Skip to main content Accessibility help

From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony

  • Lokendra Shastri (a1) and Venkat Ajjanagadde (a2)


Human agents draw a variety of inferences effortlessly, spontaneously, and with remarkable efficiency – as though these inferences were a reflexive response of their cognitive apparatus. Furthermore, these inferences are drawn with reference to a large body of background knowledge. This remarkable human ability seems paradoxical given the complexity of reasoning reported by researchers in artificial intelligence. It also poses a challenge for cognitive science and computational neuroscience: How can a system of simple and slow neuronlike elements represent a large body of systemic knowledge and perform a range of inferences with such speed? We describe a computational model that takes a step toward addressing the cognitive science challenge and resolving the artificial intelligence paradox. We show how a connectionist network can encode millions of facts and rules involving n-ary predicates and variables and perform a class of inferences in a few hundred milliseconds. Efficient reasoning requires the rapid representation and propagation of dynamic bindings. Our model (which we refer to as SHRUTI) achieves this by representing (1) dynamic bindings as the synchronous firing of appropriate nodes, (2) rules as interconnection patterns that direct the propagation of rhythmic activity, and (3) long-term facts as temporal pattern-matching subnetworks. The model is consistent with recent neurophysiological evidence that synchronous activity occurs in the brain and may play a representational role in neural information processing. The model also makes specific psychologically significant predictions about the nature of reflexive reasoning. It identifies constraints on the form of rules that may participate in such reasoning and relates the capacity of the working memory underlying reflexive reasoning to biological parameters such as the lowest frequency at which nodes can sustain synchronous oscillations and the coarseness of synchronization.



Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Aaronson, J. (1991) Dynamic fact communication mechanism: A connectionist interface. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Abeles, M. (1982) Local cortical circuits: Studies of brain function, vol. 6. Springer. [arLS]
Abeles, M. (1991) Corticonics: Neural circuits of the cerebral cortex. Cambridge University Press. [aLS, WJF]
Ajjanagadde, V. G. (1990) Reasoning with function symbols in a connectionist system. Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Ajjanagadde, V. G. (1991) Abductive reasoning in connectionist networks: Incorporating variables, background knowledge, and structured explananda. Technical Report WS1-91-7. Wilhelm-Schickard-Institute, University of Tubingen, Germany. [arLS, GH, DST]
Ajjanagadde, V. G. & Shastri, L. (1989) Efficient inference with multiplace predicates and variables in a connectionist system. Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.Erlbaum. [aLS]
Allen, J. F. (1987) Natural language understanding. Benjamin Cummings. [aLS]
Allen, J. F. & Perrault, C. R. (1980) Analyzing intention in utterances. Artificial Intelligence 15:143–78. [GH]
Anderson, J. R. (1983) The architecture of cognition. Harvard University Press. [aLS]
Baddeley, A. (1986) Working memory. Clarendon Press. [arLS, SS]
Bair, W., Koch, C., Newsome, W., Britten, K. & Niebur, E. (1992) Power spectrum analysis of MT neurons from awake monkey. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18(1):11 12. [MPY]
Barnden, J. A. (1992) Connectionism, generalization and propositional attitudes: A catalogue of challenging issues. In: The symbolic and connectionist paradigms: Closing the gap, ed. Dinsmore, J.. Erlbaum. [JAB]
Barnden, J. A. & Srinivas, K. (1991) Encoding techniques for complex information structures in connectionist systems. Connection Science 3(3):263309. [aLS, JAB]
Barnes, D. & Hampson, P. J. (1992) Stimulus equivalence, relational frame theory and connectionism: Implications for behaviour analysis and cognitive science. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Symposium on Quantitative Analyses of Behavior. Harvard University Press. [PJH]
Bartlett, F. C. (1934) Remembering (2nd. ed. 1967). Cambridge University Press. [WJF]
Bibel, W. (1988) Advanced topics in automated deduction. In: Fundamentals of artificial intelligence II. ed. Nossum, R.. Springer. [SH]
Bienenstock, E. (1991) Notes on the growth of a “composition machine.” Presented at the Interdisciplinary Workshop on Compositionality in Cognition and Neural Networks, Abbaye de Royaumont, May. [aLS]
Bobrow, D. & Collins, A., eds. (1975) Representation and understanding. Academic Press. [aLS]
Bradski, G., Carpenter, G. A. & Grossberg, S. (1992a) Working memory networks for learning temporal order with application to 3-D visual object recognition. Neural Computation 4:270–86. [SG]
Bradski, G., Carpenter, G. A. & Grossberg, S. (1992b) Working memories for storage and recall of arbitrary temporal sequences. Proceedings of the International joint Conferences on Neural Networks,Piscataway, NJ. [SG]
Braine, M. D. S. (1978) On the relationship between the natural logic of reasoning and standard logic. Psychological Review 85:121. [MO]
Broadbent, D. E. (1958) Perception and communication. Pergamon. [MPY]
Buchanan, B. C. & Shortliffe, E. F. (1984) Rule-based expert systems: The MYCIN experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project. Addison-Wesley. [aLS]
Bylander, T., Allemang, D., Tanner, M. C. & Josephson, J. R. (1991) The computational complexity of abduction. Artificial Intelligence 47(1–3):2560. [aLS]
Cahill, A. & Mitchell, D. C. (1987) Plans and goals in story comprehension. In: Communication failure in dialogue and discourse, ed. Reilly, R.. Elsevier. [GH]
Carpenter, G. A. & Grossberg, S., eds. (1991) Pattern recognition by self-organizing neural networks. MIT Press. [SG]
Carpenter, G. A. & Grossberg, S., eds. (1992) A self-organizing neural network for supervised learning, recognition, and prediction. IEEE Communications 30:3849. [SG]
Carpenter, G. A., Grossberg, S., Markuzon, N., Reynolds, J. H. & Rosen, D. B. (1992) Fuzzy ARTMAP: A neural network architecture for incremental supervised learning of analog multidimensional maps. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 3:698713. [SG]
Carpenter, G. A., Grossberg, S. & Reynolds, J. H. (1991) ARTMAP: Supervised real-time learning and classification of nonstationary data by a self-organizing neural network. Neural Networks 4:565–88. [SG]
Carpenter, P. A. & Just, M. A. (1977) Reading comprehension as eyes see it. In: Cognitive processes in comprehension, ed. Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A.. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Celebrini, S., Thorpe, S., Trotter, Y. & Imbert, M. (1993) Dynamics of orientation coding in area VI of the awake primate. Visual Neuroscience (in press). [SJT]
Chalmers, D. J. (1990) Syntactic transformations on distributed representations. Connection Science 1&2(2):5362. [GD, JWG]
Charniak, E. (1976) Inference and knowledge (I and II). In: Computational semantics, ed. Charniak, E. & Wilks, Y.. North-Holland. [aLS]
Charniak, E. (1983) Passing markers: A theory of contextual influence in language comprehension. Cognitive Science 7:171–90. [aLS, GH]
Chater, N. & Oaksford, M. (1993) Logicism, mental models and everyday reasoning: Reply to Garnham. Mind & Language 8 (in press). [MO]
Churchland, P. S., Koch, C. & Sejnowski, T. J. (1989) What is computational neuroscience? In: Computational neuroscience, ed. Schwartz, E.. MIT Press. [MO]
Clossman, G. (1988) A model of categorization and learning in a connectionist broadcast system. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Computer Science, Indiana University. [aLS]
Cohen, P. R., Morgan, J. & Pollack, M. E., eds. (1990) Intentions in communication. MIT Press. [GH]
Collins, A. & Michalski, R. (1989). The logic of plausible reasoning: A core theory. Cognitive Science 13(1):150. [rLS, DST]
Cooke, N. J. (1992) Modeling human expertise in expert systems. In: The psychology of expertise: Cognitive research and empirical artificial intelligence, ed. Hoffman, R. R.. Springer. [GH]
Cooper, P. R. (1992) Structure recognition by connectionist relaxation: Formal analysis. Computational Intelligence 8(1):2544. [PRC]
Cooper, P. R. & Swain, M. J. (1992) Arc consistency: Parallelism and domain dependence. Artificial Intelligence 58:207–35. [PRC]
Corriveau, J. (1991) Time-constrained memory for reader-based text comprehension. Technical Report CSRI-246. Ph.D. dissertation, Computer Science Research Institute, University of Toronto. [aLS]
Cottrell, G. (1985) Parallelism in inheritance hierarchies with exceptions. Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,Los Angeles, CA. [GWC]
Cottrell, G. (1989) A connectionist approach to word sense disambiguation. Pitman. [GWC]
Creutzfeldt, O., Ojemann, G. & Lettich, E. (1989) Neuronal activity in the human lateral temporal lobe. 1. Responses to speech. Experimental Brain Research 77:451–75. [SJT]
Crick, F. (1984) Function of the thalamic reticular complex: The searchlight hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 81:4586–90. [aLS]
Crick, F. & Koch, C. (1990a) Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness Seminars in Neurosciences 2:263–75. [aLS]
Crick, F. & Koch, C. (1990b) Some reflections on visual awareness Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 55:953–62. [SG]
Damasio, A. R. (1989) Time-locked multiregional retroactivation: A systems-level proposal for the neural substrates of recall and recognition. Cognition 33:2562. [aLS]
Davis, P. (1990) Application of optical chaos to temporal pattern search in a nonlinear optical resonator. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 29:L1238-40. [IT]
Dawson, M. R. W. & Schopflocher, D. P. (1992) Autonomous processing in parallel distributed processing networks. Philosophical Psychology 5:199219. [MRWD]
Dehaene, S. & Changeux, J-P. (1991) The Wisconsin card sorting test: Theoretical analysis and modeling in a neuronal network. Cerebral Cortex 1:6279. [MO]
Diederich, J. (1992) Inkrementelles Konnektionistisches Lernen. Forthcoming habilitation thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Hamburg. [JD]
Dietz, P., Krizanc, D., Rajasekaran, S. & Shastri, L. (1993) A lower bound result for the common element problem and its implication for reflexive reasoning. Technical Report, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania (forthcoming). [rLS]
Dolan, C. P. & Smolensky, P. (1989) Tensor product production system: A modular architecture and representation. Connection Science 1:5368. [aLS, GSH, RR]
Dorffner, G. & Rotter, M. (1992) On the virtues of functional connectionist compositionality. Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ed. Neumann, B.. Wiley. [GD]
Dosher, B. A. & Corbett, A. T. (1982) Instrument inferences and verb schemata. Memory and Cognition 10(6):531–39. [GH]
Douglas, R. J., Martin, K .A. C. & Whitteridge, D. (1991) An intracellular analysis of the visual responses of neurons in cat visual cortex. Journal of Physiology 440:659–96. [RE]
Downing, P. (1977) On the creation and use of English compound nouns. Language 53(4):810–42. [GH]
Dwork, C., Kannelakis, P. C. & Mitchell, J. C. (1984) On the sequential nature of unification. Journal of Logic Programming 1:3550. [SH]
Dyer, M. (1983) In-depth understanding: A computer model of integrated processing for narrative comprehension. MIT Press. [aLS]
Eckhorn, R. (1991) Stimulus-specific synchronizations in the visual cortex: Linking of local features into global figures? In: Neuronal cooperativity, ed. Kruger, J.. Springer. [SJT]
Eckhorn, R., Bauer, R., Jordan, W., Brosch, M., Kruse, W., Munk, M. & Reitboeck, H. J. (1988) Coherent oscillations: A mechanism of feature linking in the visual cortex? Multiple electrode and correlation analyses in the cat. Biological Cybernetics 60:121–30. [aLS, RE, WJF, IT, SJT]
Eckhorn, R., Gruesser, O.-J., Kroeller, J., Pellnitz, K. & Poepel, B. (1976) Efficiency of different neural codes: Information transfer calculations for three different neural systems. Biological Cybernetics 22:4960. [RE]
Eckhorn, R. & Poepel, B. (1975) Rigorous and extended application of information theory to the afferent visual system of the cat. Biological Cybernetics 17:717. [RE]
Eckhorn, R., Reitboeck, H. J., Arndt, M. & Dicke, P. (1990) Feature linking via synchronization among distributed assemblies: Simulations of results from cat visual cortex. Neural Computation 2:293307. [aLS, RE]
Eichenbaum, H., Wiener, S. I., Shapiro, M. L. & Cohen, N. J. (1989) The organization of spatial coding in the hippocampus: A study of neural ensemble activity. Journal of Neuroscience 9:2764–75. [GWS]
Elman, J. (1991) Distributed representations, simple recurrent networks, and grammatical structure. Machine Learning 7:195225. [JWG]
Engel, A. K., Koenig, P., Gray, C. M. & Singer, W. (1990) Stimulus-dependent neuronal oscillations in cat visual cortex: Intercolumnar interactions as determined by cross-correlation analysis. European Journal of Neuroscience 2:588606. [WJF, MPY]
Engel, A. K., Koenig, P., Kreiter, A. K., Gray, C. M. & Singer, W. (1991) Temporal coding by coherent oscillations as a potential solution to the binding problem: Physiological evidence. In: Nonlinear dynamics and neural networks, ed. Schuster, H. G. & Singer, W.. Weinheim. [aLS]
Engel, A. K., Kroiter, A. K. & Singer, W. (1992) Oscillatory responses in the superior temporal sulcus of anesthetized macaque monkeys. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18:11.10. [rLS]
Etherington, D. & Reiter, R. (1983) On inheritance hierarchies with exceptions. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Washington, D. C. [GWC]
Evans, J. St. B. T. (1972) Interpretation and matching bias in a reasoning task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 24:193–99. [MO]
Evans, J. St. B. T. (1982) The psychology of deductive reasoning. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [MO]
Evans, J. St. B. T. (1983) Linguistic determinants of bias in conditional reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 35A:635–44. [MO]
Evans, J. St. B. T. (1989) Bias in human reasoning: Causes and consequences. Erlbaum. [MO]
Fahlman, S. E. (1979) NETL: A system for representing real-world knowledge. MIT Press. [aLS, GH, MO]
Fahlman, S. E. (1981) Representing implicit knowledge. In: Parallel models of associative memory, ed. Hinton, G. E. & Anderson, J. A.. Erlbaum. [aLS, MO]
Fahlman, S. E., Hinton, G. E. & Sejnowski, T. J. (1983) Massively parallel architectures for AI: NETL, thistle, and Boltzmann machines. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. [DST]
Fahlman, S. E., Touretzky, D. S. & van Roggen, W. (1981) Cancellation in a parallel semantic network. Proceedings of the Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. [aLS]
Feldman, J. A. (1982) Dynamic connections in neural networks. Biological Cybernetics 46:2739. [aLS, PRC]
Feldman, J. A. (1985) Four frames suffice: A provisional model of vision and space. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:265–89. [PRC]
Feldman, J. A. (1989) Neural representation of conceptual knowledge. In: Neural connections, mental computation, ed. Nadel, L., Cooper, L. A., Culicover, P. & Harnish, R. M.. MIT Press. [aLS]
Feldman, J. A. & Ballard, D. H. (1982) Connectionist models and their properties. Cognitive Science 6(3):205–54. [aLS, PRC]
Fodor, J. A. (1983) Modularity of mind. MIT Press. [MO]
Fodor, J. A. & Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1988a) Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis. In: Connections and symbols, ed. Pinker, S. & Mehler, J., MIT Press. [aLS, DLM]
Fodor, J. A. & Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1988b) Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis Cognition 28:371. [GD, MO]
Freeman, M. J. (1975) Mass action in the nervous system. Academic Press. [WJF]
Freeman, M. J. (1981) A physiological hypothesis of perception. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 24(4):561–92. [aLS]
Freeman, M. J. (1987) Simulation of chaotic EEC patterns with a dynamic model of olfactory system. Biological Cybernetics 56:139–50. [IT]
Freeman, M. J. (1991) The physiology of perception. Scientific American 264:7885. [WJF, IT]
Freeman, W. J. & van Dijk, B. (1987) Spatial patterns of visual cortical fast EEC during conditioned reflex in a rhesus monkey. Brain Research 422:267–76. [WJF]
Frisch, A. M. & Allen, J. F. (1982) Knowledge retrieval as limited inference. In: Notes in computer science: Sixth conference on automated deduction, ed. Loveland, D. W.. Springer. [aLS]
Garnham, A. (1993) Is logicist cognitive science possible? Mind & Language 8 (in press). [MO]
Gawne, T. J., Eskandar, E. N., Richmond, B. J. & Optican, L. M. (1991) Oscillations in the responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex are not driven by stationary visual stimuli. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17(1):180.18. [MPY]
Geib, C. (1990) A connectionist model of medium-term memory. Term report, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania. [aLS]
Geller, J. & Du, C. (1991) Parallel implementation of a class reasoner. Journal of Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 3:109–27. [aLS]
Genesereth, M. R. & Nilsson, N. J. (1987) Logical foundations of artificial intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. [aLS]
Gerstein, G. L. (1970) Functional association of neurons: Detection and interpretation. In: The neurosciences: Second study program, ed. Schmitt, F. O.. Rockefeller University Press. [aLS]
Gibbs, R. W. Jr. (1983) Do people always process the literal meanings of indirect requests? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 9:524–33. [GH]
Gilbert, C. D. & Wiesel, T. (1992) Receptive field dynamics in adult primary visual cortex. Nature 356:150–52. [JD]
Gray, C. M., Engel, A. K., Koenig, P. & Singer, W. (1991) Properties of synchronous oscillatory neuronal interactions in cat striate cortex. In: Nonlinear dynamics and neural networks, ed. Schuster, H. G. & Singer, W.. Weinheim: VCH Publishers. [aLS, RE]
Gray, C. M., Koenig, P., Engel, A. K. & Singer, W. (1989) Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties. Nature 338:334–37. [aLS, IT, SJT]
Gray, C. & Singer, W. (1989) Stimulus-specific neural oscillations in orientation specific columns of the visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 86:16981702. [aLS, RE]
Gross, H., Koerner, E., Boehme, H. & Pomierski, T. (1992) A neural network hierarchy for data and knowledge controlled selective visual attention. In: Artificial neural networks, 2, ed. Aleksander, I. & Taylor, J.. North-Holland. [EK]
Grossberg, S. (1976) Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding, II: Feedback, expectation, olfaction, and illusions. Biological Cybernetics 23:187202. [SC]
Grossberg, S. (1978) A theory of visual coding, memory, and development. In: Formal theories of visual perception, ed. Leeuwenberg, E. & Buffart, H.. Wiley. [SG]
Grossberg, S. ed. (1987a) The adaptive brain, vols. 1 & 2. Elsevier/North-Holland. [SG]
Grossberg, S. ed. (1987b) Competitive learning: From interactive activation to adaptive resonance. Cognitive Science 11:2363. [MRWD]
Grossberg, S. ed. (1988) Neural networks and natural intelligence. MIT Press. [SG]
Grossberg, S. & Mingolla, E. (1985a) Neural dynamics of form perception: Boundary completion, illusory figures, and neon color spreading Psychological Review 92:173211. [SG]
Grossberg, S. & Mingolla, E. (1985b) Neural dynamics of perceptual grouping: Textures, boundaries, and emergent segmentations Perception & Psychophysics 38:141–71. [SG]
Grossberg, S. & Somers, D. (1991) Synchronized oscillations during cooperative feature linking in a cortical model of visual perception. Neural Networks 4:453–66. [SG]
Grossberg, S. & Somers, D. (1992) Synchronized oscillations for binding spatially distributed feature codes into coherent spatial patterns. In: Neural networks for vision and image processing, ed. Carpenter, G. A. & Grossberg, S.. MIT Press. [SG]
Guha, R. V. & Lenat, D. B. (1990) Cyc: A mid-term report. Artificial Intelligence Magazine 11(3):3259. [aLS]
Halford, G. S., Wilson, W. H., Guo, J., Gayler, R. W., Wiles, J. & Stewart, J. E. M. (1993) Connectionist implications for processing capacity limitations in analogies. In: Advances in connectionist and neural computational theory, vol. 2, ed. Holyoak, K. J. & Barnden, J. A.. Ablex. [GSH]
Hanson, S. J. & Kegl, J. (1987) PARSNIP: A connectionist network that learns natural language grammar from exposure to natural language sentences. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Seattle, Wa. [GWC]
Harnad, S. (1990) The symbol grounding problem. Physica D 42:335–46. [rLS]
Hatfield, H. (1991) Representation and rule-instantiation in connectionist networks. In: Connectionism and the philosophy of mind, ed. Horgan, T. & Tienson, J.. Kluwer Academic. [arLS]
Hayes, P. J. (1977) In defense of logic. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, MA. [GWC]
Hayes, S. C. (1991) A relational control theory of stimulus equivalence. In: Rule-governed behavior: Cognition, contingencies and instructional control, ed. Hayes, L. J. & Chase, P. N.. Plenum. [PJH]
Hebb, D. O. (1949) The organization of behavior. Wiley. [aLS, CWC, GP]
Henderson, J. (1992) A connectionist parser for structure unification grammar. Proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics. Association of Computational Linguistics. [arLS]
Handler, J. (1987) Integrating marker-passing and problem solving: A spreading activation approach to improved choice in planning. Erlbaum. [aLS, GH, MO]
Hinton, G. E. (1981) Implementing semantic networks in parallel hardware. In: Parallel models of associative memory, ed. Hinton, G. E. & Anderson, J. A.. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Hinton, G. E. (1986) Learning distributed representations of concepts. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [CD]
Hirst, G. (1987) Semantic interpretation and the resolution of ambiguity. Cambridge University Press. [aLS, GH]
Hirst, G. (1988) Resolving lexical ambiguity computationally with spreading activation and polaroid words. In: Lexical ambiguity resolution, ed. Small, S., Cottrell, G. & Tanenhaus, M. K.. Morgan Kaufmann. [GH]
Hirst, G. & Charniak, E. (1982) Word sense and case slot disambiguation. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pittsburgh. [GH]
Holden, A. V. & Kryukov, V. I., eds. (1991) Neurocomputers and attention I & II. Proceedings in nonlinear science. Manchester University Press. [IT]
Hölldobler, S. (1990) CHCL: A connectionist inference system for Horn logic based on the connection method and using limited resources. Technical Report 90–042. International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, CA. [aLS, SH]
Horn, D., Sagi, D. & Usher, M. (1991) Segmentation, binding, and illusory conjunctions. Neural computation 3(4):510–25. [aLS]
Hubel, D. H. & Wiesel, T. N. (1962) Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architectures of the cat's visual cortex. Journal of Physiology 160:106–54. [WJF]
Hummel, J. E. & Biederman, I. (1992) Dynamic binding in a neural network for shape recognition. Psychological Review 99:480517. [aLS, SJT]
Hummel, J. E., Burns, B. & Holyoak, K. J. (in press) Analogical mapping by dynamic binding: Preliminary investigations. In: Advances in conneetionist and neural computation theory, vol. 2: Analogical connections, ed. K. J. Holyoak & J. A. Barnden. Ablex. [GSH, JEH]
Hummel, J. E. & Holyoak, K. J. (1992) Indirect analogical mapping. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [JEH]
Humphreys, M. S., Bain, J. D. & Pike, R. (1989) Different ways to cue a coherent memory system: A theory for episodic, semantic and procedural tasks. Psychological Review 96(2):208–33. [GSH]
Ikeda, K., Otsuka, K. & Matsumoto, K. (1989) Maxwell-Bloch turbulence. Progress of Theoretical Physics (suppl.)99:295324. [IT]
James, W. (1890) Psychology (Briefer course). Holt. [GWC]
Johannesma, P., Aertsen, A., Vanden Boogaard, H., Eggermont, J. & Epping, W. (1986) From synchrony to harmony: Ideas on the function of neural assemblies and on the interpretation of neural synchrony. In: Brain theory, ed. Palm, G. & Aertsen, A.. Springer. [GP]
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983) Mental models. Cambridge University Press. [MIB, MO]
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1988) The computer and the mind. Harvard University Press. [MIB]
Johnson-Laird, P. N. & Byrne, R. M. J. (1991) Deduction. Erlbaum. [MO]
Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A., eds. (1977) Cognitive processes in comprehension. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Kaneko, K. (1989) Pattern dynamics in spatio-temporal chaos. Physica 34D:141. [IT]
Kaneko, K. (1990) Clustering, switching, hierarchical ordering and control in a network of chaotic elements. Physica 41 D: 137–72. [IT]
Kautz, H. A. & Selman, B. (1991) Hard problems for simple default logics. Artificial Intelligence 47 (1–3):243–79. [aLS]
Keenan, J. M., Baillet, S. D. & Brown, P. (1984) The effects of causal cohesion on comprehension and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23:115–26. [aLS]
Kintsch, W., ed. (1974) The representation of meaning in memory. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Kintsch, W., ed. (1988) The role of knowledge discourse comprehension: A construction-integration model. Psychological Review 95:163–82. [aLS]
Kiper, D. C., Cegenfurtner, K. R. & Movshon, J. A. (1991) The effect of 40Hz flicker on the perception of global stimulus properties. Society for Neuroscicnce Abstracts 17(2):479.4. [MPY]
Klayman, J. & Ha, Y. (1987) Confirmation, disconfirmation, and information in hypothesis testing. Psychological Review 94:211–28. [SS]
Koerner, E. & Boehme, H. (1991) Organization of an episodic knowledge base in a neural network architecture with parallel-sequential processing modes for autonomous recognition and learning. In: Artificial neural networks, ed. Kohonen, T., Mackisara, K., Simula, O. & Kangas, J.. Elsevier/North-Holland. [EK]
Koerner, E., Gross, H. & Boehme, H. (1991) Elementary cognitive mechanisms for knowledge based image interpretation. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Adaptive Learning and Neural Networks, ed. Bock, P., Loew, M., Radermacher, F. J. & Richter, M. M.. Ulm: Forschungsinstitut für Anwendungs orientierte Wissensrerarbeitung. [EK]
Koerner, E., Gross, H. & Tsuda, I. (1990) Holonic processing in a model system of cortical processors. In: Biological complexity and information, ed. Shimizu, H.. World Scientific. [EK]
Koerner, E., Salevski, H., Shimizu, H., Koerner, U. & Seifert, S. (submitted) A structured neural network model of hippocampus and its function as a nonspecific controller of cortical decision making and nontrivial learning. [EK]
Koerner, E., Shimizu, H. & Tsuda, I. (1987) Parallel in sequence: Towards the architecture of an elementary cortical processor. In: Parallel algorithms and architectures, ed. Albrecht, A., Hung, H. & Mehlhorn, G.. Akademie-Verlag. [EK]
Koerner, E., Tsuda, I. & Shimizu, H. (1987) Take-grant control, variable byte formation and processing parallel in sequence: Characteristics of a new type of holonic processor. In: Parallel algorithms and architecture, ed. Albrecht, A., Jung, H. & Mehlhorn, G.. Springer. [IT]
Kosslyn, S. M., Murphy, G. L., Bemesderfer, M. E. & Feinstein, K. J. (1977) Category and continuum in mental comparisons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106:341–75. [PJH]
Kreiter, A. K., Engel, A. K. & Singer, W. (1992) Stimulus dependent synchronization in the caudal superior temporal sulcus of macaque monkeys. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18:11.11. [rLS]
Kreiter, A. K. & Singer, W. (1992) Oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual cortex of the awake macaque monkey. European Journal of Neuroscience 4:369–75. [aLS, IT]
Kruse, W., Eckhorn, R., Schanze, T. & Reitboeck, H. J. (1992) Stimulus-induced oscillatory synchronization is inhibited by stimulus-locked non-oscillatory synchronization in cat visual cortex: Two modes that might support feature linking. Society for Neuroscicnce Abstracts 18:131.3. [RE]
Kuramoto, Y. (1991) Collective synchronization of pulse-coupled oscillators and excitable units. Physica 50D: 1530. [IT]
Lado, F., Ribary, U., loannides, A., Volkman, J., Joliot, M., Mogilner, A. & Llinás, R. (1992) Coherent oscillations in motor and sensory cortices detected using MEG and MFT. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18:355.15. [rLS]
Lakoff, G. (1987) Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. University of Chicago Press. [aLS, SS, DST]
Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980) Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago Press. [DST]
Lange, T. E. & Dyer, M. G. (1989) High-level inferencing in a conneetionist network. Connection Science 1(2):181217. [aLS, JAB, GWC]
Lehnert, W. G. & Ringle, M. H., eds. (1982) Strategies for natural language processing. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Lettvin, J. Y., Maturana, H. R., McCulloch, W. S. & Pitts, W. H. (1959) What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineering 47:1940–51. [WJF]
Levesque, H. J. (1988) Logic and the complexity of reasoning. Journal of Philosophical Logic 17:335–89. [aLS]
Levesque, H. J. & Brachman, R. J. (1985) A fundamental tradeoff in knowledge representation and reasoning. In: Readings in knowledge representation, ed. Brachman, R. J. & Levesque, H. J.. Morgan Kaufmann. [aLS, GWC]
Levi, J. N. (1978) The syntax and semantics of complex nominals. Academic Press. [GH]
Livingstone, M. S. (1991) Visually evoked oscillations in monkey striate cortex. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:73.3. [rLS]
Lucas, M. M., Tanenhaus, M. K. & Carlson, G. N. (1990) Levels of representation in the interpretation of anaphoric reference and instrument inference. Memory and Cognition 18(6):611–31. [GH]
Lynch, G. (1986) Synapses, circuits, and the beginnings of memory. MIT Press. [aLS]
MacVicar, B. & Dudek, F. E. (1980) Dye-coupling between CA3 pyramidal cells in slices of rat hippocampus. Brain Research 196:494–97. [aLS]
Malloch, M. I., Oaksford, M. & Iddon, J. (1992) Impairments of reasoning, memory and planning in early stage Parkinsonism. Technical Report No. UWBCNU-TR-13, Cognitive Neurocomputation Unit, University of Wales, Bangor. [MO]
Mandelbaum, R. (1991) A robust model for temporal synchronization of distant nodes: Description and simulation. Term Report, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania. [aLS]
Mandelbaum, R. & Shastri, L. (1990) A robust model for temporal synchronisation of distant nodes. (Unpublished report.) [aLS]
Mani, D. R. & Shastri, L. (1991) Combining a connectionist type hierarchy with a connectionist rule-based reasoner. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Mani, D. R. & Shastri, L. (1992) A connectionist solution to the multiple instantiation problem using temporal synchrony. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Marr, D. (1971) Simple memory: A theory for archicortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 262:2381. [aLS]
Martin, C. E. & Riesbeck, C. K. (1986) Uniform parsing and inferencing for learning. Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Philadelphia. [GH]
Matsumoto, K. & Tsuda, I. (1987) Extended information in one-dimensional maps. Physica 26D:347–57. [IT]
McAllester, D. A. (1990) Automatic recognition of tractability in inference relations. Memo 1215, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. [aLS]
McCarthy, J. (1988) Epistemological challenges for connectionism [Commentary on Smolensky]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11(1):44. [aLS]
McDermott, D. (1981) Artificial intelligence meets natural stupidity. In: Mind design, ed. Haugland, J.. MIT Press/Bradford Books. [DLM]
McDermott, D. (1986) A critique of pure reason. Technical Report, Department of Computer Science, Yale University. [MO]
McKendall, T. (1991) A design for an answer extraction and display scheme for a connectionist rule-based reasoner. Unpublished report on work done for National Science Foundation, Research Experience for Undergraduates grant IRI 88–05465. [aLS]
McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1980) The comprehension processes and memory structures involved in anaphoric reference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19:668–82. [aLS]
McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1981) The comprehension processes and memory structures involved in instrumental inference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 20:671–82. [aLS]
McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1986) Inferences about predictable events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 12:8291. [aLS]
McMillan, C., Mozer, M. & Smolensky, P. (1991): The connectionist scientist game. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [GD]
McRoy, S. W. (1993) Abductive interpretation and re-interpretation of natural language utterances. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto. [GH]
McRoy, S. W. & Hirst, G. (1993) Abductive explanations of dialogue misunderstanding. Proceedings, Sixth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Utrecht. [GH]
Merzenich, M. M., Recanzone, G., Jenkins, W. M., Allard, T. T. & Nudo, R. J. (1988) Cortical representational plasticity. In: Neurobiology of neocortex, ed. Rakie, P. & Singer, W.. Wiley. [JD]
Miller, G. A. (1956) The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63(2):8197 [aLS, GSH, EK]
Milner, B. (1963) Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting. Archives of Neurology 9:90100. [MO]
Minsky, M. (1975) A framework for representing knowledge. In: The psychology of computer vision, ed. Winston, P. M.. McGraw-Hill. [aLS]
Minsky, M. (1985) The society of mind. Simon & Schuster. [EK]
Mountcastle, V. B. (1957) Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of cat's somatic cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 20:408–34. [WJF]
Mozer, M. C., Zemel, R. S. & Behrman, M. (1991) Learning to segment images using dynamic feature binding. Technical Report CU-CS-540-91, University of Colorado at Boulder. [aLS]
Newell, A. (1980) Harpy, production systems and human cognition. In: Perception and production of fluent speech, ed. Cole, R.. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Newell, A. (1990) Unified theories of cognition. Harvard University Press. [arLS]
Newell, A. & Simon, H. A. (1972) Human problem solving. Prentice-Hall. [aLS]
Norman, D. A. & Shallice, T. (1985) Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behaviour. In: Consciousness and self-regulation, vol. 4, ed. Davidson, R. J., Schwartz, G. E. & Shapiro, D.. Plenum. [MO]
Norvig, P. (1989) Marker passing as a weak method for text inferencing. Cognitive Science 113:569620. [aLS, GH]
Oaksford, M. (1993) Mental models and the tractability of everyday reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16(2):360–61. [MO]
Oaksford, M. & Chater, N. (1991) Against logicist cognitive science. Mind & Language 6:138. [MO]
Oaksford, M. & Chater, N. (1992a) Reasoning theories and bounded rationality. In: Rationality, ed. Manktelow, K. & Over, D.. Routledge. [MO]
Oaksford, M. & Chater, N. (1992b) Bounded rationality in taking risks and drawing inferences. Theory & Psychology 2:225–30. [MO]
Oaksford, M. & Chater, N. (in press) Cognition and inquiry. Academic Press. [MO]
Oaksford, M., Malloch, M. I. & Swain, S. (1992a) Transitive inference in closed head injury: A single case study. Technical Report No. UWBCNU-TR-12, Cognitive Neuroeomputation Unit, University of Wales, Bangor. [MO]
Oaksford, M., Malloch, M. I., Watson, F. & Hargreaves, I. (1992b) Impairments of reasoning, memory and attention in frontal lobe damage: A single case study. Technical Report No. UWBCNU-TR-11, Cognitive Neuroeomputation Unit, University of Wales, Bangor. [MO]
Oaksford, M. & Stenning, K. (1992) Reasoning with conditionals containing negated constituents. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition 18:835–54. [MO]
Oram, M. W. & Perrett, D. I. (1992) Time course of neural responses discriminating different views of the face and head. Journal of Neurophysiology 69:7084. [SJT]
Pabst, M., Reitboeck, H. J. & Eckhorn, R. (1989) A model of preattentive region definition based on texture analysis. In: Models of brain function, ed. Cotterill, R. M. J.. Cambridge University Press. [RE]
Palm, G. (1982) Neural assemblies: An alternative approach to artificial intelligence. Springer. [GP]
Palm, G. (1986) Associative networks and cell assemblies. In: Brain theory, ed. Palm, G. & Aertsen, A.. Springer. [GP]
Palm, G. (1990) Cell assemblies as a guideline for brain research. Concepts in Neuroscience 1:133–14. [GP]
Pelletier, F. J. (1982) Completely non-causal, completely heuristic-ally driven, automated theorem proving. Technical Report 82–7, Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta. [MRWD]
Pfeifer, R. & Verschure, P. (1992) Beyond rationalism: Symbols, patterns and behavior. Connection Science 4:313–25. [JD]
Pollack, J. B. (1988) Recursive auto-associative memory: Devising compositional distributed representations. Technical report MCCS-88-124, Computing Research Laboratory, New Mexico State University. [GH]
Pollack, J. B. (1990) Recursive distributed representations. Artificial Intelligence 46:77105. [GD, GH]
Posner, M. I. & Snyder, C. R. R. (1975) Attention and cognitive control. In: Information processing and cognition: The Loyola Symposium, ed. Solso, R. L.. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Potts, G. R., Keenan, J. M. & Golding, J. M. (1988) Assessing the occurrence of elaborative inferences: Lexical decision versus naming. Journal of Memory and Language 27:399415. [aLS]
Quillian, M. R. (1968) Semantic memory. In: Semantic information processing, ed. Minsky, M.. MIT Press. [aLS]
Ramesh, R., Verma, R. M., Krishnaprasad, T. & Ramakrishnan, I. V. (1989) Term matching on parallel computers. Journal of Logic Programming 6:213–28. [SH]
Reder, L. M. & Ross, B. H. (1983) Integrated knowledge in different tasks: The role of retrieval strategy on fan effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 9:5572. [aLS]
Reitboeck, H. J., Eckhorn, R., Arndt, M. & Dicke, P. (1990) A model for feature linking via correlated neural activity. In: Synergetics of cognition. Springer series in synergetics, vol. 45, ed. Haken, H. & Stadler, M.. Springer. [IT]
Reiter, R. (1980) A logic for default reasoning. Artificial Intelligence 13:81132. [rLS]
Riesbeck, C. R. & Schank, R. C. (1989) Inside case-based reasoning. Erlbaum. [PRC]
Rips, L. J. (1983) Cognitive processes in propositional reasoning. Psychological Review 90:3871. [MO]
Rohwer, R. A. (1993) A representation of representation applied to a discussion of variable binding. In: Neurodynamics and psychology, ed. Oaksford, M. & Brown, G.. Academic Press. [RR]
Rolls, E. T. (1991) Neural organisation of higher visual functions. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 1:274–78. [aLS, MPY]
Rotter, M. & Dorffner, G. (1990) Struktur und Konzeptrelationen in verteilten Netzwerken. In: Konnektionismus in Artificial Intelligence und Kognitionsforschung, ed. Dorffner, G.. Springer. [GD]
Rumelhart, D. E. (1989) Toward a microstructural account of human reasoning. In: Similarity and analogical reasoning, ed. Vosnaidou, S. & Ortony, A.. Cambridge Universtiy Press. [MO]
Rumelhart, D. E. & McClellan, J. L., eds. (1986) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol 1. Bradford Books/MIT Press. [aLS]
Rumelhart, D. E., Smolensky, P., McClelland, J. L. & Hinton, G. E. (1986) Schemata and sequential thought processes in PDF models. In: Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2: Psychological and biological processes, ed. McClelland, J. L. & Rumelhart, D. E.. MIT Press. [MO]
Schank, R. C. & Abelson, R. P. (1977) Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Schauze, T. & Eckhorn, R. (1991) Synchronization statistics of stimulusspecific oscillatory events in cat visual cortex. In: Synapse, transmission, modulation, ed. Eisner, N. & Penzlin, H.. Thieme Verlag. [RE]
Schneider, W. & Shiffrin, R. M. (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review 84:166. [aLS]
Schubert, L. K. (1989) An episodic knowledge representation for narrative texts. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Morgan Kaufmann. [aLS]
Sejnowski, T. J. (1981) Skeleton filters in the brain. In: Parallel models of associative memory, ed. Hinton, G. E. & Anderson, J. A.. Erlbaum. [aLS]
Servan-Schreiber, D., Cleeremans, A. & McClelland, J. (1989) Encoding semantical structure in simple recurrent nets. In: Advances in neural information processing systems 1, ed. Touretzsky, D.. Morgan Kaufmann. [JWG]
Shallice, T. (1982) Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 298:199209. [MO]
Sharkey, N. E. (1992) The causal role of the constituents of superpositional representations. In: Cybernetics and systems 92, ed. Trappl, R.. World Scientific. [CD]
Shastri, L. (1988a) Semantic networks: An evidential formulation and its connectionist realization. Pitman/Morgan Kaufmann. [arLS, PRC]
Shastri, L. (1988b) A connectionist approach to knowledge representation and limited inference. Cognitive Science 12(3):331–92. [arLS, GWC]
Shastri, L. (1990) Connectionism and the computational effectiveness of reasoning. Theoretical Linguistics 16(1):6587. [aLS]
Shastri, L. (1991) Relevance of connectionism to AI: A representation and reasoning perspective. In: Advances in connectionist and neural computation theory, vol. 1, ed. Barnden, J. & Pollack, J.. Ablex. [aLS]
Shastri, L. (1992) Encoding higher-order bindings in LCS structures. Working notes for the NLQ-Project. National Science Foundation. [rLS]
Shastri, L. (1993a) A realization of preference rules using temporal synchrony (in preparation). [aLS]
Shastri, L. (1993b) Learning evidential rules in SHRUTI (in preparation). [rLS]
Shastri, L. & Ajjanagadde, V. G. (1990) A connectionist representation of rules, variables and dynamic binding. Technical Report MS-CIS-90-05, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania. [aLS]
Shastri, L. & Feldman, J. A. (1986) Semantic nets, neural nets, and routines. In: Advances in cognitive science, ed. Sharkey, N.. Ellis Harwood/Wiley. [arLS]
Shiffrin, R. M. & Schneider, W. (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84:127–90. [aLS]
Shimizu, H. & Yamaguchi, Y. (1987) Synergetic computers and holoniesinfonnation dynamics of semantic computers. Physica Scripta 36:970–85. [IT]
Shimizu, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Tsuda, I. & Yano, M. (1985) Pattern recognition based on holonic information dynamics. In: Complex systems-operational approaches, ed. Haken, H.. Springer Series in Synergetics, vol. 31. [EK]
Singer, M. & Ferreira, F. (1983) Inferring consequences in story comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 22:437–48. [aLS]
Singer, W. (1987) Activity-dependent self-organization of synaptic connections as a substrate of learning. In: The neural and molecular bases of learning, ed. Changeux, J.-P. & Konishi, M.. Wiley. [JD]
Skarda, C. A. & Freeman, W. J. (1987) How brains make chaos in order to make sense of the world. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:161–95. [WJF, IT]
Sloman, S. A. (1993) Feature-based induction. Cognitive Psychology 25 (in press). [SS]
Smolensky, P. (1988) On the proper treatment of connectionism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:174. [GD, EK]
Smolensky, P. (1990) Tensor product variable binding and the representation of symbolic structure in connectionist systems. Artificial Intelligence 46(1–2):159216. [aLS, CSH]
Squire, L. R. (1987) Memory and brain. Oxford University Press. [aLS]
Squire, L. R. & Zola-Morgan, S. (1991) The medial temporal lobe memory system. Science 253:1380–86. [aLS]
Stenning, K., Shepard, M. & Levy, J. (1988) On the construction of representations for individuals from descriptions in text. Language and Cognitive Processes 3(2): 129–64. [aLS]
Stevens, C. F. (1989) How cortical interconnectedness varies with network size. Neural Computation 1:473–79. [JD]
Stolcke, A. K. & Wu, D. (1992) Tree matching with recursive distributed representations. AAAI-92 Workshop on Integrating Neural and Symbolic Processes, San Jose, CA. (Also available as Technical Report 92–025, International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley.) [GH]
Strehler, B. L. & Lestienne, R. (1986) Evidence on precise time-coded symbols and memory of patterns in monkey cortical neuronal spike trains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 83:9812–16. [aLS]
Strong, G. W. & Whitehead, B. A. (1989) A solution to the tag-assignment problem for neural nets. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:381433. [aLS, GWS]
Sumida, R. A. & Dyer, M. G. (1989) Storing and generalizing multiple instances while maintaining knowledge-level parallelism. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. [aLS]
Thorpe, S. J., Celebrini, S., Trotter, Y. & Imbert, M. (1991) Dynamics of stereo processing in area VI of the awake primate. European Journal of Neuroscience (Suppl.)4:83. [SJT]
Thorpe, S. J., Celebrini, S., Trotter, Y., Pouget, A. & Imbert, M. (1989) Dynamic aspects of orientation coding in area VI of the awake primate. European Journal of Neuroscience (Suppl.) 2:322. [SJT]
Thorpe, S. J. & Imbert, M. (1989) Biological constraints on connectionist models. In: Connectionism in perspective, ed. Pfeiffer, R., Schreter, Z., Fogelman-Souile, F. & Steels, L.. Elsevier. [arLS, SJT]
Tomabechi, H. & Kitano, H. (1989) Beyond PDF: The frequency modulation neural network approach. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. [aLS]
Touretzky, D. S. (1986) The mathematics of inheritance systems. Morgan Kaufmann/Pitman. [aLS]
Touretzky, D. S. (1990) BoltzCONS: Dynamic symbol structures in a connectionist network. Artificial Intelligence 46:12, 546. [rLS, JAB]
Touretzky, D. S. & Hinton, G. E. (1988) A distributed connectionist production system. Cognitive Science 12(3):423–66. [aLS, GWC]
Tovee, M. J. & Rolls, E. T. (1992) Oscillatory activity is not evident in the primate temporal visual cortex with static stimuli. Neuroreport 3:369–71. [aLS, SJT, MPY]
Toyama, K., Kimura, M. & Tanaka, T. (1981) Cross correlation analysis of interneuronal connectivity in cat visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 46(2):191201. [aLS]
Treisman, A. & Gelade, G. (1980) A feature integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology 12:97136. [aLS]
Tsuda, I. (1991) Chaotic itinerancy as a dynamical basis of hermeneutics in brain and mind. World Futures 32:167–84. [WJF, IT]
Tsuda, I. (1992) Dynamic link of memory-chaotic memory map in nonequilibrium neural networks. Neural Networks 5:313–26. [IT]
Tulving, E. (1983) Elements of episodic memory. Oxford University Press. [aLS]
Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1983) Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment. Psychological Review 90:293315. [SS]
Ullman, J. D. & van Gelder, A. (1988) Parallel complexity of logical query programs. Algorithmica 3:542. [aLS]
Valiant, L. G. (1988) Functionality in neural nets. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Saint Paul, MN. [GWC]
van Gelder, T. (1990) Compositionality: A connectionist variation on a classical theme. Cognitive Science 14:208–12. [GD]
van Gelder, T. (1991) Classical questions, radical answers: Connectionism and the structure of mental representations. In: Connectionism and the philosophy of mind, ed. Horgan, T. & Tienson, J.. Kluwer. [JWG]
Velmans, M. (1991) Is human information processing conscious? [and Commentary thereon]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4):651726. [GH]
Vogels, R. & Orban, G. A. (1991) Quantitative study of striate single unit responses in monkeys performing an orientation discrimination task. Experimental Brain Research 84:111. [SJT]
von der Malsburg, C. (1981) The correlation theory of brain function. Internal Report 81–2. Department of Neurobiology, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. [aLS, WJF]
von der Malsburg, C. (1986) Am I thinking assemblies? In: Brain theory, ed. Palm, G. & Aertsen, A.. Springer. [aLS, GP]
von der Malsburg, C. & Schneider, W. (1986) A neural cocktail-party processor. Biological Cybernetics 54:2940. [aLS, WJF, EK, IT]
Wason, P. C. (1960) On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 12:129–40. [SS]
Wason, P. C. (1966) Reasoning. In: New horizons in psychology, ed. Foss, B.. Penguin. [MO]
Whitney, P. & Williams-Whitney, D. (1990) Toward a contextualist view of elaborative inferences. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 25, ed. Graesser, A. C. & Bower, G. H.. Academic Press. [GH]
Wickelgren, W. A. (1979) Chunking and consolidation: A theoretical synthesis of semantic networks, configuring in conditioning, S-R versus cognitive learning, normal forgetting, the amnesic syndrome, and the hippocampal arousal system. Psychological Review 86(1):4460. [aLS]
Wilensky, R. (1983) Planning and understanding: A computational approach to human reasoning. Addison-Wesley. [aLS]
Wu, D. (1989) A probabilistic approach to marker propagation. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. [GH]
Wu, D. (1992a) Automatic inference: A probabilistic basis for natural language interpretation. Ph.D. dissertation (Technical Report UCB/CSD 92/692), Division of Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley. [GH]
Wu, D. (1992b) Approximate maximum-entropy integration of syntactic and semantic constraints. AAAI-92 Workshop on Statistically-Based NLP Techniques, San Jose, CA. [GH]
Yao, Y., Freeman, W. J., Burke, B. & Yang, Q. (1991) Pattern recognition by a distributed neural network: An industrial application. Neural Networks 4:103–12. [WJF]
Young, M. P., Tanaka, K. & Yamane, S. (1991) On oscillating neuronal responses in monkey visual cortex. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17(1):73.9. [MPY]


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony

  • Lokendra Shastri (a1) and Venkat Ajjanagadde (a2)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.