Psychoanalysis: Freud's cognitive psychology. Freeman. [EMR]
Erdelyi, M. H. (1986) Experimental indeterminacies in the dissociation paradigm of subliminal perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9(1):3031. [aDCD, EMR]
Eriksen, C. W. (1960) Discrimination and learning without awareness: A methodological survey and evaluation. Psychological Review 67:279300. [EMR]
Farah, M. J., Monheit, M. A. & Wallace, M. A. (1991) Unconscious perception of extinguished visual stimuli: Reassessing the evidence. Neuropsychologia 29:949–58. [MJF]
Farrell, B. A. (1950) Experience. Mind 59:170–98. [aDCD]
Fehling, M. R., Altman, A. M. & Wilber, B. M. (1989) The heuristic control virtual machine: An instance of the Schemer computational model of reflective real-time problem-solving. In: Blackboard systems and their applications, ed. Jagganathan, V., Dodhiawala, R. & Baum, L.. Academic Press. [BJB]
Fehling, M. R., Baars, B. J. & Fisher, C. (1990) A functional role for repression in an autonomous, resource-constrained agent. Proceedings of the XII Cognitive Science Conference, Boston, MA. [BJB]
Felsten, G. & Wasserman, G. S. (1980) Visual masking: Mechanisms and theories. Psychological Bulletin 88:329–53. [GSW]
Flanagan, O. (1991) Consciousness. In: The science of the mind, 2nd ed.MIT Press. [NB]
Gallistel, C. R. (1990) The organization of learning. MIT Press. [aDCD]
Geldard, F. A. (1977) Cutaneous stimuli, vibratory and saltatory. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 69:8387. [aDCD]
Geldard, F. A. & Sherrick, C. E. (1972) The cutaneous “rabbit”: A perceptual illusion. Science 178:178–79. [aDCD, MT]
Geldard, F. A. & Sherrick, C. E. (1983) The cutaneous saltatory area and its presumed neural base. Perception and Psychophysics 33:299304. [aDCD]
Geldard, F. A. & Sherrick, C. E. (1986) Space, time and touch. Scientific American 254:9095. [aDCD]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Lurito, J. T., Petrides, M., Schwartz, A. B. & Massey, J. T. (1989) Mental rotation of the neuronal population vector. Science 243:234–36. [RNS]
Gide, A. (1948) Journal des faux monnayeurs. Gallimard. [aDCD]
Glynn, I. M. (1990) Consciousness and time. Nature 348:477–79. [aDCD, BL]
Goodman, N. (1978) Ways of worldmaking. Harvester. [aDCD]
Gray, C. M., Konig, P., Engle, A. K. & Singer, W. (1989) Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties. Nature 338:334–37. [ARD]
Gregson, R. A. M. (1988) Nonlinear psychophysical dynamics. Erlbaum. [RAMG]
Gregson, R. A. M. (1991) n-Dimensional nonlinear psychophysics. Erlbaum. [RAMG]
Grey Walter, W. (1963) Presentation to the Ostler Society, Oxford University, Oxford, England. [aDCD]
Haken, H., ed. (1985) Complex systems – operational approaches. Springer-Verlag. [RAMG]
Hamad, S. (1982) Consciousness: An afterthought. Cognition and Brain Theory 5:2947. [arDCD, NB]
Hamad, S. (1989) Editorial commentary [on Libet 1985a]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:183. [arDCD]
Hamad, S. (unpublished) Conscious events cannot be localized in time. [aDCD]
Hawking, S. (1988) A brief history of time. Bantam. [aDCD]
Hildreth, E. C. & Koch, C. (1987) The analysis of visual motion: From computational theory to neuronal mechanisms. Annual Review of Neuroscience 10:477533. [ALR]
Hoffman, R. E. & Kravitz, R. E. (1987) Feedforward action regulation and the experience of will. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:782–83. [aDCD]
Holender, D. (1986) Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:123. [aDCD, EMR]
Honderich, T. (1984) The time of a conscious sensory experience and mindbrain theories. Journal of Theoretical Biology 110:115–29. [aDCD]
Hoy, R. C. (1982) Ambiguities in the subjective timing of experiences debate. Philosophy of Science 49:254–62. [aDCD]
Jacoby, L. L. & Whitehouse, K. (1989) An illusion of memory: False recognition influenced by unconscious perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118:126–35. [EMR]
Jacoby, L. L., Woloshyn, V. & Kelley, C. (1989) Becoming famous without being recognized: Unconscious influences of memory produced by dividing attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118:115–25. [EMR]
James, W. (1890) The principles of psychology, vol. 1. Henry Holt. [MT]
Jasper, H. H. (1985) Brain mechanisms of conscious experience and voluntary action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(4):543–44. [aDCD]
Javel, E., McGee, J. A., Horst, J. W. & Farley, G. R. (1988) Temporal mechanisms in auditory stimulus coding. In: Auditory function: Neurobiological bases of hearing, ed. Edelman, G. M., Gall, W. E. & Cowan, W. M.. John Wiley. [ALR]
Jeannerod, M. (1990) Traitement conscient et inconscient de l'information perceptive. Revue Internationale de Psychopathologie 1:1334. [MJ]
John, E. R. (1976) A model of consciousness. In: Consciousness and self-regulation, ed. Schwartz, G. & Shapiro, D.. Plenum. [MV]
Julesz, B. (1971) Foundations of cyclopean perception. University of Chicago Press. [aDCD]
Jung, R. (1985) Voluntary intention and conscious selection in complex learned action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(4):544–45. [aDCD]
Keller, I. & Heckhausen, H. (1990) Readiness potentials preceding spontaneous motor acts: Voluntary vs. involuntary control. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 76:351–61. [BL]
Kinsbourne, M. (1985) Parallel processing explains modular informational encapsulation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(1):23. [rDCD]
Kinsbourne, M. (1988) Integrated field theory of consciousness. In: Consciousness in contemporary science, ed. Marcel, A. J. & Bisiach, E.. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [arDCD]
Kinsbourne, M. (in preparation) The distributed brain basis of consciousness. [rDCD]
Koch, C. & Crick, F. (1991) Understanding awareness at the neuronal level. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4):683–85. [MV]
Kolers, P. A. (1972) Aspects of motion perception. Pergamon Press. [aDCD]
Kolers, P. A. & von Grünau, M. (1976) Shape and color in apparent motion. Vision Research 16:329–35. [arDCD, MT, GSW]
Konishi, M., Takahashi, T. T., Wagner, H., Sullivan, W. E. & Carr, C. E. (1988) Neurophysiological and anatomical substrates of sound localization in the owl. In: Auditory function: Neurobiological bases of hearing, ed. Edelman, G. M., Gall, W. E. & Cowan, W. M.. John Wiley. [ALR]
Kubovy, M. (1983) Mental imagery majestically transforming cognitive psychology. Review of Mental images and their transformations. Contemporary Psychology 28:661–63. [RNS]
Kulli, J. & Koch, C. (1991) Does anesthesia cause loss of consciousness? Trends in Neuroscience 14:610. [BG]
Lashley, K. S. (1951) The problem of serial order in behavior. In: Cerebral mechanisms in behavior: The Hixon symposium, ed. Jeffress, L. A.. John Wiley. [MT]
Latto, R. (1985) Consciousness as an experimental variable: Problems of definition, practice, and interpretation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:545–46. [aDCD, BL]
Levine, J. (1983) Materialism and qualia: The explanatory gap. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. [NB]
Libermann, A. M. (1970) The grammar of speech and language. Cognitive Psychology 1:301–23. [aDCD]
Libet, B. (1965) Cortical activation in conscious and unconscious experience. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 9:7786. [aDCD, BL]
Libet, B. (1973) Electrical stimulation of cortex in human subjects, and conscious sensory aspects. In: Handbook of sensory physiology, ed. Iggo, A.. Springer. [BL]
Libet, B. (1978) Neuronal vs. subjective timing for a conscious sensory experience. In: Cerebral correlates of conscious experience, ed. Buser, P. A. & Rougeul-Buser, A.. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press. [BL]
Libet, B. (1981) The experimental evidence for subjective referral of a sensory experience backwards in time: Reply to P. S. Churchland. Philosophy of Science 48:182–97. [aDCD, BL]
Libet, B. (1982) Brain stimulation in the study of neuronai functions for conscious sensory experiences. Human Neurobiology 1:235–42. [aDCD, BL]
Libet, B. (1985a) Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:529–66. [aDCD, BL, EMR, RNS, MT]
Libet, B. (1985b) Subjective antedating of a sensory experience and mind-brain theories: Reply to Honderich (1984). Journal of Theoretical Biology 114:563–70. [aDCD, MT]
Libet, B. (1987) Are the mental experiences of will and self-control significant for the performance of a voluntary act? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:783–86. [aDCD, EMR]
Libet, B. (1989a) The timing of a subjective experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:183–85. [aDCD, BL, EMR]
Libet, B. (1989b) Conscious subjective experience vs. unconscious mental functions: A theory of the cerebral processes involved. In: Models of brain function, ed. Cotterill, R. M. J.. Cambridge University Press. [BL]
Libet, B. (1991a) Conscious and neural timings. Nature 352:27. [BL]
Libet, B. (1991b) Voluntary acts and readiness-potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. (in press) [BL]
Libet, B., Alberts, W. W., Wright, E. W., Delattre, L. D., Levin, G. & Feinstein, B. (1964) Production of threshold levels of conscious sensation by electrical stimulation of human somatosensory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 27:546–78. [BL]
Libet, B., Alberts, W. W., Wright, E. W. & Feinstein, D. (1967) Responses of human somatosensory cortex to stimuli below threshold for conscious sensation. Science 158:15971600. [BL]
Libet, B., Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W. Jr., & Pearl, D. K. (1983a) Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activities (readiness-potential); the unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain 106:623–42. [BL]
Libet, B., Pearl, D. K., Morledge, D. M., Gleason, C. A., Hosobuchi, Y. & Barbaro, N. M. (1991) Control of the transition from sensory detection to sensory awareness in man by the duration of thalamic stimulus. Brain 114:1731–57. [rDCD, BL]
Libet, B., Wright, E. W., Feinstein, B. & Pearl, D. K. (1979) Subjective referral of the timing for a conscious sensory experience: A functional role for the somatosensory specific projection system in man. Brain 102:193224. [aDCD, BL, RNS, MT]
Libet, B., Wright, E. W. Jr., & Gleason, C. A. (1983b) Preparation-orintention-to-act, in relation to pre-event potentials recorded at the vertex. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neuropsychology 56:367–72. [BL]
Lloyd, D. (1989) Simple minds. MIT Press. [DL]
Lloyd, D. (1991) Leaping to conclusions: Connectionism, consciousness, and the computational mind. In: Connectionism and the philosophy of mind, ed. Horgan, T. & Tienson, J.. Kluwer. [DL]
Loar, B. (1990) Phenomenal states. In: Philosophical perspectives, 4: Action theory and philosophy of mind, ed. Tomberlin, J.. Ridgeview. [NB]
Lockhart, R. S. (1989) The role of theory in understanding implicit memory. In: Implicit memory: Theoretical issues, ed. Lewandowsky, S., Dunn, J. C. & Kirsner, K.. Erlbaum. [EMR]
Lycan, W. (1987) Consciousness. Bradford Books/MIT Press. [WGL]
Lycan, W. (1990) What is the “subjectivity” of the mental? In: Philosophical perspectives, vol. 4, ed. Tomberlin, J.. Ridgeview. [WGL]
MacKay, D. M. (1985) Do we “control” our brains? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(4):546–47. [aDCD]
Marcel, A. J. (1983) Conscious and unconscious perception: An approach to the relations between phenomenal experience and perceptual process. Cognitive Psychology 15:238300. [aDCD, MV]
Marcel, A. J. (1986) Consciousness and processing: Choosing and testing a null hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9(1):4041, [aDCD]
Marcel, A. J. (in press) Slippage in the unity of consciousness. In: Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical and social perspectives. Guilford Press. [rDCD]
McCloskey, D. L., Colebatch, J. G., Potter, E. K. & Burke, D. (1983) Judgements about onset of rapid voluntary movements in man. Journal of Neurophysiology 49:851–63. [BL]
McGinn, C. (1991) The problem of consciousness. Blackwell. [NB]
McGurk, H. & MacDonald, J. (1976) Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature 264:746–48. [AWY]
Mellor, H. (1981) Real time. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [arDCD, RVG]
Merikle, P. M. (1982) Unconscious perception revisited. Perception & Psychophysics 31:298301. [EMR]
Merikle, P. M. & Cheesman, J. (1986) Consciousness is a “subjective” state. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9(1):42. [aDCD]
Merikle, P. M. & Reingold, E. M. (1990) Recognition and lexical decision without detection: Unconscious perception? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16:574–83. [EMR]
Merikle, P. M. & Reingold, E. M. (1991) Comparing direct (explicit) and indirect (implicit) measures to study unconscious memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17:224–33. [EMR]
Minsky, M. (1985) The society of minds. Simon & Schuster. [aDCD]
Mishkin, M. & Appenzeller, T. (1987) The anatomy of memory. Scientific American 256:6271. [RAMG]
Mortenson, C. (1985) Conscious decisions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:548–49. [aDCD]
Nagel, T. (1974) What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 83:435–45. [aDCD, NB]
Navon, D. (1991) The function of consciousness or of information? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4):690–91. [MV]
Neisser, U. (1967) Cognitive Psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [aDCD]
Neisser, U. ((1976) Cognition and reality. Freeman. [rDCD]
Neisser, U. ((1981) John Dean's memory: A case study. Cognition 9:122. [aDCD]
Neumann, O. (1990) Some aspects of phenomenal consciousness and their possible functional correlates. Presented at the conference, The phenomenal mind – how is it possible and why is it necessary? Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF), Bielefeld, May 14–17. [aDCD]
Newell, A., Rosenbloom, P. S. & Laird, J. E. (1989) Symbolic architectures for cognition. In: Foundations of cognitive science, ed. Posner, M.. MIT Press. [aDCD]
Newsome, W. T., Mikami, A. & Wurtz, R. H. (1986) Motion selectivity in macaque visual cortex. III. Psychophysics and physiology of apparent motion. Journal of Neurophysiology 55:1340–51. [ALR]
Nicolis, J. S. (1986) Dynamics of hierarchical systems. Springer-Verlag. [RAMG]
Nisly, S. & Wasserman, G. S. (1989) Intensity dependence of perceived duration: Data, theories, and neural integration. Psychological Bulletin 106:483–96. [GSW]
Norman, D. A. (1967) Temporal confusions and limited capacity processors. Acta Psychologica 27:293–97. [rDCD]
Norman, D. & Shallice, T. (1980) Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. Technical Report 8006. Center for Human Information Processing, University of California, San Diego (La Jolla). [BB]
Ornstein, R. (1977) The psychology of consciousness. Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch. [MJF]
Pagels, H. (1988) The dreams of reason. Simon & Schuster. [aDCD]
Penfield, W. (1975) The mystery of the mind: A critical study of consciousness and the human brain. Princeton University Press. [MV]
Penfield, W. & Jasper, H. (1954) Epilepsy and the functional anatomy of the human brain. Little Brown. [aDCD]
Penrose, R. (1989) The Emperor's new mind: Concerning computers, minds, and the laws of physics. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [aDCD]
Penrose, R. (1990) Précis of The Emperor's new mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13(4):643706. [GSW]
Piantanida, T. (1985) Temporal modulation sensitivity of the blue mechanism: Measurements made with extraretinal chromatic adaptation. Vision Research 25:1439–44. [ALR]
Piantanida, T. & Larimer, J. (1989) The impact of boundaries on color: Stabilized image studies. Journal of Imaging Technology 15:5863. [ALR]
Pöppel, E. (1985) Grenzen des Bewusstseins. Deutsche Verlags-Anstal. (Translated as Mindworks: Time and conscious experience. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988.) [aDCD]
Popper, K. R. & Eccles, J. C. (1977) The self and its brain. Springer-Verlag. [aDCD]
Port, R. (1990) Representation and recognition of temporal patterns. Connection Science 2:151–76. [rDCD]
Port, R. & Anderson, S. (1990) Dynamic network models for audition. Technical Report ISHC-TR01-RP-90. Indiana University Institute for the Study of Human Capabilities. [rDCD]
Potter, M. (1975) Meaning in visual search. Science 187:965–66 [NB]
Potter, M. (1976) Short-term conceptual memory for pictures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 2(5):509–22 [NB]
Pribram, K. H. (1971) Languages of the brain: Experimental paradoxes and principles in neuropsychology, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall. [MV]
Pribram, K. H. (1986) The cognitive revolution and mind/brain issues. American Psychologist 41:507–20. [MV]
Prinz, W. (1991) Why don't we perceive our brain states? Presented at the Seminar on Perception and Action, King's College Research Center, Cambridge, England, November, 1990. [BB]
Putnam, H. (1965) Brains and behavior. In: Analytical philosophy, second series, ed. Butler, R. J.. Basil Blackwell. [WGL]
Pylyshyn, Z. (1979) Do mental events have durations? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2(2):277–78. [aDCD]
Reingold, E. M. & Merikle, P. M. (1988) Using direct and indirect measures to study perception without awareness. Perception & Psychophysics 44:563–75. [EMR]
Reingold, E. M. & Merikle, P. M. (1990) On the inter-relatedness of theory and measurement in the study of unconscious processes. Mind & Language 5:928. [aDCD, EMR]
Richardson-Klavehn, A. & Bjork, R. A. (1988) Measures of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 39:475543. [EMR]
Ringo, J. L. (1985) Timing volition: Questions of what and when about W. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(4):550–51. [aDCD]
Roberts, M. & Summerfield, Q. (1981) Audiovisual presentation demonstrates that selective adaptation in speech perception is purely auditory. Perception and Psychophysics 30:309–14. [AWY]
Robins, C. & Shepard, R. N. (1977) Spatio-temporal probing of apparent rotational movement. Perception and Psychophysics 22:1218. [RNS]
Rosenthal, D. (1986) Two concepts of consciousness. Philosophical Studies 49:3. [NB]
Rosenthal, D. (1990) A theory of consciousness, Report, Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF), Research Group on Mind and Brain, University of Bielefeld, Germany. [DMR]
Rosenthal, D. (1991) The independence of consciousness and sensory quality. In: Proceedings of the 1989 Joint Conference of Sociedad Filosofica Ibero-Americana and Sociedad Argentina de Analisis Filosofico, Buenos Aires, ed. E. Villanueva. Ridgeview. [DMR]
Ryle, G. (1949) The concept of mind. Hutchison. [aDCD]
Salter, D. (1989) Voluntary process and the readiness potential: Asking the right questions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12(1): 181–82. [aDCD]
Salzman, C. D., Britten, K. H. & Newsome, W. T. (1990) Cortical microstimulation influences perceptual judgements of motion direction. Nature 346:174–77. [ALR]
Sarris, V. (1989) Max Wertheimer on seen motion: Theory and evidence. Psychological Research 51:5868. [aDCD]
Sartre, J. P. (1943) L'être et le néant. Gallimard. [aDCD]
Schacter, D. (1989) On the relation between memory and consciousness: Dissociable interactions and conscious experience. In: Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honor of Endel Tulving, ed. H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik. [NB]
Schacter, D. L., McAndrews, M. P. & Moscovitch, M. (1988) Access to consciousness: Dissociations between implicit and explicit knowledge in neuropsychological syndromes. In: Thought without language, ed. Weiskrantz, L.. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [AWY]
Searle, J. R. (1991) Consciousness, explanatory inversion and cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:585641. [EMR]
Shepard, R. N. (1981) Psychophysical complementarity. In: Perceptual organization, ed. Kubovy, M. & Pomerantz, J.. Erlbaum. [RNS]
Shepard, R. N. (1984) Ecological constraints on internal representation: Resonant kinematics of perceiving, imagining, thinking, and dreaming. Psychological Review 91:417–47. [RNS]
Shepard, R. N. (1987) Evolution of a mesh between principles of the mind and regularities of the world. In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupré, J.. MIT Press/Bradford Books. [RNS]
Shepard, R. N. (1989) Internal representation of universal regularities: A challenge for connectionism. In: Neural connections, mental computation, ed. Nadel, L., Cooper, L. A., Culicover, P. & Harnish, R. M.. MIT Press/Bradford Books. [RNS]
Shepard, R. N. (1990) Postscript: On understanding mental images. In: Images and understanding, ed. Barlow, H., Blakemore, C. & Weston-Smith, M.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [RNS]
Shepard, R. N. & Cooper, L. A. (1982) Mental images and their transformations. MIT Press/Bradford Books. [RNS]
Shepard, R. N. & Metzler, J. (1971) Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science 171:701–03. [RNS]
Sherrington, C. S. (1934) The brain and its mechanism. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [rDCD]
Sherrington, C. S. (1940) Man on his nature. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [BL]
Shevrin, H. & Dickman, S. (1980) The psychological unconscious: A necessary assumption for all psychological theory? American Psychologist 35:421–34. [EMR]
Shoemaker, S. (1981) The inverted spectrum. The Journal of Philosophy 74:7. [NB]
Snyder, D. M. (1988) On the time of a conscious peripheral sensation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 130:253–54. [aDCD]
Sperling, G. (1960) The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs 74, no. 11. [aDCD]
Stamm, J. S. (1985) The uncertainty principle in psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(4):553–54. [aDCD]
Stevens, S. S. (1975) Psychophysics: Introduction to its perceptual, neural and social prospects. John Wiley. [RT]
Stich, S. (1978) Belief and subdoxastic states. Philosophy of Science 45(4):499518. [NB]
Stone, S. A. (1926) Prior entry in the auditory-tactual complication. American Journal of Psychology 37:284–87. [MT]
Stone, T. & Davies, M. (in press) Cognitive neuropsychology and the philosophy of mind. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. [AWY]
Suga, N. (1988) Auditory neuroethology and speech processing: Complexsound processing by combination-sensitive neurons. In: Auditory function: Neurobiological bases of hearing, ed. Edelman, G. M., Gall, W. E. & Cowan, W. M.. John Wiley [ALR]
Taylor, J. L. & McCloskey, D. I. (1990) Triggering of preprogrammed movements as reactions to masked stimuli. Journal of Neurophysiology 63:439–46. [rDCD, BL]
Teghtsoonian, R. (1971) On the exponents in Stevens' law and the constant in Ekman's law. Psychological Review 78:7180. [RT]
Teghtsoonian, R. (1974) On facts and theories in psychophysics: Does Ekman's law exist? In: Sensation and measurement: Papers in honor of S. S. Stevens, ed. Moskowitz, H. R., Scharf, B. & Stevens, J. C.. Reidel. [RT]
Teranishi, R. (1977) Critical rate for identification and information capacity in hearing system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan 33:136–43. [RMW]
Ternus, J. (1926/1938) Experimentelle Untersuchung über phänomenale Identität. Psychologische Furschung 7:81136. Reprinted as The problem of phenomenal identity. In: A sourcebook of gestalt psychology, ed. W. D. Ellis. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [MT]
Thomas, I. B., Cetti, R. P. & Chase, P. W. (1971) Effect of silent intervals on the perception of temporal order of vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 49:84. [RMW]
Treisman, M. (1963) Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval: Implications for a model of the “internal clock.” Psychological Monographs 77(Whole no. 576): 140. [MT]
Treisman, M. (1964) The effect of one stimulus on the threshold for another: An application of signal detectability theory. British Journal of Statistical Psychology 17:1535. [MT]
Treisman, M. (1984) Temporal rhythms and cerebral rhythms. In: Timing and time perception, ed. J. Gibbon & L. Allan. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 423:542–65. [MT]
Treisman, M., Faulkner, A., Naish, P. & Brogan, D. (1990) The internal clock: Evidence for a temporal oscillator underlying time perception with some estimates of its characteristic frequency. Perception (in press). [MT]
Treisman, M. & Howarth, C. I. (1959) Changes in threshold level produced by a signal preceding or following the threshold stimulus. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 11:129–42. [MT]
Uttal, W. R. (1973) The psychobiology of sensory coding. Harper & Row. [GSW]
Uttal, W. R. (1978) The psychobiology of mind. Erlbaum. [MV]
Uttal, W. R. (1979) Do central nonlinearities exist? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2(2):286. [aDCD]
Van der Waals, H. G. & Roelofs, C. O. (1930) Optische Scheinbewegung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie des Sinnesorgane 114:241–88. (Also [1931] 115:91–190.) [arDCD]
Van Gulick, R. (1985) Conscious wants and self-awareness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:555–56. [aDCD]
Van Gulick, R. (1991) Consciousness may still have a processing role to play. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4):699700. [MV]
Van Gulick, R. (forthcoming) Understanding the phenomenal mind: Are we all just armadillos? In: M. Davies & G. Humphreys. Consciousness: A mind and language reader. Blackwell. [NB]
Velmans, M. (1991) Is human information processing conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4):651669. [aDCD]
Velmans, M. (1991a) Consciousness from a first-person perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4):702–19. [MV]
Vendler, Z. (1972) Res cogitans. Cornell University Press. [aDCD]
Vendler, Z. (1984) The matter of minds. Clarendon Press. [aDCD]
Volpe, B. T., LeDoux, J. E. & Gazzaniga, M. S. (1979) Information processing of visual stimuli in an “extinguished” field. Nature 282:722–24. [MJF]
von der Malsburg, C. (1987) Synaptic plasticity as basis of brain organization. In: The neural and molecular bases of learning, ed. Changeux, J.-P., Konishi, M., Konferenzen, D. & Bernhard, S.. John Wiley. [rDCD, ARD]
Wallace, M. A. & Farah, M. J. (in press) Savings in relearning as a measure of “covert recognition” in prosopagnosia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. [MJF]
Warren, R. M. (1974a) Auditory temporal discrimination by trained listeners. Cognitive Psychology 6:237–56. [RMW]
Warren, R. M. (1974b) Auditory pattern discrimination by untrained listeners. Perception & Psychophysics 15:495500. [RMW]
Warren, R. M. (1981) Measurement of sensory intensity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:175223. [RMW]
Warren, R. M. & Ackroff, J. M. (1976) Two types of auditory sequence perception. Perception & Psychophysics 20:387–94. [RMW]
Warren, R. M., Bashford, J. A. Jr., & Gardner, D. A. (1990) Tweaking the lexicon: Organization of vowel sequences into words. Perception & Psychophysics 47:423–32. [RMW]
Warren, R. M., Gardner, D. A., Brubaker, B. S. & Bashford, J. A. Jr., (1991) Melodic and nonmelodic sequences of tones: Effects of duration on perception. Music Perception 8:277–90. [RMW]
Warren, R. M. & Obusek, C. J. (1972) Identification of temporal order within auditory sequences. Perception & Psychophysics 12:8690. [RMW]
Warren, R. M. & Warren, R. P. (1968) Helmholtz on perception: Its physiology and development. John Wiley. [RMW]
Wasserman, G. S. (1985) Neural/mental chronometry and chronotheology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8(4):556–60. [aDCD, GSW]
Wasserman, G. S. & Kong, K.-L. (1979) Absolute timing of mental activities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2(2):243304. [aDCD, GSW]
Wasserman, G. S., Wang-Bennett, W. T. & Miyamoto, R. T. (1990) Temporal dispersion in natural receptors and pattern discrimination mediated by artificial receptors (cochlear implants). In: Psychophysical explorations of mental structure, ed. Geissler, H.-G., Müller, M. H. & Prinz, W.. Hogrefe & Huber. [GSW]
Weiskrantz, L. (1986) Blindsight: A case study and implications. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [AWY]
Welch, R. B. (1978) Perceptual modification: Adapting to altered sensory environments. Academic Press. [aDCD]
Wertheirner, M. (1912) Experimentelle studien über das Sehen von Bewegung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie 61:161265. [aDCD]
Young, A. W. & de Haan, E. H. F. (1990) Impairments of visual awareness. Mind and Language 5:2948. [AWY]
Zak, M. (1991) Terminal chaos for information processing in neurodynamics. Biological Cybernetics 64:343351. [RAMG]

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Models of conscious timing and the experimental evidence

  • Benjamin Libet (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.